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Wearable ’Iron Man’ Submarine to Hunt for 2000-year-old Antikythera Device

Wearable ’Iron Man’ Submarine to Hunt for 2000-year-old Antikythera Device 90

By Mark Harris | NewScientist 

Like an underwater Iron Man, a diver will fly around the wreck of an ancient Greek ship later this year, looking to shed light on the Antikythera mechanism

THE world’s most advanced robotic diving suit is getting ready to help search for one of the world’s oldest computers.

Called Exosuit, the suit has a rigid metal humanoid form with Iron Man-like thrusters that enable divers to operate safely down to depths of 300 metres (see photo).

Though designed for diving in the bowels of New York City’s water treatment plants, earlier this month it underwent its first trials in seawater at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Massachusetts. The tests are readying the suit for a daring attempt to excavate an ancient Roman shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera in the Aegean Sea. A century ago, divers pulled the world’s oldest computer – the Antikythera mechanism – from the wreck. They are hoping that they will find a second device when they go down in September.

Marine archaeologists normally wear scuba gear to explore underwater sites in person, but the time that divers can spend at depth is limited by the dangers of decompression sickness, or the bends. For deep wrecks, researchers rely on remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) carrying cameras and sonar to scan an area, or large and expensive craft like the Alvin submarine that explored the wreck of the Titanic in 1986.

Wearable ’Iron Man’ Submarine to Hunt for 2000-year-old Antikythera Device 91

The $1.5 million Exosuit falls somewhere in between. “It’s basically a wearable submarine,” says Phil Short, a diving specialist on the planned mission to Antikythera. “The pressure inside is no different from being in a submarine or in fresh air. We can go straight to the bottom, spend 5 hours there and come straight back to the surface with no decompression.”

[…]

“With the Exosuit, our bottom time becomes virtually unlimited,” says Brendan Foley, co-director of field operations at WHOI’s Deep Submergence Laboratory. “Now we can have an archaeologist in the suit for hours, and we’ll only have to come up to answer the call of nature.”

Wearable ’Iron Man’ Submarine to Hunt for 2000-year-old Antikythera Device 92Despite the limitations of earlier expeditions, the treasures that were recovered at Antikythera represent some of the finest ancient Greek and Roman artefacts in existence. They tell the story of a Roman ship that foundered on the rocky shores of the island around 60 BC. The ship was laden with luxury goods, including bronze and marble statues, precious jewellery, a hoard of coins, glassware, ceramic jars – and fragments of a peculiar geared device whose importance was at first overlooked. Only in the 1950s did scholars figure out that the rusty metal pieces could be assembled into a sophisticated analogue computer for predicting astronomical events. They called it the Antikythera mechanism.

Ironically, 2000 years spent in corrosive saltwater may have been the best way to preserve these riches. Most precious objects from antiquity have been broken up or melted down over the millennia. The National Archaeological Museum in Athens has only 10 major bronze statues from Ancient Greece – and nine of them came from shipwrecks.

Foley believes that the Antikythera shipwreck still holds many secrets. A preliminary survey last year showed artefacts scattered over an area 50 metres by 10 metres, and even revealed a previously unknown shipwreck alongside the first one.

“We have feet, arms and the crest of a warrior’s helmet from statues recovered in 1900 – maybe we’ll get lucky and find the rest of them,” says Foley. “But for me, the mechanism is what sets this wreck apart. It’s the questions it opens up about the history of science and technology that fire my imagination.”

[…]

Read the full article at: newscientist.com

More than 21 centuries ago, a mechanism of fabulous ingenuity was created in Greece, a device capable of indicating exactly how the sky would look for decades to come — the position of the moon and sun, lunar phases and even eclipses. But this incredible invention would be drowned in the sea and its secret forgotten for two thousand years.

This video is a tribute from Swiss clock-maker Hublot and film-maker Philippe Nicolet to this device, known as the Antikythera Mechanism, or the world’s “first computer”. The fragments of the Mechanism were discovered in 1901 by sponge divers near the island of Antikythera. It is kept since then at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, Greece.

For more than a century, researchers were trying to understand its functions. Since 2005, a pluridisciplinary research team, the “Antikythera Mechanism Research Project”, is studying the Mechanism with the latest high tech available.

