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Mysteries

‘Alien’ message creativity. What the crop circles really hide

At the beginning of last month, an ordinary French farmer, Gerard Benoit, suddenly became famous throughout the district. Early in the morning of July 5, 2020, walking out into his field near the town of Vimy in the very north of the country, he found that it was hopelessly spoiled. 

A little later, with the help of a drone, it turned out that the plots of crushed wheat form a gigantic pattern – the Templar cross. The farmer’s outrage knew no bounds, and he shared the “vandalism” on social networks. And completely in vain. 

A few days later, a huge geoglyph became a place of pilgrimage for thousands of curious people who began to trample the remnants of the unfortunate harvest. Mr. Benoit unwittingly turned out to be another victim of the mysterious “circles” that have regularly appeared in the fields around the world since the late 1970s. 

Tens and hundreds of thousands of enthusiasts still perceive them as evidence of contact with long-awaited extraterrestrial civilizations, although it has long been clear how these circles with an endless set of plots appear and who is really behind them. Why are these objects so common in southern England? What does the tourism industry and informal art have to do with it? Understanding.

Devil-mower

It all started in a pub, as it sometimes happens.

Location: a place called Percy Hobbs on the outskirts of the British city of Winchester in the very south of England.

Time of action: 1976.

Heroes: some Doug Bower and Dave Chorley.

Evening, it was getting dark.

The two friends were spending their time, as befits two respectable gentlemen, with a pint of ale and an interesting conversation. At some point in the conversation, Bower, who had recently returned from Australia, recalled an interesting story that flashed in Australian newspapers in the second half of the 1960s. 

Near Tully, Queensland, local farmers began reporting to police and then reporters about the mysterious circles that appeared at night in their sugarcane fields. The reasons for the appearance of the circles were never established, which made it possible with a clear conscience to call them saucer nest (“flying saucer nest”), especially since one of the farmers swore that he saw a UFO take off from this site. Having laughed at the Australians, Bower and Chorley went outside to freshen up, saw a wheat field in front of them, and then the logic of their thought, warmed up by used pints, it was quite obvious. So with the help of an ordinary iron beam and rope, their hoax began.

Over the next couple of years, friends staged several more such provocations, but no one noticed them, until in 1978 Bower and Chorley chose a particularly successful location – the natural Cheesefoot Head amphitheater, popular with tourists. 

The effect exceeded expectations – a 25-meter circle, just a circle without any pattern, first got into the regional and then national media and, naturally, fell into the sphere of close attention of various ufologists and experts in the field of inexplicable phenomena, who began to comment on the origin with a clever look object. 

It was the complete success that Bower and Chorley had been waiting for. In the future, friends themselves began to report to the media about their next work, pretending to be casual witnesses who discovered an unidentified.

The circle created by Bower and Chorley in 1978

In the second half of the 1970s – early 1980s, the popularity of all kinds of hoaxes was at its peak. Not only in narrow circles keen on the topic of the paranormal, but also among the general public, the mystery of the so-called. Bermuda Triangle, reports of another “unidentified flying object” began to be ubiquitous, the search for the “Bigfoot” was carried out in earnest, expeditions to the Scottish Loch Ness were organized. Crop circles, which began to appear in southern England, proved to be the most appropriate in such a discourse.

It immediately became clear that in fact similar objects had been recorded before. In the British Library, a pamphlet from 1678 was discovered in which a creature was doing something that looked like a circle on a field. The story of the source, whose full title was “The Devil Mower, or Strange News from Hertfordshire,” was about a farmer who refused to pay a peasant to mow a field, saying that the devil had better mow him. 

The next night, that same field was engulfed in fire, and the next morning it turned out that it was perfectly mowed. In fact, it was not very similar to the circles that appeared in England, where wheat (or other cereals) were only crushed (and not cut), but such nuances did not interest the hunters for sensations.

Much more excitement was caused by another fact – the location where these objects began to appear en masse.

