Let’s imagine for a moment that scientists were able to send people to Mars. But what will they do there? Mars is not the most friendly planet for life. There is at least no oxygen, not to mention cosmic radiation, from which the atmosphere protects us on Earth, but it does not exist on the Red Planet. In fact, the question of how representatives of our species can survive in the hostile environment of distant worlds has long been of concern to scientists.
So, researchers believe that you can survive in the harsh Martian environment deep beneath Martian soil. Since scientists recently obtained evidence that Mars is a seismically active planet, there is a network of large underground tunnels that formed as a result of thousands of years of volcanic activity.
These tunnels, or, as they are called, lava tubes, remained after the fast-flowing lava burned through the Martian soil.
Lava tubes – cavities in lava flows, elongated like corridors. Such channels are obtained by uneven cooling of the lava flowing from the slopes of the volcano.
What threatens future Martians?
Space, as you know, is not a suitable place for life forms such as Homo Sapiens. The harsh space environment, penetrated by radiation, in the literal sense of the word destroys all living things. Even tardigrades are microscopic animals that can survive in the most extreme conditions. Back in 2007, researchers found that these “water bears” withstand the short-term effects of extremely low temperatures, cosmic radiation and an almost complete vacuum. Agree, this is amazing. But even they cannot be in outer space for a long time. What can we say about you and me.
And yet, we have created technologies with which you can go into the Earth’s orbit and even its moon. In theory, we are close to interplanetary flights, and I think it is no secret that the governments of many countries plan to send a man to Mars. But what do we have in practice?
Our regular readers are probably aware that the biggest problem for future space travelers is space radiation. In a previous article, I said that the results of scientific research have shown that prolonged exposure to space has a devastating effect on the brain.
It turns out that if the flight to the Red Planet takes about 7 months, then people with severe brain damage can land on Mars and, most likely, they will not even understand where they are. We note that today there is no solution to this problem.
Life on Mars
So, given all the available knowledge about Mars, the only more or less safe habitat for humans are underground tunnels or lava tubes. According to astrophysicist Antonio Paris and his team, which has been researching and assessing the safety of Martian lava pipes, sheltering future colonists in deep underground tunnels can significantly reduce exposure to hazardous cosmic radiation. Moreover, the researchers are convinced that the “Greek plain” of Hellas Planitius is the best place to land.
The fact is that less cosmic and solar radiation falls on this part of Mars than on most of the rest of the planet’s surface. According to Antonio Paris, sheltering astronauts in deep lava tubes can reduce its impact even more, thereby ensuring the colonists survival. But how to measure the level of radiation in the lava tubes on Mars?
This is where knowledge of lava tubes on Earth comes in handy – by measuring their external and internal radiation levels, Paris got a general idea of whether the structure of lava tubes can reduce the effects of cosmic radiation. The results of the study are published in the journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences.
“Lava tubes can help in the study of Martian geology and geomorphology, and also potentially help to find any evidence of the development of microbial life in the early stages of the natural history of Mars,” Paris writes in his twitter.
So, lava tubes may very well become our new home on another planet. Agree, the prospect sounds so-so. Surely everyone remembers horror films about cave dwellers and other troubles that can happen there (for example, in the movie “Descent” or the TV series “LOST”), but given the fact that we may not have another option – life in lava tubes – this is far from the worst that awaits a person on other planets.