Mark Dunn Herald Sun, Australia
The mystery of what became of pilot Frederick Valentich who disappeared mid-flight off the Victorian coast 36 years ago while telling air traffic control he was being followed by a UFO might never be solved.
But recently unearthed papers do shed some light on the bizarre incident.
Air safety investigation documents reveal an engine cowl flap from the same model Cessna 182 aircraft he was flying in 1978 washed ashore at Flinders Island five years after he vanished.
But opinions were divided on whether the 30cm long component, broken in three pieces and corroded, came from Valentich’s doomed plane.
And now it appears the part may have been lost or scrapped.
Frederick’s brother Richard has called on aviation authorities to ascertain whether the cowl debris remains in storage somewhere. Modern tests could verify if it was in the salt water of Bass Strait for five years.
“If there is some evidence that can link it then it is worth pursuing,” Mr Valentich, 47 said.
In a bizarre coincidence, investigation documents held by the National Archives of Australia also show Frederick Valentich had spoken to his girlfriend about being taken by a UFO just a week before his Cessna disappeared.
Valentich told Melbourne air traffic control he was being followed by a long metallic, unidentified aircraft with four bright lights which at times moved at high speed or orbited above his plane, before reporting his engine was failing.
Nothing further was ever heard from him.
The Australian newspaper runs a story about Frederick Valentich’s lost plane.
An intensive sea search at the time found no trace of the plane or 20-year-old Valentich, who months earlier had accessed confidential RAAF reports about UFO sightings.
Conclusions that the young pilot who was apparently fascinated with aliens faked his own UFO abduction or crashed into Bass Strait as a result of disorientation are still rejected by the Valentich family and those who know them well.
The official Department of Transport investigation report listed a number of hypotheses, including “UFO intervention”, disorientation, hoaxes including a controlled landing on the sea and escape, a landing in a remote location, or a crash in which the wreckage has simply not been found.
But in the wake of a fruitless four-day search for debris off Cape Otway – by at least eight vessels and an Orion aircraft – the Dot stated “it seems likely that the aircraft did not crash in the sea between Cape Otway and King Island”.
Valentich, who had 150 hours flying experience, took off from Moorabbin airport at 6.19pm on October 21, 1978, to fly to King Island, northwest of Tasmania.
Numerous reports were made that night from members of the public of a “fast moving brilliant white light” but the Mt Stromlo Observatory near Canberra also advised the period was “the peak of the meteorite stream with 10-15 sightings per hour achieved”.
The Cessna cowl flap, with partial serial numbers matching the 182L model, was found on May 16, 1983 some 320km from Cape Otway, and prompted hope the mystery would finally be solved.
Pilot Frederick Valentich disappeared in 1978 while flying a Cessna over the Bass Strait to King Island.
But Steve Robey, the air traffic controller who spoke to Valentich on that fateful evening, doesn’t believe it’s from the same Cessna, registration VH-DSJ.
“It’s still an open case,” Mr Robey, himself a licensed pilot, said.
“If it was much closer to the area where he went down you would consider it, but it’s an extremely long way, to the point I discounted it.”
Mr Robey said he was in a unique position to judge Valentich’s mental state at the time and got to know his family in the years after as decent, sensible people.
There was nothing in what Valentich said over the radio to Mr Robey, at Melbourne air traffic control, which indicated a hoax or disorientation and loss of bearings.
“He sounded genuine when he was talking to me.”
Mr Robey said NASA analysts had assessed the audio transcript and found Valentich to be under genuine stress.
Conversely, a Dot assessment of the audio said Valentich’s recorded voice appeared to remain “matter of fact”.
Mr Robey doesn’t believe Valentich was confusing the lights he saw with bright stars or a meteorite shower or that he was somehow inverted and seeing reflections off the water or the Otway lighthouse.
“If he suffered disorientation and crashed into the water you think they would have found a lot of debris.
“Surely there would have been something found during the intense searches, oil or something.”
While some oil was found in the area, it was deemed to be too much to come from a light aircraft and must have been marine based.
“He wasn’t disorientated when he spoke to me,” Mr Robey said.
But he concedes Valentich may have become disorientated after he lost radio contact and may have crashed in a remote area of the Otway ranges and the plane is yet to be found.
