Connect with us

Ancient

Were the Hanging Gardens really in Babylon ?

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the  Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, weren’t in Babylon at all – but were instead located 300 miles to the north in Babylon’s greatest rival Nineveh, according to a leading Oxford-based historian.

After more than 20 years of research, Dr. Stephanie Dalley, of Oxford University’s Oriental Institute, has finally pieced together enough evidence to prove beyond reasonable doubt that the famed gardens were built in Nineveh by the great Assyrian ruler Sennacherib  – and not,  as historians have always thought, by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon.

Dr. Dalley first publicly proposed her idea that Nineveh, not Babylon, was the site of the gardens back in 1992, when her claim was reported in The Independent – but it’s taken a further two decades to find enough evidence to prove it.

Detective work  by Dr. Dalley  – due to be published  as a book by Oxford University Press later this month – has yielded four key pieces of evidence.

First, after studying later historical descriptions of the Hanging Gardens, she realized that a bas-relief from Sennacherib’s palace in Nineveh actually portrayed trees growing on a roofed colonnade exactly as described in classical accounts of the gardens.

That crucial original bas-relief appears to have been lost in the mid 19 century.  When it was discovered by the British archaeologist, Austin Henry Layard, in the 1840s, it seems to have already been in such poor condition that its surface was, in all probability, rapidly crumbling away. Alternatively, it may have been amongst a group of Layard’s UK- bound Nineveh carvings which were lost when the boat carrying them sank in the River Tigris. Luckily, however, an artist employed by Layard had already drawn the bass-relief – and that drawing, recently recognised by Dr. Dalley as portraying the garden, had been reproduced in Layard’s book about Nineveh published in London in 1853.

Further research by Dr. Dalley then suggested that, after Assyria had sacked and conquered Babylon in 689 BC, the Assyrian capital Nineveh may well have been regarded as the ‘New Babylon’ – thus creating the later belief that the Hanging Gardens were in fact  in Babylon itself. Her research revealed that at least one other town in  Mesopotamia  – a city called Borsippa – was being described as  “another Babylon”  as early as the 13 century BC, thus implying that in antiquity the name could be used to describe places other than the real Babylon.  A breakthrough occurred when she noticed  from earlier research  that after Sennacherib  had sacked and conquered  Babylon, he had actually renamed all the gates of Nineveh after the  names traditionally used for Babylon’s city gates. Babylon had always named its gates after its gods. After the Assyrians sacked Babylon, the Assyrian monarch simply renamed Nineveh’s city gates after those same gods. In terms of nomenclature, it was clear that Nineveh was in effect becoming a ‘New Babylon’.

Dr. Dalley then looked at the comparative  topography of Babylon and Nineveh and realized that the totally flat countryside around the real Babylon would have made it impossible to deliver sufficient water to maintain the sort of raised gardens  described in the classical sources. As her research proceeded it therefore became quite clear that the ‘Hanging Gardens’ as described could not have been built in Babylon.

Finally her research began to suggest that the original classical descriptions of the Hanging Gardens had been written by historians who had actually visited the Nineveh area.

Researching the post-Assyrian history of Nineveh, she realized that Alexander the Great had actually camped near the city in 331BC – just before he defeated the Persians at the famous battle of Gaugamela. It’s known that Alexander’s army actually camped by the side of one of the great aqueducts that carried water to what Dr. Dalley now believes was the site of the Hanging Gardens.

Alexander had on his staff several Greek historians including Callisthenes, Cleitarchos and Onesicritos, whose works have long been lost to posterity – but significantly those particular historians’ works were sometimes used as sources by the very authors who several centuries later described the gardens in works that have survived to this day.

“It’s taken many years to find the evidence to demonstrate that the gardens and associated system of aqueducts and canals were built by Sennacherib at Nineveh and not by Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon. For the first time it can be shown that the Hanging Garden really did exist” said Dr. Dalley.

