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Ultrasound Causes Brain Damage in Fetuses: Study

Ultrasound Causes Brain Damage in Fetuses: Study  96

by Heidi Stevenson
Ultrasound has become routine during pregnancy over the last 3 decades. It is assumed to be safe, though safety was never investigated. Research is now finally being done, and the results are dismal, demonstrating clear and permanent brain damage, as shown in this study. Nearly all babies have been damaged to varying degrees, resulting in abnormal neurology becoming the norm.
That delightful ultrasound look at a fetus months before birth is a huge thrill—but that’s the only benefit. That thrill comes at a risk, one that it’s hard to imagine any parent would be willing to take if the facts were presented. Ultrasound causes brain damage and can even kill the fetus. This is not a supposition. It’s been clearly documented, and exactly what it does to the developing brain is understood.

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Sonigram with Caduceus-Death’s Head, by Rob Friesel (Death’s-head caduceus added)

Dr. Jennifer Margulis points out in her brilliant new book, The Business of Baby:

Manuel Casanova M.D., a neurologist who holds an endowed chair at the University of Louisville in Kentucky, contends that Rakic’s mice research helps confirm a disturbing hypothesis that he and his colleagues have been testing for the last three years: that ultrasound exposure is an environmental factor directly contributing to the exponential rise in autism.[1]

The Study
Dr. Pasko Rakic is the lead researcher for the study documenting that ultrasound damages mouse brains.[2] It shows that the process of brain development is disturbed in mice. Though it’s easy to suggest that this is “only” a study on mice, so doesn’t prove anything about humans, that’s not true. The method of development in mouse brains is exactly the same in all mammals. Therefore, if ultrasound has an adverse effect on mouse brains, then it must also have the same effect on human brains.
The Brain’s Cellular Organization
Brain cells are not arranged in a random manner. The brain’s gray matter controls muscles, sensory perception, emotion, and memory. Gray matter cells form columns, which can function as a unit. The cells are also arranged in rows that are parallel to the surface of the brain. You can think of the brain’s cells as being arranged in a grid, like a graph. Each cell forms part of both a column and a row, though the row is actually curved to match the surface of the brain.
If developing cells do not end up where they should, behavioral problems and epilepsy can arise from the misarrangement. It’s obvious that anything capable of causing such misarrangement can produce disabilities. Therefore, Dr. Rakic’s study is particularly disturbing.
Brain Cell Migration
A fetus’s neurons are formed in the area just above the cerebellum, sometimes called the “primitive brain”, and they progress toward the outer surface of the brain. During the process, they are moved outward, parallel to the brain’s surface. The study report goes into some detail about how this process happens, but for our purposes, there’s no need to address it.
How and when this process occurs is well understood, though the means by which cells move radially, away from the column in which they start, is not well understood. What is known, though, is that the process is very sensitive and can be affected by many biological, physical, and chemical agents. The authors state:

For example, repeated exposure of the rodent and primate fetal brain to environmental agents, such as alcohol (9), drugs (22), neurotrophic viruses (23), and ionizing irradiation (24, 25), causes misplacement of neurons and behavioral deficits.

The numbers in parentheses identify study references documenting things that can result in displacement of neurons and the results.

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The study provides a graphic representation of how this migration functions and malfunctions under ultrasound. The ovals represent neurons. They’re produced at the bottom, where single neurons are shown. The red ones have been labeled on day 16 of gestation. The top row (A-D) shows normal migration. The bottom row (E-H) shows abnormal migration of red (BrdU-labeled) neurons that were formed on day 16 of gestation, when ultrasound was applied.
The left-hand images (A & E) show day 16 of gestation (E16). The next ones (B & F) show day 17 of gestation (E17). The last images (D & H) show the final placement of neurons at birth (P1).
Notice that all the red neurons on the top row move upward in a consistent manner and form a single row (A-D). However, neurons that have received ultrasound often move at slower rates (F). The next batch of neurons catches up with many of them (G). The result of the the neurons receiving ultrasound, shown in red, are often displaced, with some not even reaching the cortex of the brain on the day of birth (H).
Sound Waves Equivalent to Human Fetus Exposure

