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The US wartime experiment that starved men almost to death

The US wartime experiment that starved men almost to death 88

By Esther Inglis-Arkell | io9.com 

Towards the end of World War II, word got through that certain people in occupied territories were eating a near-starvation diet. American researchers wanted to study the effects of starvation, so they recruited volunteers – and starved them some more.

The Minnesota Starvation Experiment pretty much lived up to its name. It was an early experiment in nutrition prompted by news about the conditions in Europe during World War II. The full horror of concentration camps was still to come, but word came in that people in war-torn territories were living on severely restricted diets. Everyone knew that things were going to get worse before they got better, and concerned researched wanted to find out the effects of starvation and how to rehabilitate a severely starved person. In November of 1944, at The University of Minnesota, a study began on the effects of starvation.

From a pool of 400 volunteers, 36 men were chosen. All were between 22 and 33, and all were in good health. They were told that the experiment would go through four phases. For three months, they would eat a specific number of calories, so that researchers could get them to a healthy weight and get a baseline for their diet. (They were kept active, and the diet they were given was 3,200 calories.) Once they’d gotten up to their “fighting weight,” their caloric intake was to be halved. They’d take in 1,560 calories a day, every day, and no more. They’d have a diet comparable to the food people in Europe would have available – root vegetables and starches with the occasional meat or jell-o. The goal of the diet was to make the men lose a little over two pounds a week, and twenty-five percent of their body weight in six months.

The US wartime experiment that starved men almost to death 89After six months, they’d go through a three-month rehabilitative phase, where they would be allowed more food. They’d be divided into many groups, with different groups given different amounts of calories, and different amounts of protein, fat, and vitamins. Finally, they’d be allowed eight weeks of eating whatever they wanted.

During this time, they were kept in dormitories on campus, given regular blood tests, endurance tests, mental tests, and many other kind of tests. They were given administrative work in the lab, and allowed to attend classes at the university. Most of all, they were watched. For the tests to be successful, the researchers had to be sure that the participants weren’t cheating.

The rehabilitative diet did not remain of general interest to subsequent generations – although it did help scientists understand that people who had been starved needed to be overfed, rather than just fed, to help them rebuild their bodies. It is the effects that retain lasting fascination for scientists and for the public. At first, the participants merely complained of hunger, of an inability to concentrate, and of poor judgment. If the men didn’t lose enough weight, their rations were reduced – meaning some got more food than others. They all ate together, watching who got what. Unsurprisingly, resentment sprang up and there were a lot of fights in the dorms. Then came extreme depression. Several members were hospitalized for psychiatric problems. Some mutilated themselves. One man amputated three fingers with a hatchet, although he said later he didn’t know whether he’d done it on purpose or was just not thinking clearly. Considering he had injured his fingers once before, letting a car fall on them, the researchers thought the new injury was at least semi-deliberate, released him from the experiment and put him in psychiatric care.

Then came weakness. When one man cheated on the diet, the researchers demanded the rest of the men go everywhere with a buddy. Years later one of the participants said he was grateful for the buddy system, since he could no longer open heavy doors by himself. The men lost their hair, became dizzy, felt cold all the time, and their muscles ached.

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Read the full article at: io9.com

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Bizzare & Odd

Ancient asteroid sent dinosaur bones into moon

Ancient asteroid sent dinosaur bones into moon 102

The impact of the asteroid that destroyed the dinosaurs 66 million years ago was so powerful that it sent into space huge volumes of earth’s soil and rocks from the crash site. But together with them, he could send into orbit the remains of living beings, including dinosaurs.

Such a possibility is discussed in the book “The End of the World” by the scientific journalist and winner of several awards Peter Brannen, according to the Daily Mail.

It is known that an asteroid or meteorite about 10 km in size collided with the Earth 66 million years ago, forming the Chikshulub crater on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. About 15 trillion tons of ash and soot were thrown into the air. Because of  this, during the day it was dark on Earth, like a moonlit night.

As a result of the lack of light in plants, photosynthesis slowed down, which could lead to a decrease in the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere. Temperatures on continents dropped by 28 ° C, in oceans by 11 ° C. The disappearance of phytoplankton has led to the extinction of zooplankton and other marine animals. Other species died after them. 

This is one of the largest mass extinctions in the history of the Earth, which is called the Cretaceous-Paleogene. Brannen, trying to make the numbers more descriptive, points out that the asteroid (or meteorite) was larger than Everest and crashed into the atmosphere 20 times faster than a flying bullet. At the same time, the pressure of the atmosphere was so strong that a crater in the Yucatan began to form even before the asteroid fell.

