Connect with us

Space

Would you Sign up for One-way trip to Mars?

Mars One is a private spaceflight project led by Dutch entrepreneur, Bas Lansdorp, to establish a permanent human colony on Mars.

Announced in June 2012, the plan is to send a communication satellite and path finder lander to the planet by 2016 and, after several stages, land four humans on Mars for permanent settlement in 2023. A new set of four astronauts would then arrive every two years.

The project is endorsed by Nobel Prize-winning physicist Gerard ‘t Hooft.

Mars One became a not for profit foundation (Stichting under Dutch law) in early October 2012.

A one way trip excluding the cost of maintaining four astronauts on Mars until they die is claimed to cost approximately 6 billion USD. For comparison, an “austere” manned Mars mission (including a temporary stay followed by a return of the astronauts) proposed by NASA in 2009 had a projected cost of 100 billion USD after an 18 year program.

As of May 2013, over 80,000 people have indicated interest to be explorers on the one-way trips to Mars. Initial screening of the applicant pool will begin before the end of 2013.

Mars One, the not-for-profit foundation, is the controlling stockholder of the for-profit Interplanetary Media Group. A global reality-TV media event is intended to provide most of the funds to finance the expedition. It should begin with the astronaut selection process (with some public participation) and continue on through the first years of living on Mars.

Is this really possible?

Mars One is not the first organization to ponder the idea of a manned mission to Mars.

 

 

There have been many plans to do just this. And yet, none have come to fruition. Why should Mars One succeed?

There are several reasons, as described in some detail, below:

  • Emigration – The Mars One astronauts will depart Earth assuming that they will never return. This radically changes the mission requirements, reducing the need for return vehicles associated with currently unavailable technologies and far greater costs.
  • Solar panels – Through the use of this simple, robust, and plentiful energy source, Mars One does not require the development and launch of a nuclear reactor, thereby saving time and money while avoiding the risks and concerns for use of a nuclear power source.
  • Simple rovers – Through the use of relatively simple rovers, designed to conduct basic settlement construction prior to human astronaut arrival, saving both time and cost.
  • No new developments – The entire plan revolves around the use of existing, validated technology
  • No politics – Suppliers are chosen on a balance of price and quality, not through political or national preferences.
  • More Details >>

Is this for real?

Yes it is! Mars One has been working on this project in secret since January of 2011. It has taken us until May 2012 to expose it publicly because we are then certain of its technical feasibility and means of finance.

A manned mission to Mars is expensive. We plan to fund it by making it the biggest media spectacle in history. This way, everyone will get the chance to not only watch the astronauts make their journey, but choose who gets to do so. Four people, icons, who will leave their life on Earth behind and start an adventure on a new planet tens of millions of miles away.

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xRTXSB7ZbDk]

Human settlement on Mars by 2023

Risks and Challenges

Mars One has developed a mission to establish a human settlement on Mars built entirely upon existing technology. While the integration of systems proven in prior missions does greatly improve the chance of success, it by no means eliminates the risk or challenge of such an incredible endeavor. Sending humans to Mars remains a phenomenal undertaking by all standards and, as such, presents very real risks and challenges.

United States President John F. Kennedy said in his famous Rice Moon speech “We choose to go to the Moon, not because it is easy, but because it is hard”.

Mars One takes on the challenge of establishing a settlement on Mars with the same frame of mind, knowing all great endeavors, especially space exploration, incorporate risk of lost time, resources, … and sometimes lives. Venturing to Mars is no exception.

The challenge is to identify the risks in every step of the ten year Mission, from astronaut selection through training, from launch to living on Mars. Mars One has incorporated into its Mission plan a detailed risk analysis protocol, built by highly experienced individuals, some of them with experience at NASA and the ESA. Ever evolving, ever improving, Mars One is constantly working to reduce the risk of delay and failure at every level. For example, the Mars lander will be tested eight times prior to the landing of the first crew, using identical vehicles. As is standard in the aerospace industry, every component will be selected for its simplicity, durability, and capacity to be repaired using the facilities that are available to the astronauts on Mars.