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Pregnant mice were given doses of ultrasound for times ranging from 5 to 420 minutes. As shown in the image to the right, the pregnant mice were placed in glass tubes with cutouts to deliver ultrasound to their fetuses. An acoustic gel was applied to the posterior half of the mouse and a water bag was placed on the side opposite the ultrasound device to minimize any sound wave reflection or standing waves that could affect the ultrasound application.
An ultrasound device that had been used on humans. Extensive testing was done to avoid interference and assure that the exposure of fetuses to the ultrasound was minimal. The results of these tests are provided by the authors on the publisher’s site.
The label on the graphic reading “tsp” stands for tissue standoff pad. The head of the ultrasound device was placed a distance from the mouse’s skin to assure that the fetuses received sound waves equivalent to those that a human fetus receives.
Method
146 mice were treated with ultrasound and 141 controls were run through a exactly the same process, but without actually receiving ultrasound. Another 30 mice were also included as “normal” controls, but we’ll ignore them because they don’t affect the primary results.
On the 16th day of their pregnancies, the mice were injected with BrdU, which stained only the newly produced cells. The mice were treated with ultrasound on days 17-19, the 3 days following BrdU injection.  All samples were processed by technicians blinded to their control-ultrasound status.
On day 10 after birth, the young mice were killed and brain slices were taken for analysis. These were stained and processed, then viewed under microscropes, photographed, and analyzed. Grids, which the researchers called bins, were drawn on top of images to aid in the analyses.

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The results of a 60 minute exposure is shown in this graphic. The control is on the left, labeled A, C, D, and E. The results of the mouse that had received ultrasound is on the right, labeled B, F, G, and H. The top two images show the locations of the slices.
Neurons stained green with BrdU, which means they were newly formed on the 16th day after conception, and the others are stained red. The six images below A and B are photos of the slices.
Images C and F show only the red stained neurons, which pre-existed the green-stained BrdU neurons.
The middle images, D and G, show the same information as C and F, but with the green BrdU-stained neurons added in. It’s easy to see that the control neurons are more clustered at the top of the cortex than those of the ultrasound-treated neurons in green.
Look at images E and H. Here, the difference between controls and ultrasound-treated neurons is even more obvious. Only the neurons that had been stained green with BrdU are shown. Notice that nearly all the control neurons made their way to level 3 or 4 of the 10 bins. Far fewer of the ultrasound-treated neurons reached levels 3 and 4. A large number reached only levels 5 and 6. Worse, though, a significant proportion hardly moved upward at all, remaining stuck at levels 1 and 2.
Finally, notice the arrow heads in H. One is in bin 7 and two are in bin 10. Bin 7 is located below the cortex. It’s in a deeper white matter area. These neurons did not even reach the cortex. Worse, though, are all these ultrasound-treated neurons still sitting in the bottom layer, a particularly worrisome situation. The study states that these neurons:

… formed a distinct band near the lateral cerebral ventricle that resemble periventricular ectopias. When these ectopic BrdU cells occurred, it was easy to distinguish the exposed brains from the control brains, even upon visual inspection of the immunostained sections.

Ectopias are abnormal positions of body parts or organs, especially at birth. These ectopias were so severe that they can be seen without a microscope—an indication of severe brain damage.
Quantitative Analysis
The example above is a single sample from the study, but there were 287 mice in it. The numbers for each of the exposure times were:

