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You probably don’t know that we inherit these things from our parents too

Do we inherit traits from our parents? Are we picking genes from only one parent, or is there a combination of both parents’ genes?

According to geneticist Don Alain of the Wexner Medical Center at Ohio State University, it’s almost impossible to know who inherited one or the other part of the body or a particular characteristic because, most traits are determined by many different genes rather than only one.

Nevertheless, genetics can tell us something curious about what has already been clarified, just about the issue of DNA inheritance.

Rapid or slow metabolism

There are two types of fat in our body: ‘good’ brown fat, which boosts our metabolism and helps maintain a healthy weight, and ‘bad’ fat, which causes obesity and related diseases.

What do we inherit from our parents?

Everyone has their own characteristics, but the level of brown fat in our body (which means a certain metabolic rate) is most likely derived from the mother.

Weight gain

While the mother’s DNA can help lose weight quickly and maintain good shape, the father gives the genes associated with white fat, which means that there will be a tendency for being overweight.

In this case, not only the subcutaneous white adipose tissue, but also the internal fat, which accumulates in different organs, depends on the paternal genes.

Concentration ability

If the mother had lower levels of serotonin, the “good mood hormone”, her children are likely to develop attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

It is a fact that the genes responsible for serotonin production are also responsible for the ability to concentrate. This link was discovered by doctors in the 2000s, and an article about it was published in 2010 in the medical journal JAMA Psychiatry.

Early puberty

Almost all children, with rare exceptions when there are clinical abnormalities, go through puberty and many of its not particularly pleasant aspects, such as acne and voice disorders. The genes of the father were found to be responsible for the onset of early puberty.

Doctors learn this when examining several children with early puberty. They entered it at the age of 8-9 years, instead of the usual 11-13 years. It turns out that the special genetic mutation responsible for earlier puberty was inherited by their fathers. The study was published in New England Journal of Medicine.

Wrinkles and gray hair

How good a person’s skin will look with age depends on changes in cellular level that build up over the years and depend on the mitochondrial DNA that is always obtained from the mother.

This can also be influenced by environmental factors such as sun, smoking or unhealthy eating. All this can damage the mitochondrial DNA and therefore affect the appearance.

However, some changes, such as wrinkles on the face, around the lips and eyes, as well as hair graying, depend on the part inherited from the mother, and nothing can be done to prevent it.

The mood

Mothers can influence the mood of their children in many ways, including by setting a strict framework for childhood behavior. But they may inherit the limbic system that controls emotions.

If the mother had a frequent mood change or depression, her daughter would most likely have the same experiences. Researchers have found that this is most often transmitted from mothers to daughters and much less frequently from mothers to sons.

That is, daughters, in most cases, inherit at least the mood of their mothers. This study was published in the journal Neuroscience.

What do we inherit from our parents?

The likelihood of having a boy or a girl

It is believed that the gender of their child depends on the parents themselves. But, there is another factor that determines the gender of the child – siblings have the father in their family.

If the father has more brothers, the probability of having a boy is very high. It’s respectable for the sisters.

Memory

It has long been known that Alzheimer’s disease is often hereditary. A recent study published in the journal Biological Psychiatry, claims that it depends primarily on the mother.

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, so it is very important to know what factors can lead to it.

If the mother has symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease then her children are likely to be ill with it as well.

All they can do to delay the inevitable is to do so-called “brain workouts”.

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Science & Technology

NTP nuclear rocket engine will take humans to Mars in just three months

Although the romance of the peaceful atom has subsided since the mid-1960s, the idea of ​​using nuclear reactors for “civilian” purposes is still regularly returned. The new nuclear rocket engine (NRM) will deliver a man to Mars much faster than is possible now.

The danger of cosmic radiation is much more serious than the risk of infection from an accident with such an engine. The most dangerous of all the constraining vectors for projects of sending people to other bodies in the solar system is cosmic radiation. Radiation from our star and galactic rays can seriously damage the health of the mission crew. Therefore, when planning flights to Mars, engineers and scientists try to reduce travel time as much as possible.

One promising way to get to the Red Planet in just three months could be a new NTP engine. Its concept was developed and submitted to NASA by Ultra Safe Nuclear Technologies ( USNC-Tech ) from Seattle, USA. The name of the unit is simply deciphered – Nuclear Thermal Propulsion ( NTP ), that is, “thermal nuclear power plant”. The novelty differs from its previously created or invented counterparts in the most secure design.

A key component of USNC’s development is mid – grade uranium fuel “pellets”. They contain 5% to 20% of the highly reactive isotope U- 235 coated with zirconium carbide ceramics. This degree of enrichment lies roughly halfway between the “civilian” nuclear power plants and the military. The proprietary ceramic coating technology makes the tablets incredibly resistant to mechanical damage and extreme temperatures.