An important aspect of risk management is for quality information to be shared between suppliers and made readily available to all parties. In the case of the Mars One Mission, this includes sponsors, investors, aerospace suppliers, and of course, the astronauts themselves. Because the Mission is ultimately funded and supported by the global audience, Mars One also desires for the general public to have a sense of what the risks are and how Mars One is working to mitigate them.

Mars One identifies two major risk categories: the loss of human life and cost overruns.

Human Life

Human space exploration is dangerous at all levels. After more than sixty years of humans leaving the far Earth below, the risk of space flight is similar to that of climbing Mount Everest. Mars is an unforgiving environment where a small mistake or accident can result in large failure, injury, and death. Every component must work perfectly. Every system (and its backup) must function without fail or human life is at risk.

With advances in technology, shared experience between space agencies, what was once a one-shot endeavor becomes routine and space travel does become more viable.

Cost overruns

Cost overruns are also not uncommon in large projects in any arena. The risk for cost overrun in the Mars One Mission is reduced by using existing technologies, and by the fact that about 66% of the cost is associated with launch and landing–both of which are well understood and proven variables.

The proposed Mars One budget includes a large safety margin to take into account significant mission failures as well as smaller but costly failures of components on Mars.

Mars One has developed a detailed risk analysis profile which guides both its internal technical development as well as the relationships it builds with its aerospace suppliers. This risk analysis profile will continue to evolve and improve over the years prior to the first humans walking on the planet Mars.

80,000 sign up for one-way mission to Mars

Just two weeks into the nineteen week application period, nearly eighty thousand people have applied to the Mars One astronaut selection program in the hope of becoming a Mars settler in 2023. [ by May 10th 2013  80,000 people have applied for journey that has no chance of returning to Earth ]

Mars One has received applications from over 120 countries. Most applications come from USA (17324), followed by China (10241), United Kingdom (3581), Russia, Mexico, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Argentina and India.

Bas Lansdorp, Mars One Co-Founder and CEO said: “With seventy-eight thousand applications in two weeks, this is turning out to be the most desired job in history. These numbers put us right on track for our goal of half a million applicants.

Mars One is a mission representing all humanity and its true spirit will be justified only if people from the entire world are represented. I’m proud that this is exactly what we see happening,” he said.

As part of the application every applicant is required to explain his/her motivation behind their decision go to Mars in an one minute video. Many applicants are choosing to publish this video on the Mars One website. These are openly accessible on applicants.mars-one.com.

Applicants we have received come from a very wide range of personalities, professions and ages. This is significant because what we are looking for is not restricted to a particular background. From Round 1 we will take forward the most committed, creative, resilient and motivated applicants,” said Dr. Norbert Kraft, Mars One Chief Medical Officer.

Mars One will continue to receive online applications until August 31st 2013. From all the applicants in Round 1, regional reviewers will select around 50-100 candidates for Round 2 in each of the 300 geographic regions in the world that Mars One has identified.

Four rounds make the selection process, which will come to an end in 2015;

Mars One will then employ 28-40 candidates, who will train for around 7 years. Finally an audience vote will elect one of groups in training to be the envoys of humanity to Mars.

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w_JKIfMxlb0]

 Andrew Rader has always wanted to be an astronaut and he’s ready to do anything to get into space — even spend the rest of his life on Mars. The Ottawa native is one of at least 35 Canadians to apply for a mission to the Red Planet in 2023. Read more>>

Rader, 34, had already applied to become a member of the Canadian astronaut corps in 2009 but he wasn’t chosen. “I’ve always wanted to work in space and to be an astronaut is really my ultimate goal,” he said. Rader has discussed his far-out plan with his parents, and brother and sister, whom he said are supportive. Not everyone is thrilled with the idea, though. He said his aunt considers the idea a “suicide mission.” “There are enormous risks. That being said, I think that the risks are worth taking. I mean, major leaps required major risks,” he said. “Life is short, life is precious and that’s why you really should do major things that you believe in.” Rader admitted that he views the project as a “very, very long shot.” “The chances if it actually getting carried out as stated are extraordinarily slim,” he said. “(But) I think there is a very small chance that if all the dominoes fall in the right place, it could happen.”