Place of power

The success of the action, which began in a Winchester pub, was largely due to the place where Bower and Chorley began to arrange their antics. In the neighboring county of Wiltshire, there is the largest complex of Neolithic monuments, which by that time had already become a Mecca for lovers of everything occult. The most famous structure in this series is undoubtedly Stonehenge, located 40 minutes from Winchester. But this megalith, cult in a certain environment, did not end there. 

Fans of the New Age and similar currents were attracted by the Avebury sanctuary located in the same county (which is very conveniently a circle-ring that should have resembled objects in the wheat fields), the artificial chalk mound of Silbury Hill, the fortress of Barbury Castle, the so-called … Uffington white horse (carved in prehistoric times image of a white horse)

All these outstanding monuments of the Neolithic and Bronze Age have traditionally been in the center of attention of fans of inexplicable phenomena, who assured that the objects are covered with energy domes, connected by energy flows and, in general, are ancient relics that served for contact with someone outside of our mortal planet. 

Bower and Chorley subsequently honestly admitted that they began to stamp their circles, not least because of the reputation of the area, where, among other things, there was the densest concentration of UFO “sightings”.

Silbury Hill Mound
Avebury shrine 
Avebury shrine 
Fortress Barbury Castle
Uffington White Horse
Ridgeway road

Alien contact became the first, most popular, version of the origin of geoglyphs. However, soon the scale of what was happening acquired such a character that real scientists also took up an attempt to find a scientific explanation for it. 

The most vigorous activity in this field was developed by the meteorologist and physicist Terrence Meaden of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Canada. First, he put forward the theory that the profile of the hills in southern England directly influenced the formation of specific air vortices, which in turn could stabilize at certain points and form the necessary circle of crushed wheat. And although this version did not explain in any way why such objects (at least in such quantities) had not formed before, Bower and Chorley, who created the fake on the UFO topic, decided to take the necessary measures. 

They developed their next geoglyphs, starting to “draw” constructions from several circles instead of one circle. This, by the way, subsequently led to an ever greater complication of such objects.

In response to new facts, Meiden adapted his theory. Instead of ordinary air vortices, he made certain “electromagnetic hydrodynamic plasma vortices” responsible for the appearing mysterious formations. 

The explanation of the Canadian looked so plausible that even Stephen Hawking, after another circle appeared at his house in Cambridge, said that a certain natural vortex could have caused it. True, at the same time, the famous theoretical physicist considered human impact more likely.

A crop circle that appeared in early July of this year in France

Bower and Chorley did not give up in their fight against the scientist Meaden. In the end, in order to refute the “vortex” fabrications, they constructed an object of two circles and five rectangles. The latter certainly could not have been created by Mother Nature, which in the end had to be admitted by the unlucky Canadian meteorologist. 

Well, in 1991, Bower and Chorley decided to get their 15 minutes of fame and get out of the closet. Friends gathered the journalists and confessed to them that this whole grandiose hoax had been started by them in the second half of the 1970s. 

They said that over the past time they have created more than 200 different geoglyphs in the fields of southern England, and for convincingness they demonstrated the technology of their creation. The usual circle was extremely simple. It was necessary to determine its center, stick a conventional stick there, tie a rope to it and go around the center in a circle,

For the sake of completeness, after the formation of this exemplary circle, Bower and Chorley brought in an unsuspecting cereologist to the scene (cereology is the activity of studying “crop circles”). The expert confirmed the authenticity of the object (i.e., its inexplicable origin), after which he was quite disappointed when he was told the truth.

Occam’s razor

It must be said that the exposure of the hoax had practically no effect on the number of believers in the paranormal version of the appearance of geoglyphs. On the contrary, the hit of this entire 15-year history in newspapers and on television only contributed to the spread of such objects around the world. 

Another trend has become the progressive complication of geoglyphs. The drawing that appeared in early July 2020 on the French field is far from the most complex of those that appeared in southern England and other countries of the world. Bower and Chorley, who once started in a Winchester pub, could only envy the scale and complexity of many of them.