The Hanging Gardens were built as a roughly semi-circular theatre-shaped multi-tiered artificial hill some 25 metres high. At its base was a large pool fed by small streams of water flowing down its sides. Trees and flowers were planted in small artificial fields constructed on top of roofed colonnades. The entire garden was around 120 metres across and it’s estimated that it was irrigated with at least 35,000 litres of water brought by a canal and aqueduct system from up to 50 miles away. Within the garden itself water was raised mechanically by large water-raising bronze screw-pumps.

The newly revealed builder of the Hanging Gardens, Sennacherib of Assyria – and   Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon who was traditionally associated with them – were both aggressive military leaders. Sennacherib’s campaign against Jerusalem  was immortalized some 2500 years later in a poem by Lord Byron describing how “the Assyrians came down like a wolf on the fold,” his cohorts “gleaming in purple and gold.”

Both were also notorious for destroying iconic religious buildings.  Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon destroyed Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem and according to one much later tradition was temporarily turned into a beast for his sins against God. Sennacherib of Assyria destroyed the great temples of Babylon, an act which was said to have shocked the Mesopotamian world. Indeed tradition holds that when he was later murdered by two of his sons, it was divine retribution for his destruction of those temples.

Bizarrely it may be that the Hanging Gardens were the first of the seven ‘wonders’ of the world to be so described – for Sennacherib himself referred to his palace gardens, built in around 700BC or shortly after,  as “a wonder for all the peoples”. It’s only now however that the new research has finally  revealed that his palace gardens were indeed one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Some historians have thought that the Hanging Gardens may even have been purely legendary.  The new research finally demonstrates that they really did exist.

Comments

Ancient

Traces of the great shocks of the past – nuclear ruins and star wars of antiquity

Scientists often say that modern civilization is threatened with death as a result of a global war using weapons of mass destruction. What is curious, ancient epics and archaeological finds sometimes testify in favor of the fact that something similar has already happened on our planet.

Glass fields

The land of ancient Egypt is full of mysteries. And they are associated not only with the pyramids and burials in the Valley of the Kings. One of these mysteries is associated with huge fields of fossil green glass, spread over hundreds of square kilometers in the Libyan desert, near the Saad Plateau in the border area of ​​Libya, Egypt and Sudan, where the dunes of the Great Sandy Sea stretch.

Some pieces of this glass of natural origin weigh up to 26 kilograms, but most are much smaller and resemble fragments of a giant green bottle.

For the first time this natural glass in the form of small glass pebbles was found in the Libyan Desert as far back as 1816, but became widely known after Patrick Clayton, an employee of the Egyptian Geological Herald, saw the glass fields themselves.

200 kilometers away from these deposits. numerous pieces of the same glass were found, along with spearheads made of it, axes and other tools that were in use among the ancient inhabitants of the area. Some of the products are about 100 thousand years old.

Ancient Egyptians knew about these deposits. Not only they knew, but also used for their own purposes, for example, for the production of jewelry. So, the scarab beetle, one of the elements of the famous necklace of the pharaoh Tutankhamun, discovered by Howard Carter during excavations in the Valley of the Kings, is skillfully carved from volcanic glass. Where did it come from in the desert?

It is well known that the transformation of sand into glass occurs as a result of heat treatment. The temperature is required high, the sand melts at 1700 ° C, so that matches and brushwood can not do here. What heat source will be required to turn hundreds of tons of sand into glass?

There are several theories about this. According to one, for example, the whole cause of fulgurites is sand, sintered from a lightning strike, whose electric charge is enough to melt it.

However, it is completely incomprehensible how the dunes of the Libyan Desert pulled so many lightning bolts. According to another theory, the originator of the formation of deposits of glass is a meteorite that exploded over the desert in time immemorial.

Many scientists agree that the reason for the appearance of glass in the desert was the invasion of a hundred-meter asteroid into the atmosphere, rushing at a speed of 20 kilometers per hour. This would perhaps be an impeccable explanation, if not for one “but”: on the surface of the Great Sand Sea there is neither an impact crater, nor its traces.