More from Andrew Rader: http://www.ctvnews.ca/sci-tech/a-one-way-trip-to-mars-at-least-35-canadians-say-sign-me-up-1.1275391

Mission plan

Mars One plans to establish the first human settlement on Mars. According to their schedule, the first crew of four astronauts would arrive on Mars in 2023, after a seven month journey from Earth. Further teams would join their settlement every two years, with the intention that by 2033 there would be over twenty people living and working on Mars. The astronaut selection process began on April 22 2013. [24]

As of April 2013, the mission plan is as follows:

  • 2013: a replica of the settlement will be built for training purposes.
  • 2014: The first communication satellite will be produced.
  • July 2015: The astronaut selection process will be completed; six teams of four.
  • 2016: A supply mission will be launched during January (arriving October) with 2,500 kilograms (5,500 lb) of food in a 5-metre (16 ft) diameter variant of the SpaceX Dragon. The fallback if this is not ready in time is either to use a 3.8-metre (12 ft) Dragon or to delay by two years.
  • 2018: An exploration vehicle will launch to pick the location of the settlement.
  • 2021: Six additional Dragon capsules and another rover will launch with two living units, two life support units and two supply units.
  • 2022: A SpaceX Falcon Heavy will launch with the first group of four colonists.
  • 2023: The first colonists will arrive on Mars in a modified Dragon capsule.
  • 2025: A second group of four colonists will arrive.
  • 2033: The colony will reach 20 settlers.

The Mars One website states that the team behind Mars One began planning of Mars One in 2011. The company states that they researched the feasibility of the idea with specialists and expert organizations, and discussed the financial, psychological and ethical aspects of it.

Mars_One_colony

7-month trip to Mars. The modules that would be used to create a habitat, with the help of robots, would be sent up first. Eventually, the first settlers would arrive following a seven-month trip. http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/story/2013/05/10/one-way-mars-trip-canadians.html

Technology

Mars One has identified at least one potential supplier for each component of the mission. The major components are to be acquired from proven suppliers.

Launcher

The Falcon Heavy from SpaceX is the anticipated launcher.

Mars Transit Vehicle

A manned interplanetary spacecraft which would transport the crew to Mars. It would be assembled in low earth orbit and comprise two propellant modules, a Transit Living Module (discarded just before arrival at Mars) and a lander (see “Human Lander” below).

The likely supplier for the Transit living module is Thales Alenia Space.

Communications system

A satellite in Mars orbit to relay video, speech and data between the settlement and Earth, and the related transceivers on Mars and Earth.[29] The likely supplier for the satellite is Surrey Satellite Technology.

Lander

Mars One plans to use a 5 metres (16 ft)-diameter variant of SpaceX’s Dragon capsule. It would have a volume of ~25m3.

Mars One Dragon capsules will be used in five roles:

  • Life Support Unit – a lander containing systems for generating from Martian resources the energy, water and breathable air needed by the settlers.[34] The likely supplier for these systems is Paragon Space Development.
  • Supply Unit – a lander carrying only cargo (supplies).
  • Living Unit – a lander containing an inflatable module to provide habitable space for the settlers on Mars. The likely supplier of the inflatables is ILC Dover.
  • Human Lander – a lander to carry the settlers to the surface of Mars (see “Mars Transit Vehicle” above).
  • Rover Lander – a lander to carry the two rovers to the surface of Mars.

