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What are dark matter and dark energy?

What are dark matter and dark energy? 86

An article devoted to the search for dark matter has been published in the scientific journal Nature. To better understand what it is, astronomers have created a detailed computer model of the “web of the universe”, which includes various clusters of this mysterious substance.

“Cobweb” will help find signs of decay

“Our calculations show that small clusters of dark matter should be very common in the Universe. But by themselves they will remain completely invisible to our telescopes, “admitted one of the authors of the work, professor at the Max Planck Astrophysical Institute (Germany) Simon White .

According to the modern concepts of cosmologists, immediately after the Big Bang, matter in the Universe was divided into visible and dark matter. Their distribution was uneven. Researchers call the three-dimensional model of the distribution of forms of matter “cobweb”. They hope that thanks to it it will be possible to find traces of the decay of dark matter particles. This will help to somehow study its properties.

Back in January, predictions were made that in 2020 astrophysicists will attempt to detect dark matter and dark energy, which account for about 95% of the mass of the Universe. Science still knows almost nothing about these mysterious substances. 

So what do scientists know today?

These particles permeate our bodies every second

“Until we understand what dark matter is, what kind of substance it is and what kind of particles. Physicists have not yet learned how to register them, – explains a senior researcher at the State Astronomical Institute. P.K.Sternberg Moscow State University Vladimir Surdin

It was not physicists who learned about the existence of dark matter, but astronomers. Ever since the 1930s, observing the movement of neighboring galaxies, they realized that there are not only stars there. Their gravity is much stronger than stars, planets, interstellar gas and other matter we observe could provide.

Stars are the main objects we see. But their mass is clearly not enough to explain the mass of galaxies as a whole. Stars at large distances from the center of galaxies orbit these centers rather quickly. But according to the laws of physics, this should not be so: as you move away from the center of gravity, the speed of movement of bodies should decrease, look at least at our solar system.

This means that far from the center of galaxies there is something that provides gravity, some kind of invisible, hidden mass. And we know for sure that this cannot be a substance that is so familiar to us, with its protons, electrons, neutrons. These are particles of a new type. They surround us and permeate our bodies every second, but we do not feel them. And physicists cannot yet create devices that would be able to register them.

Scientists judge about the existence of dark matter on other grounds. For example, on the decays of star clusters, which should not have occurred if there was no interaction with some substance invisible to us. And also by the effect of a gravitational lens: clusters of galaxies bend the rays of light that come from objects located behind them. It should be so, it follows from the theory of relativity, but the calculation of the distortion shows that there is much more invisible matter than visible. More about five times.

Another mystery of science is dark energy. Physicists do not even try to solve it in laboratories, only theoretically.

In the twentieth century, astronomers recorded the movement of galaxies and found that almost all of them were moving away from us. When Edwin Hubble learned to measure the distance to galaxies, it turned out that the farther a galaxy is from us, the faster it flies away. Mathematicians have described all these patterns. It turned out that there are not so many options for the expansion of the Universe. And the mutual attraction of galaxies should stop their run-up: like a stone thrown upwards, at some point it stops and begins to fall to the ground.

In the late 1980s, new data emerged. Scientists have discovered that the movement of galaxies is not only not slowed down, but, on the contrary, accelerates. This meant that there is a force in nature that overcomes gravity at significant distances, a kind of anti-gravity. And if the first 7 billion years after the Big Bang was won by gravity, then another force began to win, which began to push the galaxies apart.

This power has been given a conventional name: dark energy. Scientists can calculate the energy itself, but they cannot indicate its carrier. Whether it is some kind of field, or a property of the vacuum, is still unclear. “

Dark energy, according to the Planck Space Observatory, accounts for 68.3% of the observed Universe, and dark matter – 26.8%. And only 4.9% are visible objects.

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Science & Technology

Cyberfarm 2077. YouTuber showed what a Russian cyber village could look like

Cyberfarm 2077. YouTuber showed what a Russian cyber village could look like 87
Photo: video screenshot youtube.com/birchpunk

On November 19, the day the Cyberpunk 2077 video game was supposed to be released, a five-minute video about a Russian cyber village appeared on YouTube. It combines the aesthetics of cyberpunk with the life of the Russian provinces.

Cyberfarm 2077. YouTuber showed what a Russian cyber village could look like 88

Russian director and blogger Sergei Vasiliev made a short film that is an excerpt from the life of a fictional Russian village with the technologies of the future. The short film was shot in the style of a video blog. 

“They say that Russia is a technically backward country, there are no roads, no robotics, rockets do not fly, and mail takes too long. [This is not true],” the creators say.

The main character, a farmer called Nikolai, talks about his cyber farm, where three androids work, and invites new workers to his business. The robots milk the cows, walk them and go to fetch water. Instead of a cesspool, there is a black hole in the toilets, and mail is delivered by flying wagons of the Russian Post. New technologies have also solved the problem of Russian roads – cars now fly over it, but even there are holes in the air.

The authors of the short film said that a “creative association of enthusiasts” worked on the creative, and now they “plan to release further videos in the same universe.”

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German scientists have found a drink that kills coronavirus in five minutes

German scientists have found a drink that kills coronavirus in five minutes 89

German scientists from the University of Ulm have discovered a natural product that kills up to 97% of the coronavirus in the body. The researchers published their work in the journal bioRxiv.  

During the study, experts mixed juices with viruses at room temperature and monitored the results. It turned out that black chokeberry juice most effectively suppresses the activity of the virus in the human body – it destroys up to 97% of COVID-19 pathogens in just five minutes.

Scientists have discovered a product that kills coronavirus by 97%

In addition, pomegranate juice can kill up to 80% of the coronavirus pathogens. The rest of natural juices and green tea can also weaken the disease, since they have an acidic environment and plant polyphenols that negatively affect the virus.

Scientists have discovered a product that kills coronavirus by 97% in 5 minutes

In order to get rid of 80% of COVID-19 pathogens, scientists recommended that patients rinse the oropharynx with these solutions and rinse the nasopharynx. The study adds that plant polyphenols and acidic environments have a damaging effect on viral proteins.

During the study, scientists mixed drinks with viral particles and influenza A virus (IAV), adenovirus 5 (AdV5) and SARS-CoV-2. The observation was carried out under room temperature conditions. The experts also worked on swine flu with different juices and teas.

“Preventing the initial infection or reducing the viral load of an infection can relieve symptoms, prevent spread to the lower respiratory tract or transmission to another person,” the study said.

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Netflix sci-fi show about life on other planets kicks off in December

Netflix sci-fi show about life on other planets kicks off in December 90

In early December, Netflix is ​​launching a new show, Alien Worlds, dedicated to alien planets and the life that might have developed on them.

The show’s creators relied on real facts and astrobiology to imagine creatures that could inhabit the exoplanets that support life in our modern sense.

Naturally, all this is nothing more than speculation. We do not have the opportunity to send missions to these worlds, and even if we build an apparatus for flying to neighboring systems, the journey will take hundreds of years. 

Therefore, scientists are counting on a new generation of telescopes and analysis systems to determine the composition of the atmosphere of exoplanets. Next year, the launch of the James Webb Telescope will take place, which will allow you to look deeper into space. 

Alien Worlds premieres on December 2.

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