Another option Mr Robey doesn’t discount is that Valentich was indeed taken by a UFO or interfered with by an unidentified craft.
“The simple fact there was so much activity at the time (in sightings).”
He cites the dozens of UFO sightings and reports of unexplained lights both immediately before and after the Valentich disappearance that night.
In another strange coincidence, Mr Robey said he was working at air traffic control about five days later and another light aircraft pilot radioed him during a navigational flight above East Sale and reported being passed three times by an intensely bright light travelling at jet speed, coming close enough to force him to land his aircraft.
Pilot Frederick Valentich disappeared in 1978 while flying a Cessna over the Bass Strait to King Island.
“I jokingly said to the guy next to me, ‘Here we go again’,” Mr Robey recalled.
Valentich’s father, Guido, who died in 2000, believed his son may have been abducted by aliens and the family visited the same spot at Cape Otway on each anniversary of his disappearance, where they erected a memorial.
But like the rest of the Valentich family, he never got the answers he needed.
Richard Valentich was 12 when his brother vanished but said there was no family fixation on UFOs.
“The concept of a UFO taking my brother is very far out there,” he said.
“Did he encounter something that made him crash? That may be more plausible. There’s a lot of theories out there but no one has proven anything.”
Mr Valentich said his brother would have been honestly and accurately describing what he saw, whatever it was.
He said his mother still held hope Frederick was alive, but the family just wanted to know, 36 years later, what happened.
“It’s like those people going through it now (with the Malaysia MH370 search), it’s the not knowing what happened.”
Royal Australian Navy research scientists were asked in 1983 whether the part found on Flinders Island, which was not buoyant, could have “walked” along the ocean floor from the Cape Otway search area over a five-year period.
The RAN responded by saying there were unusually strong sub-surface currents in that period which could have transported the debris that far.
But according to the-then Flinders Island airport manager Arthur Withers, whose son found the cowl flap opposite the northern runway washed up on a beach at Parry’s Bay, there were another two Cessnas of that type which lost similar parts during takeoff prior to 1983.
“The first thing we thought of is it may have been from the (Valentich) plane to King Island,” Mr Withers said. But given the other two incidents, it was more likely the cowl came from one of them but it was impossible to be sure.
Bureau of Air Safety Investigation (BASI) documents state the aluminium part was “greatly eroded” and that the “operating bolt, of steel, while heavily corroded, appears to have failed on impact or in flight (i.e. not by corrosion).”
Frederick Valentich went missing in 1978 while flying his plane from Moorabbin to King Island.
Despite new technologies which could help indicate the age of the flap and whether it had remained in Bass Strait for some years, the Australian Transport Safety Bureau, which replaced BASI, have no record of what became of it and it may have now been discarded.
Valentich disappeared a year after the films Close Encounters of the Third Kind and Star Wars were released and ignited an intense community interest in UFOs and the potential for extraterrestrial life.
Richard Valentich said he saw Star Wars with his brother but Frederick had what was, during the period, just a normal level of interest in UFOs.
BASI documents state Frederick – who was a member of an RAAF cadet program and had wanted to be an air force radio technician – was a “firm believer in UFOs” and that his mother had reported seeing one earlier in 1978.
“His (Valentich’s) belief had been strengthened recently when he was allowed to see the RAAF’s confidential files on UFOs at East Sale and Laverton,” BASI documents held by the National Archives show.
“He couldn’t discuss these details with his family as they were confidential.
“Frederick worried about attack from UFOs and what they could do.”
When investigators interviewed Valentich’s girlfriend, Rhonda Rushton, she told them of a conversation they had during a drive through the Dandenongs on October 15, 1978, just six days before he was last seen.
According to Ms Rushton, Valentich said: “If a UFO landed in front of me now, I would go in it, but never without you.”
Another twist in the case, identified in a Dot report, states Valentich told Ms Rushton he planned to meet her at 7.30pm on the evening of his flight to King Island.
Given his takeoff at 6.19pm, it was a time “he could not possibly keep,” the report states.
The Dot reports state Valentich gave two different reasons for taking his first night flight over water to King Island; telling family he was picking up crayfish but informing Moorabbin control he was collecting passengers.
But there was no crayfish at King Island at the time and no one identified as waiting for him.