Rover

The rover would be unpressurized and support travel distances of 80 km (50 miles). The likely supplier for the rover is Astrobotic Technology.

Mars Suit

The Mars Suit would be flexible to allow the settlers to work with both cumbersome construction materials and sophisticated machinery when they are outside the habitat while protecting them from the cold, low pressure and noxious gases of the Martian atmosphere. The likely supplier of the suits is ILC Dover.[36] On March 12, 2013, Paragon Space Development Corporation were contracted to develop concepts for life support and the Mars Surface Exploration Spacesuit System.

Applicants

As of May 2013, over 78,000 people have indicated interest to be explorers on the one-way trips to Mars. Initial screening of the applicant pool will begin before the end of 2013.

Criticism

The Mars One initiative bears similarity to a plan detailed in the 2010 book, “The Human Mission to Mars: Colonizing the Red Planet”, edited by Dr. Joel Levine, NASA Senior Scientist Science Directorate. The book’s authors included over 40 NASA scientists and engineers, including men who walked on the moon. The book gave a step-by step plan for establishing a colony of Mars, and in the chapter titled “Marketing Mars” included a marketing plan for raising over $100 billion dollars by selling naming rights and television rights, including reality TV competition for would-be astronauts. The “Marketing Mars” financing plan received significant media attention, and efforts were made to bring a bill before Congress to establish an official funding organization.

Chris Welch, director of Masters Programs at the International Space University has said “Even ignoring the potential mismatch between the project income and its costs and questions about its longer-term viability, the Mars One proposal does not demonstrate a sufficiently deep understanding of the problems to give real confidence that the project would be able to meet its very ambitious schedule.”

Space tourist Richard Garriott stated in response to Mars One, “Many have interesting viable starting plans. Few raise the money to be able to pull it off.”

Robert Zubrin, advocate for manned Martian exploration, said “I don’t think the business plan closes it. We’re going to go to Mars, we need a billion dollars, and we’re going to make up the revenue with advertising and media rights and so on. You might be able to make up some of the money that way, but I don’t think that anyone who is interested in making money is going to invest on that basis — invest in this really risky proposition, and if you’re lucky you’ll break even? That doesn’t fly.”

Wired magazine gave it a plausibility score of 2 out of 10 as part of their 2012 Most Audacious Private Space Exploration Plans.

Advisors

As of January 2013 the Mars One advisory board includes:

  • Tanja Masson-Zwaan – Deputy Director of the International Institute of Air and Space Law at Leiden University, President of the International Institute of Space Law, board member of the Netherlands Space Society, advisory board member of the Space Generation Advisory Council and was on the founding board of Women in Aerospace Europe.
  • Brian Enke – Senior Space Research Analyst at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, USA.
  • Professor Pascale Ehrenfreund – lead investigator with the NASA Astrobiology Institute.
  • Dr. Gino Ormeno – Aviation Medical Examiner.
  • Steve Carsey – UK television executive and CEO of Conceive Media, a consultancy, development and production venture specialising in the creation of cross platform entertainment brands for the global market.
  • Dr. Raye Kass – Professor of Applied Human Sciences at Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.
  • Professor Thais Russomano – has over 20 years experience in Aerospace Medicine, Space Physiology and Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, and Telemedicine & eHealth research and development.
  • Dr. Christopher P. McKay – Planetary Scientist at NASA Ames.[49] He has a particular interest in the evolution of the Solar System and the origin of life and is actively involved in planning for future Mars missions including human exploration. Dr McKay has been involved with research in several Mars-like environments and has traveled to the Antarctic Dry Valleys, the Atacama Desert, the Arctic, and the Namib Desert.
  • Dr. John D. Rummel – Director of the Institute for Coastal Science and Policy at East Carolina University.
  • Dr. John W. Traphagan – Associate Professor of Religious Studies and Centennial Commission and the Liberal Arts Fellow at the University of Texas at Austin.
  • Dr. James R. Kass – has worked in the field of human spaceflight for more than 30 years.
  • Jamie Guined – exercise scientist at the Exercise Physiology Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center and countermeasures researcher at the NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit, and science faculty member at the University of Phoenix.
  • Professor Stefano Stramigioli – professor of Advanced Robotics and chair holder at the Robotics and Mechatronics group at the University of Twente and a member of the ESA topical team on the dynamics of prehension in micro-gravity and its application to robotics and prosthetics.
  • Dr. Günther Reitz – head of the department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center where he leads research on the biological effects of space radiation in manned space missions. Permanent chairman of the Workshop of Radiation Monitoring on the ISS (WRMISS) since its foundation in 1996.
  • Professor Leo Marcelis – professor in Crop Production in Low-Energy Greenhouses, Wageningen University, The Netherlands where he leads research into crop management, crop physiology and the modelling of greenhouse horticulture. He has over 25 years of experience in research on plant growth in controlled environments (greenhouses and climate rooms). Working in close collaboration with other university departments he develops complete and reliable food systems.