The results of this ongoing research has enabled the construction of many models. Amongst them, the unique mechanism of a watch, designed by Hublot as a tribute to the Mechanism, is incorporating the known functions of this mysterious and fascinating ancient Mechanism.

A model of the Antikythera Mechanism, built by the Aristotle University in Greece, together with the mechanism of the watch and this film in 3D are featuring in an exhibition about the Mechanism that is taking place in Paris, at the Musée des Arts et Métiers.

Video from: YouTube.com

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Ancient

Ancient papyrus “Book of the Dead” and hundreds of other artifacts found in Egypt

Ancient papyrus "Book of the Dead" and hundreds of other artifacts found in Egypt 103

Ancient sarcophagi, statues, toys, funerary masks and other artifacts, including papyrus from the Book of the Dead, were discovered during the excavation of the necropolis in Saqqara, 30 kilometers south of Cairo. According to experts, the finds are about four thousand years old.

The Egyptian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities announced that the sarcophagi were found in 22 burial mounds at a depth of 10 to 12 meters.

Among the finds was a four-meter scroll of papyrus from the Book of the Dead. The ancient Egyptians believed that hymns and texts from the Book of the Dead helped the recently deceased walk through the underworld.

According to the famous Egyptologist Zaha Hawass, the finds date back to the Sixth Dynasty, which ruled Egypt from 2323 BC to 2150 BC. e. More than 50 wooden coffins dating from the later “New Kingdom”, between 1570 and 1069. BC e., were also opened on Sunday.

He also believes the artifacts will help bring back tourists to Egypt who have almost stopped arriving due to the pandemic. The country has previously stimulated the tourism sector with the help of new archaeological finds. Later this year, authorities are planning to open the Great Egyptian Museum, also known as the Giza Museum.

Earlier excavations at Saqqara focused on the step pyramid of Djoser, one of the first in ancient Egypt. Egyptian Antiquities Minister Khaled al-Anani notes that “the finds of Saqqara are not yet exhausted.”

In 2020, more than a hundred sarcophagi, about 2500 years old, were found in Saqqara. Saqqara 3000 years ago was actively used for burials and was the main necropolis of Memphis – the capital of Ancient Egypt. Now it belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

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Ancient

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons 104

From the Mahabharata, an ancient Indian poem of unusual volume, we learn that someone named Asura Maya possessed a vimaana of about 6 m in circumference, equipped with four strong wings.

 This poem is a treasure trove of information pertaining to conflicts between gods who resolved their differences using weapons that are obviously as deadly as those we can use. In addition to “bright missiles”, the poem describes the use of other deadly weapons. “Indra’s dart” is operated with a round “reflector”. When turned on, it gives off a beam of light, which, being focused on any target, immediately “devours it with its power.” In one particular case, when the hero, Krishna, pursues his enemy, Salva, in the sky, Saubha made Shalva’s vimana invisible. Unafraid

Astra – means weapons of mass destruction and many other types of terrible weapons are described quite authentically in the Mahabharata, but the most terrible of them was used against Vrish. The narration says:

“Gurkha, flying on his fast and powerful vimaana, threw a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe at the three cities of Vrishi and Andhak. A red-hot column of smoke and fire, bright as 10,000 suns, rose in all its splendor. An unknown weapon, the Iron Thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death who turned to ashes the entire race of the Vrishis and the Andhaks.”

It is important to note that these types of records are not isolated. They correlate with similar information from other ancient civilizations. The effects of this iron lightning contain an ominously recognizable ring. Obviously, those who were killed by her were burned so that their bodies were not recognizable.

Astra: weapon of mass destruction of the gods

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

Astra appears before us as a supernatural weapon used by a particular deity. The mastery or use of a weapon required the knowledge of a mantra or invocation,

Each Astra had special terms of use, and violation of the terms could be fatal. Due to the gigantic destructive power of this weapon, his knowledge was passed from teacher to student exclusively orally.

Astra will play a very important role in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, where they are used in great battles by archers such as Rama, Karna or Bhishma. In fact, there is a suspicion that, as in the case of the Vimanas, some Asters work on the basis of mercury, or very similar liquids, which can circulate, rotating almost at the speed of light.