  • 420 minutes: 7 controls, 7 received ultrasound
  • 210 minutes: 14 controls, 14 received ultrasound
  • 60 minutes: 32 controls, 29 received ultrasound
  • 30 minutes: 35 controls, 35 received ultrasound
  • 15 minutes: 33 controls, 39 received ultrasound
  • 5 minutes: 20 controls, 22 received ultrasound
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The image to the left graphs the results. USW stands for ultrasound wave and SHAM is for controls.
The graphs display the percent of neurons that remained in the bottom five bins, numbers 6-10, which means that they traveled less distance toward the brain’s surface.
Unfortunately, the 210 minute results are anomalous and the researchers offer no explanation. However, close examination shows some support for it. The percentage of 60-minute control mouse neurons that remained in bins 6-10 is less than for 30 minutes. It may be that something happens in the 30-210 minute exposure range that results in a variance.
The dispersion of neurons is similar for controls and ultrasound-exposed mice at 5 and 15 minutes, though there was a slightly higher dispersal amount in the ultrasound-exposed mice. At 30 minutes, though, the distinction starts to become significant:

  • More than 30 minutes’ exposure: 4% more neurons in bottom 5 bins (5% & 9%)
  • More than 60 minutes’ exposure: 6% more neurons in bottom 5 bins (5% & 11%)
  • More than 210 minutes’ exposure: 4% more neurons in bottom 5 bins (5% & 9%)
  • More than 420 minute’s exposure: 6% more neurons in bottom 5 bins (9% & 13%)
  • Average of all results: 3% more neurons in bottom 5 bins (5% & 8%)

Clearly, longer ultrasound exposure results in more neurons getting left behind.
As the authors wrote:

At durations of 420 min, it is possible that the stress of this long exposure leads to increased cell dispersion above the normal control condition. However, it is difficult to completely assess durations of 420 min and above because some pups from USW-exposed mothers were either resorbed or cannibalized at birth (Table 1). In fact, no pups survived to P10 [10 days after birth] in pregnant mice exposed to 600 min of USW, although the sham control mouse gave birth to a full litter that survived until P10.

Put simply, they were saying that when mouse pups were exposed to 420 minutes of ultrasound, some of them did not survive. They were either absorbed before birth or born dead or nonviable, and therefore cannibalized by their mothers. They also subjected some mouse fetuses to 600 minutes of ultrasound. None of the fetuses survived that much ultrasound exposure. All died by the 10th day after birth. However, none of the fetuses of the control group died.
Partial Conclusion
This study shows that ultrasound waves directed at a fetus interfere with brain development by causing displacement of neurons. Such displacement is known to result in behavioral problems and are either known or suspected of causing other neurological problems.
Dr. Rakic and his team have produced a powerful study that clearly demonstrates brain damage produced by ultrasound. This prenatal test has become so routine that some doctors do screenings at every visit. Though individual procedures don’t take 3½ to 7 hours (210-420 minutes), it’s easy to see that a baby could easily be exposed to an aggregate of that much. Such results need to be taken seriously.
There’s even more to know about ultrasound during pregnancy—such as the fact that it doesn’t even produce any benefits. This, and more about prenatal ultrasound are discussed in the next article, Ultrasound Causes Brain Damage in Fetuses: Implications.

Source: gaia-health.com

Science & Technology

The European Space Agency has released a game about the settlement of Mars

The European Space Agency has released a game about the settlement of Mars 114

The European Space Agency, together with the British company Auroch Digital, released the game Mars Horizon. This is a simulator of the colonization of Mars.

In Mars Horizon, players will have to manage scientific activities, processes in the colony and, of course, finances. You will need to complete missions to make money before sending your astronauts to Mars. The agency directors, who will play the role of the players, will have to fight other large space agencies that pursue the same goals – sending colonists to Mars.

During missions, players are faced with intense turn-based gameplay and each step determines their success or failure. Each individual decision is critical – will you waste time repairing a faulty antenna? How about saving energy in the event of a fuel leak? Maybe if you decide to delay the dispatch of the mission by three months, it will prevent a disaster?

Auroch Digital has created Mars Horizon in collaboration with ESA. The developers consulted with the agency’s staff, including members of the ExoMars mission. ESA provided technical assistance to game developers, provided gameplay advice and tested the game. The developers were given the opportunity to try to manage space projects at the agency’s facilities themselves.