Meanwhile, back in the 1940s, after testing a nuclear bomb in the state of New Mexico in the United States, desert sands also turned into molten green glass. Is it possible to conclude on this basis that the glazed sands of the Libyan desert appeared under similar circumstances, only over 100 thousand years ago, as a result of a nuclear bombardment, after which the Sahara desert occupied most of North Africa?

Mohenjo Daro – Radioactive Ruins

In 1922, the Indian archaeologist R. Banardji discovered the ruins of an ancient city in the Indus Valley. Excavations showed that it was flawlessly planned and equipped with plumbing and sewage systems that are superior to those used in India and Pakistan today.

The ancient city received the name Mohenjo-Daro. Among its ruins were found scattered fused pieces of clay, which at one time under the influence of high temperature turned into black glass. An analysis of the samples, carried out at the University of Rome and then at the laboratory of the National Council for Research of Italy, showed that the fusion occurred at 1500 ° C.

Such an ancient temperature could have been obtained in the furnace of a metallurgical workshop, but not in a vast open area. Moreover, archaeologists drew attention to one gloomy feature of the ancient city.

After carefully examining the ruins, they came to the conclusion that the degree of destruction of buildings and structures decreases as they move away from the city center or, rather, the epicenter of the explosion, which completely swept away individual quarters.

The skeletons found among the ruins suggested that death found people suddenly. Finally, the bones, as it turned out over the years, were radioactive.

The mysterious and ominous picture found an explanation only after the Americans during the Second World War launched nuclear attacks on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The same eerie pictures of destruction were observed there. So did Mohenjo Daro die in a nuclear strike?

Witness of the Mahabharata

The Sanskrit texts of the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata, consisting of 18 books and numbering over 200,000 verses, which is seven times more than Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, contain information about religion, worldview, customs, history of ancient India, as well as legends about her gods and heroes.

A significant part of the epic is devoted to the description of hostilities involving gods, demigods, and people. Researchers believe that these events relate to the semi-legendary history of the invasion of Hindustan from the north by the Aryan tribes, pushing the indigenous inhabitants – Dravids – into the southern part of the peninsula.

However, among the episodes of ancient battles that were common for those times, there are also detailed scenes in which it is easy to recognize the use of … artillery, rockets, combat aircraft, locators, smoke screens, poisonous gases and even nuclear weapons.

For example, in Dronaparva, one of the books of Mahabharata, the battle is described, during which explosions of shells, like huge fireballs, cause storms and storms, incapacitate entire armies.

As a result of these explosions, many enemy warriors, together with weapons, fighting elephants and horses, fly up in the air and are carried away by a powerful whirlwind, like dry leaves from trees.

This text also describes the process of the emergence of a mushroom cloud characteristic of a nuclear explosion. It is compared to the opening of a giant umbrella. After these explosions, the food became poisoned, and the surviving people fell ill.

Symptoms of the disease exactly corresponded to the main signs of radiation sickness – people had bouts of vomiting, hair and nails fell out, and then death occurred.

In Indian epics, ancient planes are also described in detail – flying vimaana cars. In the book of Samarangan Sutradharan, various types of vimanas are compared among themselves, the advantages and disadvantages of each variety are mentioned, flight characteristics, landing methods are given.

Particular attention is paid to the characteristics of structural materials such as wood, light metals and their alloys. Also referred to are materials used to create a driving force. Strange as it may seem, mercury is among the latter.

Star Wars Antiquity

A.V. Koltypin in his work “The Earth’s Disappeared Dwellers” draws attention to the fact that in the Mahabharata, Bha-gavata-purana, Vishnu-purana and other ancient Indian texts space travel on airplanes is repeatedly described by gods, demons, heroes and various mythical creatures.

“Chitraketu, the lord of the Vidyadharas (demigod class, good air spirits. – Ed.), Went on a journey through the vast expanses of the universe … on his dazzlingly shining aerial ship …”, “Rushing through space, Maharaja Dhurva saw all the planets one after another. I saw the solar system on the way of the demigods in the chariots of the heavens … “,” So Maharaja Dhurva passed the seven planetary systems of the great sages known as sapta-rishi … “,” A descendant of the Kuru dynasty, King Vasu could travel outside the Earth in the upper regions of our Universe , and therefore, in those distant times, he became famous under the name of Upari-chara, “Wandering through the higher worlds.”