Valentich had appropriate clearance and experience to undertake the solo night flight, but had struggled progressing towards his full commercial pilot’s licence.
Although he was only one subject away from obtaining that goal, he had twice failed five CPL subjects and received a counselling letter from authorities after straying into controlled airspace in Sydney.
Researcher Keith Basterfield, who uncovered previously unpublished investigation files in the national archives in 2012, said the case attracted endless speculation but he added:
“I think that we may never know what actually happened that night.”
While many have faced ridicule for their consideration of a UFO theory, a number of rational minds have pursued the case with objectivity.
The late Paul Norman, of the Victorian UFO Research Society, spent years interviewing people and investigating the case.
He chronicled three witnesses who each claim they saw an aeroplane descending at a steep angle with a much larger object with green lights flying just above it.
Based on the trajectory, Mr Norman concluded the Cessna crashed into the sea southeast of Cape Marengo between 5km and 20km offshore.
“The nature of the large object with green lights that accompanied the aeroplane during its steep descent remains to be identified,” he wrote.
Richard Valentich, his mother Alberta and his sister still visit their memorial to a long-lost brother and son at Cape Otway most years.
They stand on the cliff, look out across the sea and wonder.
Is Stephen Hawking right about aliens?
Stephen Hawking thinks that making contact with aliens would be a very bad idea indeed. But with new, massive telescopes, we humans are stepping up the search. Have we really thought this through?
In February 2008, Nasa sent the Beatles song, Across the Universe, across the universe. Pointing the telescopes in its Deep Space Network towards the north star, Polaris, astronomers played out their short cosmic DJ set, hoping that it might be heard by intelligent aliens during its 430-year journey to the star.
The hunt for intelligent species outside Earth may be a staple of literature and film – but it is happening in real life, too. Nasa probes are on the lookout for planets outside our solar system, and astronomers are carefully listening for any messages being beamed through space. How awe-inspiring it would be to get confirmation that we are not alone in the universe, to finally speak to an alien race. Wouldn’t it?
Well no, according to the eminent physicist Stephen Hawking. “If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn’t turn out well for the Native Americans,” Hawking has said in a forthcoming documentary made for the Discovery Channel. He argues that, instead of trying to find and communicate with life in the cosmos, humans would be better off doing everything they can to avoid contact.
Hawking believes that, based on the sheer number of planets that scientists know must exist, we are not the only life-form in the universe. There are, after all, billions and billions of stars in our galaxy alone, with, it is reasonable to expect, an even greater number of planets orbiting them. And it is not unreasonable to expect some of that alien life to be intelligent, and capable of interstellar communication. So, when someone with Hawking’s knowledge of the universe advises against contact, it’s worth listening, isn’t it?
Seth Shostak, a senior astronomer at the Seti Institute in California, the world’s leading organisation searching for telltale alien signals, is not so sure. “This is an unwarranted fear,” Shostak says. “If their interest in our planet is for something valuable that our planet has to offer, there’s no particular reason to worry about them now. If they’re interested in resources, they have ways of finding rocky planets that don’t depend on whether we broadcast or not. They could have found us a billion years ago.”
If we were really worried about shouting in the stellar jungle, Shostak says, the first thing to do would be to shut down the BBC, NBC, CBS and the radars at all airports. Those broadcasts have been streaming into space for years – the oldest is already more than 80 light years from Earth – so it is already too late to stop passing aliens watching every episode of Big Brother or What Katie and Peter Did Next.
The biggest and most active hunt for life outside Earth started in 1960, when Frank Drake pointed the Green Bank radio telescope in West Virginia towards the star Tau Ceti. He was looking for anomalous radio signals that could have been sent by intelligent life. Eventually, his idea turned into Seti (standing for Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence), which used the downtime on radar telescopes around the world to scour the sky for any signals. For 50 years, however, the sky has been silent.
There are lots of practical problems involved in hunting for aliens, of course, chief among them being distance. If our nearest neighbours were life-forms on the (fictional) forest moon of Endor, 1,000 light years away, it would take a millennium for us to receive any message they might send. If the Endorians were watching us, the light reaching them from Earth at this very moment would show them our planet as it was 1,000 years ago; in Europe that means lots of fighting between knights around castles and, in north America, small bands of natives living on the great plains. It is not a timescale that allows for quick banter – and, anyway, they might not be communicating in our direction.