There are several dozen different Astra, according to their “operating model” and characteristics. Each main god had his own Astra, endowed with a certain power. For example, Devastra was the mythical equivalent of the modern traditional rocket; The asurastra that destroyed the asuras was the mythical equivalent of modern biological missiles.

Many say that 30,000 years ago the gods destroyed the asuras with nuclear weapons – but this is most likely a matter of opinion and interpretation of ancient texts in the modern sense. Also mentioned is the fearsome and destructive Brahmastra, the gift of Brahma (the Creator), the mythical equivalent of modern nuclear weapons. As mentioned in the epic sagas of India, the power of Brahmaster is capable of destroying the entire world.

This is how the Mahabharata (Vanaparvan, chapters 168-173) describes the battle in which the warrior Arjuna – the great hero – fought against the horde of Asuras:

Indra, the lord of heaven, demanded that Arjuna destroy the entire army of Asuras. These thirty million demons lived in fortresses located in the depths of the seas . Indra, the lord of the heavens, gave his own vimana to Arjuna, piloted by his clever assistant Matali.

In the fierce battle that unfolded, the Asuras caused crushing rains, but Arjuna marched against them with a divine weapon that managed to drain all the water … Arjuna fired a deadly projectile that destroyed the entire city of the proud.

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

Information about a number of ancient artifacts was obtained in 1929 during the interrogation of the Trotskyist Y. Blumkin, who had previously participated in the NKVD expeditions to Tibet, in connection with the sale of secret information about the weapons of the “civilization of the gods” to German and Japanese intelligence services. Y.Blyumkin’s betrayal in fact allowed the leadership of the Third Reich to use the high technologies of the “civilization of the gods”, which were later used by the Nazis to create a secret base in Antarctica, as well as to create various types of “weapons of retaliation.”

“As I already told my investigator, on a business trip to Tibet in 1925, with the order of the head of the Tibetan state, the Dalai Lama 13, I was taken to underground halls and shown some so-called artifacts – weapons of the gods, preserved on Earth from 15-20 thousand years before our These weapons are kept in separate rooms. I wrote about this in detail in my reports …

The characteristics of the weapon are approximately as follows:

1. Giant forceps – “Wajaru”. With their help, precious metals are smelted. If you melt gold at the temperature of the sun’s surface (6 thousand degrees C), then the gold flares up and turns into powder for 70 seconds. This powder was used in the construction of huge mobile stone platforms. If this powder is poured onto the platform, then its weight is lost to a minimum. The powder was also used in medicine in the treatment of incurable diseases and for the elite – mainly the leaders used it for food to prolong their lives.

2. Bell – the so-called “Shu-tzu”, with the help of which you can blind for a while a large army or an entire army. Its mode of action consists in transforming electromagnetic waves at a certain frequency, which the human ear does not perceive, but acts directly on the brain. This is a very strange weapon. With his help, the Indian prophet Arjuna won big battles, causing his enemies to panic.

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

I have not seen how this weapon works. I saw the units themselves in the underground halls, and a member of the Council of Tibet gave me explanations about the technical characteristics that I passed on to the Germans, or rather to the representative of German military intelligence, Mr. von Stilhe. I met Shtilhe in Europe on a business trip abroad.

In addition to the technical characteristics of these two units, I also gave Shtilhe information about another weapon of the gods. This weapon remained from about 8-10 thousand years BC, it was discovered in underground cities under the ice of Antarctica in the area of ​​Queen Maud Land. As far as I know, in order to get there, you need a key and a rite of passage, since this place is guarded by guards.

These devices can move both under water and in the air, and they do it at great speed. They move on special round-shaped aircraft, which are not like airplanes and airplanes known to us. I also told their technical characteristics to Shtilhe …

I also informed Shtilhe about objects that are located in all parts of the world in the mountains. With the help of these objects, in one moment it is possible to destroy all cities and industrial centers of all countries on earth, regardless of the state and social system. As far as I understood from the explanations at the Headquarters and as I pointed out about this in my articles, in all parts of the world there are spheres dug into the mountains made of extra strong metal that cannot be sawed or blown up.

Within these spheres are certain mechanisms that, when activated, generate a cloud similar to the sun. This cloud erupts into the atmosphere, it is controllable, i.e. can move along a certain trajectory. It explodes in the right place.