One of the episodes of Mahabharata tells how the great warrior Arjuna, after the battle with the underwater inhabitants of the nivatakavachs, returned to heaven on his flying amphibian chariot and discovered a city flying in space:

“On the way back, I saw another huge and amazing city that could move where whatever. He shone like fire or the sun. ” In this flying city called Hiranyapur, there were Danavan demons (daityas). Arjuna was ordered to smash them. Noticing the approach of his aircraft, the dans began to fly out of the city in their celestial chariots – well, exactly the “Star Wars” by George Lucas! Then Arjuna “a powerful avalanche of weapons … blocked this formidable stream. He awed them, plowing the battlefield with a chariot, and … the Danavas smashed each other.”

Subjected to a powerful attack from Arjuna, the Danavians lifted their flying city into the air. Then Arjuna “with a powerful shower of arrows … blocked the daitians and tried to stop their movement.

The gift of the daityas was directed wherever they wanted, this heavenly, floating in the air, marvelously sparkling city, moving at will: it either went underground, then rose again, then quickly moved to the side, then plunged into the water. ” Ultimately, Arjuna hit the heavenly city with iron arrows, so similar to modern kinetic ammunition. And when the 60 thousand surviving demons rushed to Arjuna in their flying chariots, he incinerated them with a weapon called Raudra, obviously a kind of nuclear weapon.

So, the findings of archaeologists and ancient epics really testify to the fact that a long time ago on our planet and even in outer space unbelievable wars raged with the use of the most advanced weapons. And it is very likely that such events happened repeatedly.

Continue Reading

Ancient

Yonaguni’s underwater ruins – the remains of Lemuria?

To the south of Japan there is an Okinawa archipelago known to many – it is a small island that “stretches” to the island of Taiwan. The last island of the archipelago is located approximately 100 kilometers from Taiwan, and it is called Yonaguri.

Underwater tourism is widespread here, and for several decades there is a reason why diving enthusiasts plunge into the depths of the waters more and more willingly.

Mysterious find and many years of controversy

Upper Monument Terrace

It all started back in 1985, when Kihachiro Aratake, a diving instructor, discovered a very strange object under water. It was a huge monument, which began off the coast and extended somewhere into the distance. Then Aratake was struck by ideal, as it seemed to him, lines: flat platforms, rhombuses, rectangles and terraces, which turned into large steps leading down.

The monument ended with a wall that went down 27 meters – to the bottom. This precipice was the wall of the trench, which stretched along the entire structure.

On the one hand, the monument could be attributed to the “joke of nature” that endowed it with so even lines and forms, on the other hand, Aratake had doubts. Suddenly the object was man-made?

The find was made public, and a long journey began from sensational headlines to the skeptical conclusion of scientists that there was never a civilization in the designated place, whose representatives could create such a monument

But, as usually happens, supporters of the theory of the man-made origin of the object were found, including the famous professor Masaaki Kimura. He studied the surroundings of Yonagumi for about 10 years, and did not hold the opinion of the artificial creation of the monument.

Then, Graham Hancock, who adhered to the theory of the existence of a highly developed civilization in antiquity, found out about the find. Together with Boston University professor Robert Shoch, Hancock sets off to explore the monument … And the opinions of his colleagues are divided.

Some parts of the monument do not look like “natural” objects

In favor of the natural origin of the monument is the fact that it consists of sedimentary rocks and sandstone – nothing unusual. And the forms that some scientists were so interested in could arise under the influence of water, wind and rain. Perfectly straight cracks could also appear solely due to the structure of the deposits.

Schoch adhered to the theory of the natural origin of the monument, and only later, when he and Hancock once again flew to Okinawa and met with Kimura, the position of the professor at Boston University “staggered.”