The lack of a signal from ET has not, however, prevented astronomers and biologists (not to mention film-makers) coming up with a whole range of ideas about what aliens might be like. In the early days of Seti, astronomers focused on the search for planets like ours – the idea being that, since the only biology we know about is our own, we might as well assume aliens are going to be something like us. But there’s no reason why that should be true. You don’t even need to step off the Earth to find life that is radically different from our common experience of it.
“Extremophiles” are species that can survive in places that would quickly kill humans and other “normal” life-forms. These single-celled creatures have been found in boiling hot vents of water thrusting through the ocean floor, or at temperatures well below the freezing point of water. The front ends of some creatures that live near deep-sea vents are 200C warmer than their back ends.
“In our naive and parochial way, we have named these things extremophiles, which shows prejudice – we’re normal, everything else is extreme,” says Ian Stewart, a mathematician at Warwick University and author of What Does A Martian Look Like? “From the point of view of a creature that lives in boiling water, we’re extreme because we live in much milder temperatures. We’re at least as extreme compared to them as they are compared to us.”
On Earth, life exists in water and on land but, on a giant gas planet, for example, it might exist high in the atmosphere, trapping nutrients from the air swirling around it. And given that aliens may be so out of our experience, guessing motives and intentions if they ever got in touch seems beyond the realm’s even of Hawking’s mind.
Paul Davies, an astrophysicist at Arizona State University and chair of Seti’s post-detection taskforce, argues that alien brains, with their different architecture, would interpret information very differently from ours. What we think of as beautiful or friendly might come across as violent to them, or vice versa. “Lots of people think that because they would be so wise and knowledgeable, they would be peaceful,” adds Stewart. “I don’t think you can assume that. I don’t think you can put human views on to them; that’s a dangerous way of thinking. Aliens are alien. If they exist at all, we cannot assume they’re like us.”
Answers to some of these conundrums will begin to emerge in the next few decades. The researchers at the forefront of the work are astrobiologists, working in an area that has steadily marched in from the fringes of science thanks to the improvements in technology available to explore space.
Scientists discovered the first few extrasolar planets in the early 1990s and, ever since, the numbers have shot up. Today, scientists know of 443 planets orbiting around more than 350 stars. Most are gas giants in the mould of Jupiter, the smallest being Gliese 581, which has a mass of 1.9 Earths. In 2009, Nasa launched the Kepler satellite, a probe specifically designed to look for Earth-like planets.
Future generations of ground-based telescopes, such as the proposed European Extremely Large Telescope (with a 30m main mirror), could be operational by 2030, and would be powerful enough to image the atmospheres of faraway planets, looking for chemical signatures that could indicate life. The Seti Institute also, finally, has a serious piece of kit under construction: the Allen Array (funded by a $11.5m/£7.5m donation from Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen) has, at present, 42 radio antennae, each six metres in diameter, but there are plans, if the Seti Institute can raise another $35m, to have up to 300 radio dishes.
In all the years that Seti has been running, it has managed to look carefully at less than 1,000 star systems. With the full Allen Array, they could look at 1,000 star systems in a couple of years.
Shostak is confident that, as telescope technology keeps improving, Seti will find an ET signal within the next two decades. “We will have looked at another million star systems in two dozen years. If this is going to work, it will work soon.”
And what happens if and when we detect a signal? “My strenuous advice will be that the coordinates of the transmitting entity should be kept confidential, until the world community has had a chance to evaluate what it’s dealing with,” Davies told the Guardian recently. “We don’t want anybody just turning a radio telescope on the sky and sending their own messages to the source.”
But his colleague, Shostak, says we should have no such concerns. “You’ll have told the astronomical community – that’s thousands of people. Are you going to ask them all not to tell anybody where you’re pointing your antenna? There’s no way you could do that.
“And anyway, why wouldn’t you tell them where [the alien lifeform] is? Are you afraid people will broadcast their own message? They might do that but, remember, The Gong Show has already been broadcast for years.” And, for that matter, the Beatles.
The Truth about Those “Alien Alloys” in The New York Times UFO Story
Is the government really stockpiling materials in a Nevada building that scientists cannot identify?