Sponsors

On 31 August 2012, company officials announced that funding from its first sponsors had been received. Corporate sponsorship money will be used mostly to fund the conceptual design studies provided by the aerospace suppliers.

Sponsors for Mars One include:

  •     Byte Internet (Dutch internet service provider)
  •     Aleph Objects, Inc. (U.S. developer and manufacturer of rapid prototyping 3D printers)
  •     verkkokauppa.com (Finland’s 2nd largest consumer electronics retailer)
  •     VBC Notarissen (Dutch law firm)
  •     MeetIn (Dutch consulting company)
  •     New-Energy.tv (Dutch web station)
  •     Dejan SEO (Australian search engine optimization company)
  •     Minneapolis Design (Minneapolis Web Design Firm)
  •     Intrepid Research & Development (U.S. engineering company)
  •     Gerald W. Driggers (author of The Earth-Mars Chronicles)
  •     Adknowledge (U.S. digital advertising company)
  •     Trans Space Travels (German foundation)
  •     Edinburgh International Science Festival
  •     Baluw Research (Dutch market research firm)
  •     Mind Power Hungary (Hungarian language translation firm)
  •     Regus (multinational business and facility management corporation)
  •     KIVI NIRIA (Royal Institution of Engineers in the Netherlands)
  •     Rockstart Accelerator
  •     Space Dream Studios (space-related software and games)
  •     Kliniek Amstelveen (Dutch medical services)
  •     Mpress Books (British publishing firm)
  •     MakeAmsterdam (graphic design and branding)
  •     Great Communicators (speech training)

Donations

Since December 2012 and the official announcement of their conversion to a Stichting, Mars One has been accepting one off and regular monthly donations through their website. As of 29 April 2013, Mars One has received $84,121 in donations.

Article Sources:

Comments

Space

Is Planet X a miniature black hole? Astrophysicists have come up with a way to find out

This can be tracked by miniature flashes of light that will form after a black hole absorbs surrounding objects.

Could a hypothetical ninth planet of the solar system, the “X-planet,” be a miniature black hole? US astrophysicists have figured out how to find out with the LSST observational telescope under construction. An article describing the work was accepted for publication by the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

“If small celestial bodies fall in the vicinity of a black hole, they begin to melt under the influence of heat, which produces gas falling on the event horizon. After that, the attraction of the black hole begins to break them, resulting in characteristic flashes of light,” one of the authors work said, professor at Harvard University Abraham Loeb.

Almost five years ago, two American planetologists, Konstantin Batygin and Michael Brown, said they had found the first traces of the existence of the mysterious X-Planet. So scientists called the hypothetical ninth planet of the solar system, which is located at least 100 billion kilometers from the sun and is similar in size to Neptune or Uranus.