Today you can install the game on PC, Xbox One, PlayStation4 and Nintendo Switch. In the future, the developers want to create special educational versions of the game and put them in schools to show how such large international projects as the colonization of Mars are actually carried out.

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Science & Technology

What’s in store for us in the next decade?

What's in store for us in the next decade? 115

About 70 thousand years ago, Homo Sapiens was an insignificant animal living somewhere on the African continent. But in the millennia that followed, the Sapiens became the rulers of the planet: we subdued the environment, increased food production, built cities and connected them with trade networks. 

But our achievements, no matter how beautiful they look from the outside, have a downside, because our civilization has endangered more than one million species of animals and plants, and the rapid climate change (also the work of man) brings catastrophic consequences every year. But if other, now non-existing civilizations dominated the planet before us, does this mean that we are rapidly approaching sunset? Nobody knows the exact answers to these questions, but let’s try to figure it out.

Great civilizations of the past

Humans have been around for several hundred thousand years, but until the last 7,000 years, we roamed the earth in small groups, hunting, gathering edible plants and fearing threats from other people, animals and weather. Everything changed after the development of tools, weapons and fire, and the first major step towards civilization was the domestication of animals for food, clothing, transportation and communication.

As William R. Nester writes in his work entitled “The Rise and Fall of Civilizations” , plant domestication followed, with small groups settling in river valleys, planting and harvesting. Over the centuries, some of these settlements have developed into complex civilizations that include most or all of the following components:

  • cattle breeding and agriculture; complex, hierarchical political, social, economic, military, and religious institutions, each with a division of labor;
  • the use of metals, wheels and writing; clearly defined territories;
  • trade with other people.

The first “civilization” is believed to have originated in Mesopotamia around 5000 BC. BC, and over the next 6,500 years or so, great civilizations grew and appeared elsewhere, expanded their rule, and then perished for a variety of interconnected political, technological, economic, military, and environmental causes.

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Roman civilization originated around the sixth century BC. 
At the height of its power, the Roman Empire ruled over a vast tract of land, and all modern Mediterranean countries were part of ancient Rome.

Roman civilization originated around the sixth century BC. At the height of its power, the Roman Empire ruled over a vast tract of land, and all modern Mediterranean countries were part of ancient Rome.

Recently, scientists have finally solved the mystery of the death of the Mayan civilization – one of the brightest civilizations in the history of mankind, the dawn of which came approximately in the III-IX centuries. As the results of several scientific studies have shown, among the reasons for the death of the Maya, researchers single out several factors at once – droughts, wars, food shortages, etc.

Where is our civilization heading?

According to the data obtained using the ESCIMO computer model, we have just passed the “point of no return” – the moment when humanity could prevent the most severe consequences of rapid climate change. In a paper published in the journal Nature Scientific Reports, the researchers write the following:

“Even if all emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere are reduced to zero right now, this will not stop the rise in global temperatures.”

And yet, despite this disturbing news, let’s hope that we will meet 2030 and all the decades to come, caring for the environment and looking to the future with optimism. We do not want it, the passage of time is inexorable, and with it the changes in all areas of everyday life. Thus, many researchers regard the near future as a time even more technological than ours.

What will our world be like in 10 years?

Fighting fake news

As stated in an article published on the Science Focus portal, technology can lead us to a world where we will not be sure what is real and what is not. At the same time, thanks to technology, we can distinguish fact from fiction, which is especially relevant in the era of fake news and Deepfake.

For example, some AI startups use machine learning algorithms to identify fakes and errors on the Internet. 

“Fake news and social media have eroded trust in traditional media that have failed to adapt to the new reality. Solving the problem of fake news requires rebuilding the news ecosystem and educating people to think critically and to be more responsible on social media,” Michael Bronstein said, co-founder of AI startup Fabula, a professor of computing at Imperial College London. Well, let’s hope this fight against fake news will be successful.

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Most likely, by 2030, technology will help us lead a better life, morally and physically healthy. Jobs are also expected to undergo a number of major changes.