Arguments for the Artificial Origin of the Monument

Researchers also have a lot of questions about the origin of the well.

Kimura gives several arguments that may indicate the artificial origin of the monument. First of all, he notes that if the monument was formed in a natural way, then the blocks that were separated from the rock would not lie so “correctly”. They would fall differently, and gravity would play a huge role in this.

The theory of creating a structure through erosion does not stand up to criticism at all: in this case, there would be a lot of debris near the monument at the bottom, and there aren’t so many of them.

Ring road

It is also interesting that side by side there are very different shapes within the monument: a narrow trench, and faces with sharp edges, and round holes, and steps. If it were erosion, then all the elements were “polished” the same way.

It is also impossible to explain deep symmetrical trenches by natural processes, as well as steps that rise at regular intervals – from a depth of 27 meters to the top of the monument.

It is not easy to explain by natural processes the presence of a wall that closes the monument from the west. The fact is that it is laid out from limestone blocks, and they are atypical for the Yonagumi zone.

The mysteries of the Yonaguni complex

This find was nicknamed the “stone of the sun.”

There are several more unsolvable puzzles that researchers still puzzle over. For example, the “twin pillars”, which are located at the western edge of the monument. In some ways, they are like the famous pillars from Stonehenge, and have a strict geometric shape. They, by the way, are from limestone, which, as mentioned above, is not common in Yonagumi.

It is interesting, but the position of these two pillars seems senseless to many: most likely, they fell from the top of the monument.

After several years of research, Schoch and Kimura were able to reach a compromise: they both abandoned radical points of view, and began to look for new evidence in favor of a particular theory. However, a major study of the monument took place only in 1998, under the guidance of the famous archaeologist Arbuthnot – Shocha was also invited to study.

Now the “stone of the sun” fell down

After several weeks of hard work, the skeptical Arbutnot rejected the “extreme” point of view, and began to believe that the monument was nevertheless processed with human hands.

And in 2001, after Kimura’s report, most Japanese scientists nevertheless agreed with the view that the monument is not only of natural origin. But the debate still continues, although so many skeptics who are confident in the exclusively “natural” origin of the monument have never seen it with their own eyes.

Curious find

The head with “eyes” and “mouth” raises many questions

And here is another find that was discovered near the monument: an object that is very similar to a human head! This 7-meter figure could well be of natural origin, but there are recesses on it that act as eyes and mouth.

Perhaps the origin of the head is artificial, but, according to some researchers, it could be “modified”. On the side of the figure there is something that is vaguely reminiscent of a headdress of feathers – the bas-relief is not very well preserved, because many people doubt that it was created by nature.

There are more and more questions every year – as well as finds near the Yonaguni complex. Here stones with reliefs were found: dashes, crosses and even animals, tools. It is believed that representatives of ancient civilization had a hand in creating the monument and other mysterious exhibits. True, this happened on land, and as a result of tectonic processes, everything was submerged under water.

Continue Reading

Ancient

Traces of the ruler of ancient Egypt lead to the moon

With all the complexities of the modern world, mankind is preparing for a new cosmic leap. The main issue of world cosmonautics is not only flight, but also the primary arrangement of man on the moon, the creation of lunar bases. The drama and difficulties of today can only slow down this process, but they will not stop it and will not cancel it.

Firstly, this is already enshrined in the plans of China, the USA, the United Europe, and Russia as the next task of cosmonautics. Moreover, this club is prone to expansion. Secondly, the reason for the planned flights is not only, but not so much ordinary and professional curiosity, although this is very significant. There are much more serious reasons for flying.

Breastplate of Pharaoh Tutankhamun

(“Pectoral of Tutankhamun”). 

Photo from the author’s archive

Say, strategically, the Earth’s satellite is the primary extraterrestrial territory for the continuation of the natural expansion of mankind. Without such expansion, even by virtue of the law of increasing needs, we will simply eat and destroy our planet. We simply do not have enough resources, as well as the ability of the planet’s nature to recover from “communication” with us.