In the fields, not just combinations of large and small circles appeared, sometimes whole pictures were drawn there, mathematical functions, fractals were visualized (for example, the Mandelbrot set).

But if there are no questions about the authenticity of the human origin of many simple figures, for example the works of Bower and Chorley, then how much more complex drawings appeared, because many of them appeared in just one fairly short night. 

The answer to this question lies in the plane of experience and effective organization of work. Obviously, modern production of crop circles is not complete with two pairs of hands – large teams are working on them now, the actions of the participants of which are clearly coordinated. 

They already have at their disposal not only a primitive rope and a board, but also modern means of determining the geo-position, as well as laser devices that allow them to correctly calculate the distances between the elements of the figure and create objects of the desired shape.

Back in 1998, a group of authors known under the pseudonym Circlemakers demonstrated to BBC reporters the ability to create in one night the most complex spiral of 100 circles of different sizes. Even more complex drawings are sometimes made in uncrowded places, but in a few days. Or, for their creation, a formal (or informal) permission from the home team is obtained. 

Many creators of the most beautiful circles consider themselves to be real artists. Most of them even prefer to remain anonymous, as do some of their colleagues from the city streets, for example Banksy. This maintains the necessary aura of mystery of the creative process. Well, the second reason why the creators of circles do not take responsibility for their works is the fact that most often the figures in the fields can be regarded as vandalism,

Crop circle created by the Circlemakers in 1998

Despite the fact that the human origin of the circles is quite obvious (how can conventional “aliens” know, for example, about the Templar cross, and why should they draw it?), There are still many people in the world who believe in outright fantasy.

 A large number of relevant literature and specialized sites help maintain this belief. There is nothing strange about this. Firstly, rational thinking is generally not characteristic of many people, and secondly, a whole small tourism industry has been created and exists around such geoglyphs. 

Exactly the same as it happens around Loch Ness or the Bermuda Triangle. It is possible that some circles and their combinations (at least in southern England, the place of their greatest concentration) are created on purpose, as a result of the collusion of farm owners and “expert cereologists”, for whom excursions to “places of power” became a source of income. Any figure of this kind – and the latest French example confirms this once again – invariably attracts increased public attention.

Well, the victims of this whole hoax, building another theory of the origin of such tempting objects, forget about the principle of “Occam’s razor”. More often than not, the correct explanation is indeed the simplest.

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Mysteries

The origin of gold turned out to be a cosmic mystery

Astronomers calculated the origin of all chemical elements and wondered: where is there so much gold in the universe? The fact is that there are not enough known processes to explain the observed abundance of this precious metal.

Details are set out in a scientific article published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Astronomers believe that the earliest atomic nuclei appeared in the era of primordial nucleosynthesis, which began in the first seconds after the Big Bang and lasted several tens of minutes. At the same time, almost all the hydrogen available in the Universe was formed, a significant part of helium, a certain amount of lithium and an insignificant amount of beryllium and boron. All these chemical elements are light and are located at the very beginning of the periodic table.

The appearance of all the other atomic nuclei is somehow connected with the stars. New nuclei are formed in the bowels of all the stars without exception, as well as in the atmospheres of red giants, during supernova explosions and collisions of neutron stars.

What contribution does each of these processes make to the formation of certain chemical elements? This remains a matter of controversy.

The authors of the new study were the first to calculate the process of formation of all stable nuclei from carbon to uranium from first principles. This means that they solved the equations of nuclear physics in all their complexity, without resorting to simplifying assumptions.

These calculations made it possible to find out how much of this or that element is formed in a typical small star, in one supernova explosion, and so on. Based on this, scientists calculated the role of various celestial bodies and the events occurring with them in the huge chemical complex of the Universe.

The origin of various chemical elements in the periodic table according to a new study.  Illustration by Chiaki Kobayashi et al., Sahm Keily.

It turned out, for example, that small stars that do not explode like supernovae produce half of all carbon in the universe. The second half falls on massive luminaries that end their lives in a supernova explosion.