Genetic revolution

Today, many researchers have high hopes for the genome-editing CRISPR method, which can treat hereditary diseases or significantly reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. There is even talk of the possibility of reversing the biological aging process. 

But how far can we go in this war on disease? After all, most ailments are caused not by one gene, but by a combination of several genes and environmental factors. Some genes that predispose us to one disease simultaneously protect us from another.

The researchers point out that one of the main challenges today is the costly availability of CRISPR. Moreover, editing the human genome also raises ethical dilemmas – for example, a widely publicized act of a Chinese scientist who used CRISPR-Cas9 technology on unborn babies, for which he is now serving time in prison.

What's in store for us in the next decade? 118
Perhaps over the next 10 years, we will be able to address a number of difficult ethical issues.

However, many scientists hope that in the future, doctors will be allowed to use this technique for the benefit of people, but the “finer details” have yet to be determined. It appears that different cultures will approach ethical issues differently. So in this regard, the future is complex and difficult to predict.

Space revolution

The last time a human foot set foot on the lunar surface was in 1972. Then few could predict that people would not return to Earth’s satellite for another 50 years. As for the latest plans of the world space agencies (both private and public), the plans for the next decade include not only the launch of robotic vehicles, such as the Europa Clipper (scheduled to start in 2021), the James Webb Space Telescope, but also a return to the Moon and human flight to Mars.

In general, speaking about space exploration, we would like to believe that studies of the solar system and the observed Universe in the next 10 years will bring long-awaited news and answers to questions that excite the imagination. 

Technologies of the future from 2020 to 2030

More than 800 experts, economists, businessmen and executives surveyed by the World Economic Forum (WEF) predict the following technologies will be trending. They will make a technological revolution in our world (watch the video below about technologies of the future).

1. AI 2 IoT
3. Blockchain
4. 3D printing
5. Mobile technologies
6. Autonomous cars (transport)
7. Mobile Internet
8 Robotics
9. VR / AR
10. Wireless Power
11. Quantum computing
12. 5G/6G
13. Voice Assistant
14. Cybersecurity
15. Cloud (cloud computing)

Who knows, maybe in 2030 humanity will know for sure that it is not alone in the vastness of the infinite universe. What do you think the world will be like in the near future? 

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Science & Technology

Cancer vaccine shown to be safe and effective has entered human trials

Cancer vaccine shown to be safe and effective has entered human trials 119
University of Montreal

A person, like any living creature, can be vaccinated against cancer, although this disease is fundamentally different from viral infections against which vaccines are traditionally used. 

This has been proven by scientists at Ohio University, who developed a methodology for the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Animal studies have shown 90% effectiveness of this therapy and complete safety for the body.

Cancer tumors are extremely insidious and have a defense mechanism against the body’s immune system in the form of the signaling protein PD-1. It is present on both healthy and cancerous cells, and is responsible for the friend-or-foe recognition procedure when immune B and T cells approach them. As long as PD-1 proteins in cancer cells and PD-L1 proteins in lymphocytes are working normally, the immune system simply ignores the infection, not seeing it as a target to attack.

The idea of ​​Dr. Pravin Kaumay, the developer of the inhibitors, is to interfere with the identification procedure. For this purpose, special monoclonal antibodies have been developed, which are injected into the body, seek out PD-1 proteins and settle on them, preventing proper contact with PD-L1 proteins. Lymphocytes cannot recognize these cells and automatically start the procedure for destroying them – the immune system itself begins to eradicate cancerous tumors in the body.

More importantly, blocking the signaling system destroys the usual comfortable environment for cancer cells, they are constantly threatened, cannot grow and spread throughout the body. 

This is the beneficial effect of vaccination with inhibitors – this therapy is called PD1-Vaxx. The technology has been thoroughly tested, it uses second-generation inhibitors, which are much more effective. The first human patients have already been recruited in the US and Australia to test PD1-Vaxx.

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