What to make of a Las Vegas building full of unidentified alloys?
The New York Times published a stunning story (Dec. 16) revealing that the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) had, between 2007 and 2012, funded a $22 million program for investigating UFOs. The story included three revelations that were tailored to blow readers’ minds:
1. Many high-ranking people in the federal government believe aliens have visited planet Earth.
2. Military pilots have recorded videos of UFOs with capabilities that seem to outstrip all known human aircraft, changing direction and accelerating in ways no fighter jet or helicopter could ever accomplish.
3. In a group of buildings in Las Vegas, the government stockpiles alloys and other materials believed to be associated with UFOs.
Points one and two are weird, but not all that compelling on their own: The world already knew that plenty of smart folks believe in alien visitors, and that pilots sometimes encounter strange phenomena in the upper atmosphere – phenomena explained by entities other than space aliens, such as a weather balloon, a rocket launch or even a solar eruption.
Point No. 3, though – those buildings full of alloys and other materials – that’s a little harder to hand wave away. Is there really a DOD cache full of materials from out of this world?
One of the authors of the Times report, Ralph Blumenthal, had this to say on MSNBC about the alloys: “They have, as we reported in the paper, some material from these objects that is being studied so that scientists can find what accounts for their amazing properties, this technology of these objects, whatever they are.” When asked what the materials were, Blumenthal responded, “They don’t know. They’re studying it, but it’s some kind of compound that they don’t recognize.”
Here’s the thing, though: The chemists and metallurgists Live Science spoke to – experts in identifying unusual alloys – don’t buy it.
“I don’t think it’s plausible that there’s any alloys that we can’t identify,” Richard Sachleben, a retired chemist and member of the American Chemical Society’s panel of experts, told Live Science. “My opinion? That’s quite impossible.”
Alloys are mixtures of different kinds of elemental metals. They’re very common – in fact, Sachleben said, they’re more common on Earth than pure elemental metals are – and very well understood. Brass is an alloy. So is steel. Even most naturally occurring gold on Earth is an alloy made up of elemental gold mixed with other metals, like silver or copper. [8 Important Elements You’ve Never Heard Of]
“There are databases of all known phases [of metal], including alloys,” May Nyman, a professor in the Oregon State University Department of Chemistry, told Live Science. Those databases include straightforward techniques for identifying metal alloys.
If an unknown alloy appeared, Nyman said it would be relatively simple to figure out what it was made of.
For crystalline alloys – those in which the mixture of atoms forms an ordered structure – researchers use a technique called X-ray diffraction, Nyman said.
“The X-ray’s wavelength is about the same size as the distance between the atoms [of crystalline alloys],” Nyman said, “so that means when the X-rays go into a well-ordered material, they diffract [change shape and intensity] – and from that diffraction [pattern] you can get information that tells you the distance between the atoms, what the atoms are, and how well-ordered the atoms are. It tells you all about the arrangement of your atoms.”
With noncrystalline, amorphous alloys, the process is a bit different, but not by much.
“These are all very standard techniques in research labs, so if we had such mysterious metals, you could take it to any university where research is done, and they could tell you what are the elements and something about the crystalline phase within a few hours,” Nyman said.
“There are no alloys that are sitting in some warehouse that we cannot figure out what they are. In fact, it’s pretty simple, and any reasonably good metallurgical grad student can do it for you,” he said.
Nyman said that if metals did fall from some mysterious aircraft, some forensics experiments would quickly answer a lot of questions about that aircraft. [UFO Mysteries: These Sightings Have Never Been Solved]
“How has the hunk of metal changed?” Nyman said. “From my scientist’s perspective, that’s the kind of question I’d be asking. Maybe, if it has to do with world politics, and we want to know where the metal comes from, maybe there’s some analysis that can lead you to where it was mined, or what country uses that particular alloy, that kind of thing.”
If the aircraft had come from space, Nyman said, that travel would leave telltale signs in the metal as well, in the form of spacefaring debris and ionization (changes to the electrical charges of the substance’s atoms).