It is supernovae, according to the authors, that supply the universe with iron. Moreover, half of it falls on explosions of massive stars, and another half – on type Ia supernovae, that is thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs .

However, the most unusual result concerns gold. In previous studies, the origin of the noble metal was attributed to collisions of neutron stars. Now scientists have questioned this.

“Even the most optimistic estimates of the neutron-star collision rate simply cannot explain the apparent abundance of this element in the universe,” says co-author Amanda Karakas of Monash University in Australia. “It came as a surprise.”

However, astronomers already have their own version of the origin of gold. They speculate that the problem is in supernovae of an unusual type. Explosions of very massive stars with strong magnetic fields could provide space with the observed amount of gold, experts say.

At the same time, the authors do not deny the contribution of collisions of neutron stars to the synthesis of other chemical elements .

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Mysteries

Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi desert

Is this part of China’s classified space program or another Chinese surprise?

For the first time, mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert, which is located in China, near the border with Mongolia, were seen in 2011. Seen, as is often the case in this century, using Google Earth. The program does not comment on the signs in any way, and no official reports from the Chinese government about exercises or tests in the Gobi Desert have followed.

There are several mysterious patterns, and each next one is even more mysterious than the previous one. Judge for yourself.

City models?

These two patterns resemble streets, only without houses, cars and shawarma stalls – in general, without everything that we are used to on the streets. Perhaps these street models were made in order to test weapons “in the city”. Then why not build houses? Or have the weapons already been tested, and this is all that remains of the “cities”?

Photo # 1 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert
Photo # 2 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Destroyed car park?

In this picture, those with an inquisitive mind and keen eyesight will make out destroyed cars. But why are they here? Perhaps they participated in weapons tests. Or is it just a warehouse of disused vehicles? But then why do we need large squares in the picture?

Photo # 3 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Runways?

Of course, this is the first thing that comes to mind. And the most logical thing, even if there is no hint of airplanes in this picture. Okay, let’s say these are really runways. But why then is the right stripe so defiantly glowing?

Photo # 4 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Chinese Stonehenge?

The most mysterious pattern of all. A circular one, consisting of stones or small structures, in the center of the pattern at the time of shooting there are three planes. Anyone who has flown an airplane at least once cannot help but wonder: where is the runway? Indeed, if this is a kind of air base, then where is the runway?

After the images were released, The Telegraph spoke with defense expert Tim Ripley. He authoritatively stated that the circular pattern resembles a test site for jet weapons, something similar he saw at Area 51 in Nevada.

Photo # 5 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Since the images with the mysterious signs were published, the Chinese government has not bothered to reveal the purpose of these objects. (It did work to block Google Earth in China, but it did not work.) Moreover, in 2018, another mysterious pattern was discovered not far from the patterns listed above.

The new pattern was studied in detail in a video with the explanatory title “No one can still explain what was found in the Gobi Desert.” This time we are talking about cross “runways” surrounded by incomprehensible glowing circles, vaguely resembling an infinity sign.

Photo # 6 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

According to the author of the video, if these are runways, then they have never been used. In addition, there are several dozen structures next to the runway that look abandoned. And here is the video itself:

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Mysteries

What secrets are kept by the stones of pharaohs and kings

One of the most beloved topics of the yellow press of the last century was the scary tale of precious stones, a typical example of which is the story of the “curse of the Hope diamond.”

It was a beautiful blue diamond with a purple tint and looked something like this: The modern history of the stone began in the 17th century in India, where it was somehow obtained by the jeweler Jean Baptiste Tavernier. He brought the stone to France, where he sold it to King Louis XIV, after which Louis fell from the slope, injured his leg, got sepsis and died, and Jean Bastist himself had been eaten by dogs before that.

The next owner of the stone was Louis XV, who presented it to Madame de Montespan. After a couple of months, the king lost interest in Madame and she moved to a monastery, where she died. The king returned the gift and passed it on to Marie Antoinette, who was soon executed by fiery French revolutionaries. With this pebble in the pendant, she ascended the scaffold.