Until scientists found it, the researchers were only able to narrow down the area where it might be located, as well as find new hints of its existence. These failures made many astronomers doubt the hypothesis. Other planetologists have begun to look for alternatives for what the X-Planet might look like and where it might be.

For example, some astrophysicists now admit that the X-Planet may not actually be a gas giant, a large earth-like planet or a “guest” from another star system, but a much more exotic object – the so-called primary black hole.

It is a miniature analogue of ordinary and supermassive black holes, which in mass are comparable not with stars and galaxies, but with planets. As cosmologists suggest, such black holes could appear in the first moments of the existence of the Universe due to the fact that matter was unevenly distributed over its space. The largest of them could survive to the present day – however, they are gradually decreasing due to Hawking radiation.

Searches for “Planet X”

Finding such objects, as Professor Loeb notes, is even more difficult than the classic X-Planet. This is due to the fact that such black holes, unlike the coldest and most invisible planets, do not themselves generate any radiation.

Harvard astrophysicists have found that, nevertheless, the most sensitive telescopes on Earth can still notice the primary black hole. Astronomers came to this conclusion, drawing attention to the situation in that part of the solar system where the “X-planet” or primary black hole is supposedly located.

As scientists noted, they will be located at a point where the attraction of the Sun is weakening so much that a primary black hole the size of a planet will constantly attract clusters of matter from the surrounding space, including fragments of asteroids and comets that fill the outskirts of the solar system.

As a result, according to the calculations of scientists, due to the activity of a black hole, miniature flashes of light will almost constantly occur. They can appear after the attraction of a black hole will tear apart objects with a diameter from a few centimeters to several hundred meters. For existing ground-based telescopes, these flares will be barely visible, but they can be seen by the LSST observatory under construction, which is located at the edge of the Atacama Desert in Chile.

“The LSST observatory has an extremely wide field of view, so it will receive images of the entire night sky twice a week. This is very important, given that we do not know exactly where the X-planet is located. In addition, its high sensitivity will allow us to find traces flashes that produce even the smallest objects approaching a black hole,” Loeb continues.

If the theorists’ calculations are correct, then LSST can find traces of the existence of a black hole in the first three years of operation, provided that it is comparable in mass with Jupiter or significantly less than it. Otherwise, astronomers will prove that such objects in the solar system do not exist, and will also help theorists to impose more stringent restrictions on the permissible masses of primary black holes. This is important for studying how the expansion of the universe went.

Continue Reading

Space

An inconceivably ancient cosmic object was discovered

An international group of astronomers from the United States, Germany, China and Chile reported the discovery of a largest quasar called Poniua’ena, which in Hawaiian means “an invisible rotating source of creation surrounded by radiance.”

The object is located at a distance of about 30 billion light years, which corresponds to the age of the Universe at 710 million years. A preprint of the article, which will be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, is available on the arxiv website.

The light from the quasar J1007 + 2115 flew 13 billion years, however, due to the accelerated expansion of the Universe, its redshift is z = 7.515, which corresponds to the actual distance to it, equal to 29.3 billion light years. Astronomers see the object as it was in the era of reionization, when the first stars appeared, ionizing hydrogen atoms with their light.

Poniua’ena contains a supermassive black hole whose mass reaches 1.5 billion solar masses, making the quasar the largest object in the early Universe. According to Jinyi Yang, lead author of the work from the University of Arizona, this is the earliest object of such a monstrous size known to scientists.

Its existence poses a problem for theoretical models of the formation of supermassive black holes, according to which, J1007 + 2115 simply would not have time to grow in 710 million years if it had originally arisen as a result of the collapse of the star.

Instead, astronomers believe, a hundred million years after the Big Bang, there was already a black hole with a mass of 10 thousand Suns, which was formed as a result of direct gravitational collapse of clouds of cold hydrogen gas.

Poniua’ena is currently the second oldest quasar found to date. In 2018, the quasar J1342 + 0928 was discovered, which is two million years older than J1007 + 2115, but at the same time half as massive.