The “response” release of soil into the atmosphere occurred only within a second or two after the impact and was incredibly powerful.

“So there are probably little pieces of dinosaur bones on the moon,” Brannen suggests.

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Loud booms, glowing rings and asteroids: The Earth’s magnetic field began to periodically disappear

Loud booms, glowing rings and asteroids: The Earth's magnetic field began to periodically disappear 103

Recently, scientists have begun registering too many anomalies associated with the Earth’s magnetic field. It periodically weakens or disappears altogether, deforms and twists. Experts cannot yet say for sure what is happening to the planet.

American researcher James Kaufman published interesting results: for some reason, the density of the solar wind in the nighttime part of the planet is much higher. As soon as the sun rises, this density begins to decrease.

Loud booms, glowing rings and asteroids: The Earth's magnetic field began to periodically disappear 104

Previously, the solar plasma went in the direction of the orbit of Mars and other planets, but now it moves in the opposite direction from the globe.

It is impossible to find an explanation based on existing physical laws. Some have put forward the incredible hypothesis that the Sun has turned into a black hole and is now close to the Earth.

Loud booms, glowing rings and asteroids: The Earth's magnetic field began to periodically disappear 105

According to some researchers, this could lead to the fact that the radiation does not move from the Sun to other planets, but from Pluto to the Sun.

According to other experts, on the side of Mars there may be a massive body, the radiation of which is comparable to that of the sun. A second stream is created, which blows off the Earth’s plasma and carries it to the Sun. 

Loud booms, glowing rings and asteroids: The Earth's magnetic field began to periodically disappear 106

The presence of such a space object could explain the multiple increase in the number of meteorites, comets, asteroids falling to the Earth and flying past it – which can be a cloud of debris going in front of such a huge object. 

The closer this object approaches the Earth, the more falling meteorites will be, and as the object approaches, the size of the meteorites falling to the Earth will increase. Then, loud boom sound are getting more intense and sun-like objects appear out of nowhere:

As far as we know, neither the airlines nor even the Pentagon have such devices. Moreover, the thing was somehow very powerful, since its brightness is phenomenal – the light sources merged into one and illuminated the entire space around.

Strangesounds.org, have prepared an excellent overview of the so-called “booms in the sky” that have been roaring over the United States lately:

People hear a rumble, as if the fighter took the sound barrier directly overhead. But – no one sees any planes anywhere. Unfortunately, it is very rare to “photograph” the crash, but it so happened that one woman accidentally filmed how her door to the veranda began to shake from this “boom in the sky”:

What kind of object could it be and create all these anomalies? For example, a wandering planet, the same mysterious planet X (aka Nibiru in the ancient epic of the Sumerians)?.

https://twitter.com/sweetleaf_505/status/1349726640490774531
https://twitter.com/NibiruIsAHoaxxx/status/1348478207243153409

These are only assumptions, and it takes time to find out what is really happening with our planet.

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Tesla autopilot sensor recorded “ghost” in an empty cemetery

Tesla autopilot sensor recorded "ghost" in an empty cemetery 107

A Tesla electric car with an activated autopilot function recorded an invisible person who allegedly moved around the cemetery. Social network users jokingly noted in the comments that, most likely, this is some new function from Elon Musk, which allows you to see ghosts.

In the United States, a Tesla electric car with an activated autopilot function recorded an invisible person who allegedly moved through a cemetery.

The corresponding video was posted by Twitter user Ovidiu Maciuc.

The recording shows how a silhouette of a man appears on the monitor of an electric car, moving around the cemetery. After that, the driver raises the camera and starts filming the graveyard through the windshield, but there are no people there.

After some time, the “ghost” went in the opposite direction from Tesla and disappeared from the on-board computer screen.

Social network users jokingly noted in the comments that, most likely, this is some new function from Elon Musk, which allows you to see ghosts.

For many though, if you take into account the comments, the video seemed rather creepy. Some even tried to guess what the navigation system actually showed.

Some users thought the system could recognize ghosts. Others refuted this version and said that the reason for all this is an insufficiently accurate sensor, which was used for the equipment of the Tesla car.

Earlier it became known that Tesla electric cars in the near future may receive a new function with which they can talk with pedestrians. For this, American cars will be equipped with special external speakers. 

In addition, Tesla cars in the future will receive the option to change the horn and sound of movement at low speeds to warn pedestrians. According to Elon Musk, among the sounds of movement there will be the sound of the clatter of a horse’s hooves, and as a whistle – the bleating of a goat.

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