The introduction of ever new technologies of this contradiction, alas, will not remove it. It is simply superseded to a new level. Let’s say there was a time when Londoners were afraid that horse dung would flood the city to the very rooftops. This, fortunately, did not happen thanks to the advent of the car. But today we understand that a car is a means of salvation from manure, but not at all a conservation of nature. And with this “magic wand”, a conversation about the impact on nature now needs to be conducted not on an urban, but on a global scale!

By virtue of our very being, obliging us to interact with the nature of the Earth in an active way, the strategic prospects of mankind can only be associated with cosmic expansion!

Space expansion is also important for its humanitarian consequences. Expansion is an inspirational move forward. Remember the spiritual uplift of the beginning of the space age! Until a new breakthrough of this level has occurred, modern culture has to get bored with sorting out the already worked out set of basic ideas and impressions. Hence the popularity of remakes and radical interpretations of the already known. Meanwhile, the expectations related to the space program are not exhausted by what has already been said.

Space is interesting not only for its tangible pragmatics. It is important and another, in our time, still quite exotic opportunity – a chance to meet extraterrestrial intelligent creatures. At the same time, science and astronautics should not forget that such a meeting could or could have happened not only in space. For example, it could be realized in the form of paleocontact (visiting the Earth by aliens).

This topic has been formulated and supported in recent times by Matest Agrest, the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, who published in 1960 the article “Traces lead to space?”. It was, for example, about the giant blocks at the base of the temple complex in Baalbek (Lebanon). Ancient builders managed to procure, deliver and put in place hundreds of tons of blocks! How is this possible and why did they face such a task at all? The usual historical approaches nevertheless do not give a convincing explanation on this score. So it is perfectly acceptable to assume that the ancient builders could be helped, for example, by sentient beings. It is clear that they possess both relevant knowledge and powerful technologies. Otherwise, they simply would not have reached Earth.

In our opinion, science should reflect and conduct a search in this vein. Therefore, we propose to take a look, for example, in the photo of the chest decoration of the pharaoh Tutankhamun (“Pectoral of Tutankhamun”). It miraculously dwells in the shadow of the attention of cosmists, but it looks like an extremely interesting cultural monument.

It seems natural to believe that the ornaments of the pharaoh should emphasize his divine nature and connection with the gods. In this sense, the pectoral is made as if it were just a detailed story about the connection of the pharaoh with celestials (see photo of the necklace). In the framework of the cosmic experience of modern man, the content of the pectoral, as it seems to us, can be hypothetically interpreted, for example, as follows.

It seems that there are three horizontal levels on the necklace, the extreme of which are the Earth (not clearly represented) and the Moon (indicated by the crescent). Between them is the sign of a scarab beetle. We think the scarab in this case expresses two meanings: “flying” and “massive”, but in general it means a “shuttle” on the Earth – Moon route.

Below the moon on the necklace, according to existing belief, is the “heavenly boat” and even with the “All-Seeing Eye.” In ancient times, it was believed that this is the sacred eye that watches everything that happens on Earth. Today it is easy to imagine that it could be an alien surveillance system located at the orbital station.

Finally, above the pectorals we see a crescent moon with some kind of creatures, which, by the way, they seem to be very similar. It is hardly people – there would be at least some traditions about them, but there are not.

Accordingly, we can conclude: judging by the “Pectoral of Tutankhamun”, in our distant past, paleocontact seems to have occurred. It can also be assumed that in the distant past, aliens not only visited our planet, but also had their own orbital station at that time, as well as some kind of base on the moon. And, probably, this could not but affect the history of mankind.

It seems that future astronauts on the moon have a chance to find some traces of the presence of distant alien predecessors, and maybe a message from them.

Of course, we must understand that we are talking about a very bold, but very hypothetical interpretation of the contents of the necklace. Therefore, at this stage, other interpretations of the content of the pectoral may well be developed. But, we think, people related to the development of astronautics would have to reflect on what is said above. 

Continue Reading
Advertisement

DO NOT MISS

Trending