Schematic diagram of a thermal nuclear rocket engine / © Wikipedia |  Tokono
Schematic diagram of a thermal nuclear rocket engine / © Wikipedia | Tokono

The company promises that their fuel elements are significantly superior in these parameters to those currently used at nuclear power plants. As a result, the engine will have a higher specific impulse with a lower degree of uranium enrichment than in earlier versions of NRE. In addition to the flight to Mars, among the goals of the ambitious project are other missions within the solar system. The perspectives of the concept will soon be considered by specialists from NASA and the US Department of Defense ( DoD ). Perhaps departments will even allow its commercial use by private companies.

Theoretically, NRE based on modern technologies can have a specific impulse (SR) seven times higher than that of chemical jet engines. And this is one of the key performance parameters. At the same time, unlike electric and plasma ones, the ID of a nuclear rocket engine is combined with high thrust. One of the limiting factors in the use of NRE, in addition to safety issues, are extremely high temperatures in the reactor core.

The higher the temperature of the gases flowing out of the engine, the more energy they have. And accordingly, they create traction. However, mankind has not yet come up with relatively inexpensive and safe materials that can withstand more than three thousand degrees Celsius without destruction. The solution created by USNC will operate at the limit of modern materials science (3000 ° C) and have a specific impulse twice that of the best liquid-propellant engines.

Tests of the first nuclear jet engine in 1967 / © NASA
Tests of the first nuclear jet engine in 1967 / © NASA

The official press release does not specify which working body will be used in NTP . Usually, in all NRE projects, the reactor core heats hydrogen, less often ammonia. But, since we are talking about a long-term mission, the creators could have chosen some other gas. Keeping liquid hydrogen on board for three months is no easy task. But you still need to invent something for the way back.

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Science & Technology

Scientist Peter Scott-Morgan is set to become “the world’s first complete cyborg”

Scientist and roboticist Peter Scott Morgan, who is using an advanced version of Stephen Hawking's communication system, built by Intel. INTEL

Two years ago scientist Peter Scott-Morgan was diagnosed with motor neuron disease, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, and today he is still fighting for a new life, not just for survival.

This October, Dr. Scott-Morgan is on track to become the world’s first full-fledged cyborg, potentially giving him more years of life.

The world’s first complete cyborg

It was in 2017 that Dr. Peter Scott-Morgan (a brilliant robotics writer, scientific writer, and talented speaker) was diagnosed with degenerative motor neuron disease that ultimately paralyzed his entire body except his eyes.

The diagnosis is understandably grim, especially considering that he has only two years to live, but he has not given up the fight.

Teaming up with world-class organizations with expertise in artificial intelligence, Dr. Scott-Morgan is transforming himself into what he calls “the world’s first fully fledged cyborg.”

“And when I say ‘Cyborg’, I mean not just that some kind of payment will be implanted in me, I mean that I will become the most advanced human cybernetic organism ever created on Earth for 13.8 billion years. My body and brain will be irreversibly changed, ”says Dr. Scott-Morgan.

What does it mean to be human

According to Dr. Scott-Morgan, he will become part robot and part living organism. Moreover, the change will not be one-time, but with subsequent updates.

“I have more updates in the process than Microsoft ,” says Dr. Scott-Morgan.

AI-powered creative expression

The cyborg artist is a great example of the power of human-AI collaboration. AI uses the data that make up Peter’s digital portrait ( articles, videos, images, and social media ) and is trained to recognize key ideas, experiences, and images.

Peter will introduce a theme, AI will suggest composition, and Peter will apply images to suggest style and mood. Peter will direct the AI ​​to render a new digital image that none of them could create alone.

A unique blend of AI and human, reflects Peter’s creative and emotional self – a critical aspect of what it means to be human.

Peter 2.0

This October, Dr. Scott-Morgan will undergo what he calls the latest procedure that will transform him into “Complete Cyborg”.

October 9 he tweeted a photo of himself, writing the following:

“This is my last post as Peter 1.0. Tomorrow I will trade my vote for potentially decades of life as we complete the last medical procedure for my transition to Full Cyborg, in the month that I was told statistically I would be dead. I am not dying, I am transforming. ! Oh, how I LOVE science !!! “.

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Science & Technology

Japan has developed an inflatable scooter that weighs practically nothing

The University of Tokyo engineers have developed the Poimo inflatable electric scooter, which is created individually for each owner. It is enough to send your photo to the manufacturers – and a personal optimized model will be assembled for you.

The scooter is designed with a special program for the body size of a particular user and his specific fit. Moreover, each owner is free to make any changes to this model. If he makes any changes to the drawing, the program will automatically redesign the electric bike to maintain its strength, stability and controllability. When the model is finished and approved, it is handed over to the manufacturer.

Scooter Poimo

The scooter consists of seven separate inflatable sections that are constructed from durable fabric and sewn with straight stitch. It remains to add electronic components – in particular, a brushless motor and a lithium-ion battery. 

The finished electric scooter weighs about 9 kg and can travel at speeds up to 6 km / h (that is, slightly faster than a pedestrian). It can work for an hour on one charge.

This is how the current version of Poimo looks like in action:

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