What happened to the revolutionary Jacques who stole the stone is unknown, most likely he died or was eaten alive by lice, but in 1813 the stone appeared in a jewelry store in London, where the Englishman Henry Francis Hope bought it – he began to show everyone the diamond, so he entered into history as the “Hope Diamond”.

But, as you might expect, Hope glued the flippers together and gave the diamond to his heir, Lord Francis Hope, who presented it to his bride. After that, the lord went bankrupt and was forced to descend to the plebeian hotel business, but his very first hotel burned down with his wife.

Then the stone was sawed and sold to new owners. One of them was American Evelyn Wolls McClynn. After that, her son died in a car accident, her husband ended up in an insane asylum, and Evelyn herself also went a little crazy and died. The second owners made it to America unsuccessfully, because they chose the Titanic as a means of travel.

Approximately the same fairy tale surrounds many famous stones. The balance with the bulldo in these fairy tales does not always converge, since the tales are invented by journalists for the money of jewelers: when the public learns that someone died from the stone, this leads to incredible enthusiasm and everyone rushes to look at the miracle, allowing the jeweler to make money out of thin air. However, these tales are based on the truth.

In particular, Hope’s diamond was stolen from the temple of the Indian goddess Sita, where it somehow decorated a statue. The energy of the stone was monstrous – sensitive people who took it in their hands sometimes fainted and then they were tormented by nightmarish visions for months.

But Sita was definitely out of business there. The topic was Indian priests who used temples and statues to collect energy from the flock: pilgrimage went to the temple for decades, prayed to one or another deity, and as a receiving matrix, the deity had a stone in its forehead or two stones in its eyes.

Then, when the stone was pumped up, it was replaced with a new one, and the old one began to be used in rituals. In particular, it could be presented to your own or a neighboring king in order to vacate the throne as soon as possible – the ruler who accepted such a gift would immediately die under certain circumstances.

In general, the magic of stones is a complex and poorly studied topic. Some people seem to be doing it, blowing some “secret knowledge” into the ears of adepts. Nevertheless, there seem to be some very interesting developments in the topic.

We will not compose an introduction to modern and, most likely, not very correct views of quantum mechanics, but in general terms we will recall and clarify. An electron in an atom rotates in two directions, as it were: on the one hand, it rotates around the nucleus (orbital angular momentum), on the other, around its axis (spin).

Therefore, if, in theory, you learn to change either the spin of an electron of a single atom, or the angular momentum, then the atom can be used as a cell for storing a unit of information.

The idea, of course, is quite crazy, but, as scitechdaily writes with reference to the just published scientific work, researchers from the Delft University of Technology managed, using a scanning tunneling microscope, to first capture an individual iron atom, then plant it astride a nitrogen atom, after what the orbital angular momentum of some of the electrons of the outer cloud has changed for the iron atom. Thus, an eternal unit cell of information was created:

Of course, experimenters are still quite a long way from creating a full-fledged storage ring – nevertheless, the direction of work is interesting. Most likely, they will not be able to write data to the atoms of crystals soon, but the technology for reading them already exists. And this opens up interesting perspectives.

If the guys from the Delft University of Technology came up with the idea of ​​writing data into the atoms of the crystal, then the guys who lived long before them probably came to the same idea, and given the antediluvian technologies of the builders of magalitic structures, the idea was most likely implemented in practice. Therefore, many stones may turn out to be something like ancient flash drives that contain a lot of information about the ancient world. Perhaps that is why all the rulers collect stones with terrible power.

In addition, pebbles around which jewelers have created aura of horror stories, pebbles from places of worship of various kinds, and so on are also of interest. All these objects carry some kind of information that is inaccessible to analog devices. But now, when the technology appears that allows us to consider various rubies and diamonds as a digital massif, pebbles can tell a lot about the real story, and about the role of people in this story, and about the outside world in general.

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