The air defense system of ancient civilizations or civilizations is a separate huge mystery that we still have to solve.

Now it becomes quite understandable the “secret” stamp imposed on the official research of artifacts of ancient civilizations, as well as why, at the official level, all these research and the artifacts themselves are hushed up or denied. 

The targeted campaigns to falsify our real history are also becoming understandable. In addition, this information sheds light on the question of what kind of vehicles attacked the squadron of American Admiral Richard Byrd near Queen Maud Land in 1947.

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Ancient recipe books are like a panacea for modern diseases!

Ancient recipe books are like a panacea for modern diseases! 105

Six months ago, the world media reported that the mixture, created according to the Old English medical book of the 9th century, destroyed up to 90 percent of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, one of the antibiotic-resistant strains of this bacterium that causes barley in the eyes. Only the antibiotic vancomycin, the main drug used in the treatment of MRSA, had the same effect.

And the drug, which was recently awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine, would not have surprised the doctors of Ancient China.

Chinese pharmacologist Tu Yuyu discovered the drug artemisinin in the 70s, which cures malaria.

But the plant from which this substance is obtained, wormwood (Artemisia annua L), has been used to treat fevers, including those caused by malaria, as early as the 3rd or 4th centuries.

Tu Yuyu invented a cure for malaria after reading traditional Chinese medicine texts that described herbal recipes. The path to discovery and recognition was very difficult because hundreds of plant species had to be tested. In addition, the political atmosphere in China in the 70s was difficult. But her tenacity paid off. Artemisinin has now become an important antimalarial drug.

Her story is unusual in modern medicine. However, artemisinin is far from the only substance isolated from plants. Another malaria drug, quinine, is made from the bark of the officinalis L tree found in the rainforests of South America. The pain reliever morphine was isolated from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L), and the poison strychnine from the tree Strychnos nux-vomica L.

These plants were used in medicine for centuries and even millennia before chemists were able to isolate their most active components.

Is it possible that physicians can discover new drugs simply by studying ancient medical treatises, as did Tu Yuyu or English specialists? The answer to this question is ambiguous. Ancient pharmacological texts in Chinese, Arabic, Greek, or any other ancient language are not easy to study for a number of reasons.

Ancient recipe books

Ancient pharmacological texts are usually a list of recipes without explanation, whether they were used, and in what cases. Submit your favorite cookbook. You hardly cook all the recipes from it. If you do not make notes in it, then no one will know what recipes you tried, and so much you liked them. Commentaries are rarely found in ancient pharmacological books.

It is often difficult to determine which plants are listed in an ancient recipe. Nowadays, the Linnaean system is used to classify plants, where the genus and species of the plant are indicated. But before the Linnaean system became generally accepted, the classification of plants was extremely erratic.

Different local names could be used to denote the same plant. This means that it is not always possible to accurately determine which plants are discussed in the book. If we cannot accurately translate the names in old recipes, how can we evaluate their effectiveness?

Disease definitions also have links to local culture. This means that each nation has a different definition of the disease. For example, the ancient Greeks and Romans considered fever to be a disease, but in modern medicine it is seen as a symptom of the disease.

The millennial collection of recipes “Kitab al-tabih”, written by Ibn Sayar al-Warak.

In the Greek and Roman texts, there are many descriptions of wave-like fever, that is, a fever that repeats every few days.

In modern medicine, wave-like fever is a symptom of malaria, but it is also a symptom of other diseases. Should scientists searching for new cures for malaria test all ancient Greek and Roman remedies for “wave-like fever”?

Holistic Medicine

The most important aspect, according to medical historians, is that each medical system must be considered holistically. This means that it is wrong to focus only on those aspects of ancient medicine that are successful by modern standards, and brush aside everything else.

Although there are effective medicines in ancient medicine, many of them are useless or even harmful. For example, in our time, hardly anyone will dare to be treated by taking huge doses of hellebore, as the ancient Greeks did.

But even with these shortcomings, there is great potential in ancient medical books for new drug discovery. This requires collaboration between pharmacologists, historians and ethno-pharmacologists who study traditional medicine from different cultures.

Such cooperation is not an easy process, because each of the specialists feels that they speak different languages. But the great examples mentioned above remind us that the result can be outstanding, especially when looking for cures for common diseases.

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