Continue Reading

Space

Wormholes. To anywhere in the universe in a minute

Wormholes or tunnels in the fabric of spacetime are terribly unstable. As soon as at least one photon hits them, the wormhole closes instantly. A new study suggests that the secret to a stable wormhole is in their form.

Wormholes, if they exist, will allow us to travel from point A to some extremely distant point B without worrying about travel time. The transition would be incredibly fast. Real cheat code of the universe. See a star for millions of light years? You could reach it in just a few minutes if you had a wormhole leading to it. No wonder this is a very popular science fiction theme.

But wormholes are not just a figment of our imagination, created to carve out all the boring scenes of interstellar travel (and this is centuries and millennia). We learned about them through Einstein’s general theory of relativity: matter and energy bend and deform the fabric of space-time, the curvature of which tells matter how to move.

Therefore, when it comes to wormholes, you just need to ask yourself: is it possible to deform space-time so that it overlaps itself, forming a tunnel between two distant points? The answer was given in the 1970s – yes.

Wormholes are entirely possible and not forbidden by the general theory of relativity. But the wormholes are very unstable, because, in essence, they consist of two black holes in contact with each other and forming a tunnel. That is, we are talking about points of infinite density, surrounded by areas known as the event horizon – one-sided space barriers. If you cross the event horizon of a black hole, you will never go back.

To solve this problem, the entrance to the wormhole must be outside the event horizon. Thus, you can cross the wormhole without touching the barrier. But as soon as you enter a wormhole located between huge masses, the gravity of your presence will distort the wormhole tunnel, collapsing it. Slammed shut, the tunnel will leave two lonely black holes, separated by a space in which the remains of your body will hang.

But it turns out there is a way to place the entrance to the wormhole away from the event horizon and make the tunnel stable enough for you to get through it. For this, material with a negative mass is needed. This is an ordinary mass, but with a minus sign. And if you put together enough negative mass in one place, you could use it to keep the wormhole open.

As far as we know, a substance with a negative mass does not exist. In any case, there is no evidence that it exists. Moreover, if it were, it would violate many laws of the Universe, such as inertia and conservation of momentum. For example, if you kicked a ball with a negative mass, it would fly backward. If you place an object with a negative mass next to an object with a positive mass, they will not be attracted. On the contrary, objects will repel each other, instantly accelerating.

Since negative mass seems like a myth, it can be assumed that wormholes are unlikely to exist in the universe. But the idea of ​​wormholes is based on the mathematics of the general theory of relativity – our current understanding of how gravity works. More precisely, our current, incomplete understanding of how gravity works.

We know that the general theory of relativity does not describe all the gravitational interactions in the universe. She gives in to strong gravity with a small body size. For example, before the bowels of black holes. To solve this problem, we need to turn to the quantum theory of gravity, which would combine our understanding of the world of subatomic particles with our broader understanding of gravity. But every time scientists try to put it together, everything just falls apart.

However, we have some clues on how quantum gravity can work, and we can understand wormholes. It is possible that a new and improved understanding of gravity will show that we do not need negative mass matter at all, and that stable, passable wormholes are real. A couple of theoreticians from Tehran University in Iran have published a new study of wormholes.

They applied some methods that allowed them to understand how quantum mechanics can change the standard general picture of relativity. Scientists have found that passable wormholes can exist without a substance with negative mass, but only if the entrance does not represent an ideal sphere, but is slightly elongated.

The results are interesting, but there is one snag. These hypothetical passable wormholes are tiny. Very tiny. Wormholes will be only 30% longer than Planck’s length – 1.6 x 10 ^ 35 meters. The traveler should be the same size. Yes, in addition, this microscopic traveler should fly at almost the speed of light. Despite emerging problems, the study opens a small crack, so to speak, for a look at the existence of wormholes, which can be expanded in the course of further research.

Continue Reading
Advertisement

DO NOT MISS

Trending