Even if a chunk of alloy that hadn’t been seen before did fall to Earth from outer space, both Nyman and Sachleben agreed that it wouldn’t necessarily have come from an alien craft. In fact, Sachleben said, alloys strike the planet regularly – space-traversing alloys like those found in fairly common nickel-iron meteorites – leaving behind telltale signs. The meteor that wiped out the dinosaurs was even identified by the rare-Earth metals it left behind in certain geological formations in Earth’s crust.
It’s important to point out that while Blumenthal did go on cable news and say the alloys were unidentifiable mysteries, helping to spur speculation, that’s not what his article actually stated. Here’s the full quote from Saturday’s piece:
“The company [involved in the DOD research] modified buildings in Las Vegas for the storage of metal alloys and other materials that … program contractors said had been recovered from unidentified aerial phenomena. Researchers also studied people who said they had experienced physical effects from encounters with the objects and examined them for any physiological changes. In addition, researchers spoke to military service members who had reported sightings of strange aircraft.”
From this statement, there’s no actual sign that there’s anything unusual about the alloys themselves. All the Times wrote was that the DOD researchers tasked with finding weird UFO stuff collected some metal, interviewed some people who had claimed startling experiences with it, and decided that it was UFO-related.
In an email to Live Science regarding these metal alloys, Blumenthal said, “We printed as much as we were able to verify. Can’t go beyond that.”
As for whether there’s an explanation at least for the metals themselves, Sachleben said: “There’s not as many mysteries in science as people like to think. It’s not like we know everything – we don’t know everything. But most things we know enough about to know what we don’t know.”
Also published on Medium.
Astronaut Buzz Aldrin Passes Lie Detector Test About Alien Encounter
Aldrin reportedly passed the lie detector test during his recollection of his close encounter with alien life during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission to the moon.
He was part of the test that also analyzed interviews from astronauts Al Worden, Edgar Mitchell and Gordon Cooper.
Experts said their results prove they were ‘completely convinced’ that their claims of alien life were genuine.
Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin has reportedly passed a lie detector test after recalling his apparent encounter with alien life during the historic 1969 mission to the moon.
Aldrin, 88, was a part of the test that also analyzed interviews from astronauts Al Worden, Edgar Mitchell and Gordon Cooper.
Recorded interviews of the astronauts were tested using the latest technology at the Institute of BioAcoustic Biology in Albany, Ohio.
Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin (right) has reportedly passed a lie detector test after recalling his apparent encounter with alien life during the 1969 mission to the moon. Pictured are Neil Armstrong (left) and Michael Collins (center)
Aldrin (left on the moon and right in 2018), 88, participated in the test along with astronauts Al Worden, Edgar Mitchell and Gordon Cooper
Experts claim their results prove they were ‘completely convinced’ that their claims of aliens were genuine, according to the Daily Star.
Aldrin has always maintained he spotted a UFO on the way to the moon.
‘There was something out there that was close enough to be observed, sort of L-shaped,’ Aldrin, who is the second human to set foot on the moon, recalled.
The Institute of BioAcoustic Biology conducted an analysis of the astronauts’ voice patterns as they spoke about their encounters.
BioAcoustic’s Sharry Edwards told the Daily Star that their tests revealed Aldrin is sure he saw the UFO even though his logical mind ‘cannot explain it’.
Last year, Apollo 15 pilot Al Worden, 86, told Good Morning Britain that he saw extra-terrestrials during his mission.
The Institute of BioAcoustic Biology conducted an analysis of the astronauts’ voice patterns as they spoke about their encounters. Last year, Apollo 15 pilot Al Worden (right), 86, said he saw aliens during his mission. Pictured are Edgar Mitchell (center) and Gordon Cooper (left)
Experts claim their results prove they were ‘completely convinced’ that signs of alien life they claimed to have witnessed were genuine. Al Worden is pictured (center) next to astronauts David Scott (left) and James Irwin (right)
Voice recordings of NASA astronauts Edgar Mitchell and Gordon Cooper, who are both deceased, were also analyzed.
In a 2009 interview, Mitchell, who was a part of the Apollo 14 mission, claimed he saw multiple UFOs.
Cooper had previously described trying to chase a cluster of objects.
According to the Daily Star, the tests revealed that Cooper and Mitchell believed they were telling the truth.
The technology is still top-secret, but it has been claimed that these tests are more reliable than current lie detector tests.
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