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Tiny 20-million-year-old skull sheds new light on evolution of human brain

New study shows the internal structures of primate brains may not have grown proportionately larger as brain size evolved

A tiny 20-million-year-old skull has shed new light on the mystery of brain evolution in primates, including humans.

It has long been thought that the brain size of anthropoid primates – a group of modern and extinct monkeys, humans, and their nearest kin – progressively increased over time.

But research on one of the oldest and most complete fossil primate skulls from South America indicates enlargement occurred repeatedly and independently, with occasional decreases in size.

The study, published in the journal Science Advances, involved a detailed study of a 20-million-year-old anthropoid fossil discovered high in the Andes mountains of Chile.

It is the only known specimen of Chilecebus carrascoensis.

An exceptional fossil skull of Chilecebus carrascoensis, a 20-million-year-old primate from the Andes mountains of Chile. (Image: AMNH/N. Wong and M. Ellison)

Lead author Xijun Ni, a research associate at American Museum of Natural History, said: “Human beings have exceptionally enlarged brains, but we know very little about how far back this key trait started to develop.”

Previous research provided a rough idea of the animal’s encephalisation, or the brain size relative to body size.

A high encephalisation quotient (EQ) signifies a large brain for an animal of a given body size.

Most primates have high EQs relative to other mammals, although some primates, especially humans and their closest relatives, have even higher EQs than others.

The resulting phylogenetic encephalisation quotient (PEQ), to correct for the effects of close evolutionary relationships, for Chilecebus is relatively small, at 0.79.

Most living monkeys have PEQs ranging from 0.86 to 3.39, with humans coming in at an 13.46.

This illustration compares the brain sizes of a variety of primates, including humans (top left) and the fossil Chilecebus (bottom middle). (Image: Xiaocong Guo/Xijun Ni)

Using this, the researchers confirmed that cerebral enlargement occurred repeatedly and independently in anthropoid evolution, with occasional decreases in size.

For the first time, researchers used scanning and digital reconstruction methods to analyse the fossilised cranial cavity of Chilecebus.

Their results revealed an intricate brain structure with unexpected proportions, and hint that the internal structures of primate brains may not have grown proportionately larger as brain size evolved.

The researchers also measured the eye socket of the skull and the opening to the optic canal, where the optic nerve would have been located.

The size of the olfactory bulb, a structure involved in sense of smell, was measured too.

Although the olfactory bulb was proportionately small, suggesting poor sense of smell, the researchers were surprised to find this weaker sensibility was not offset with an enhanced visual system, as seen in primates today.

This finding provides some of the first clear evidence that the visual and olfactory systems were decoupled during anthropoid brain evolution, the authors say.

John Flynn, the museum’s Frick curator of fossil mammals, said: “Chilecebus is one of those rare and truly spectacular fossils, revealing new insights and surprising conclusions every time new analytical methods are applied to studying it.”

Source www.mirror.co.uk

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Ancient

Egyptian Alien Artifacts from Jerusalem at the Rockefeller Museum (Video)

Unimaginable what was found in Egypt, but hitherto hidden from the public! Valuable alien artifacts have been found as early as 2015 in Sir William Petrie’s former home in Jerusalem. They are said to have been withheld by representatives of the Rockefeller Museum shortly after their discovery became known.

Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie was indeed a well-known Egyptologist and died on July 28, 1942 in Jerusalem. That would mean that the hiding place behind the book wall in Petrie’s library was not discovered for 72 years.

Sir William was known for his numerous discoveries as one of the most successful archaeologists in history. His collection is now in the Petrie Museum in London.

If true, these artifacts could prove a direct relationship between the ancient Egyptians and an extraterrestrial civilization.

There are to be two little skeletons of these things, which do not seem to come from humans, with their comparatively large, elongated skulls, oversized eye sockets, and small, thin arms and legs.

A particularly interesting artifact is a circular device of unknown origin and function labeled with hieroglyphics, which was found next to the remains of the human body.

Also fascinating is a carved in stone head of a so-called Gray Aliens, which attracts attention with its big eyes in relation to the facial skull.

This creature is depicted with an Egyptian headgear adorned with images that seem to have addressed the encounter of humans with extraterrestrials.

(Possible representation of a UFO)
(Especially fascinating is a carved in stone head of a so-called Gray-aliens, which is noticeable by his big eyes in relation to the facial skull)

According to the report, a kind of “extraterrestrial device” was found in the other objects, which gives the appearance of a very advanced device of a fine mechanical nature. It is almost entirely made of gold, is shaped like a plate and should also have a “transparent” surface.

Opening this device revealed a complicated mechanism characterized by a gold spiral hose with several small golden balls and crosses attached to it.

The mystery is further reinforced by the fact that on the outer edge of the disc inexplicable symbols were engraved, which definitely can not be assigned to any known alphabet and also bears no resemblance to expected Egyptian hieroglyphics.

It is still unclear why Petrie did not present his findings and extraordinary findings to the general public during his lifetime. Unfortunately, the enigmatic relics were sang immediately after becoming known by employees of the “Rockefeller Museum” and received unimpeded.

The “hand-picked” finds of Petrie have been released and are now visible to the public in the “Petrie Museum” in Camden London.

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The Machines Of The Gods: Robots In Ancient Times?

Were there robots with artificial intelligence in ancient times? Are myths and legends about mysterious android machines just a product of human imagination? In this article we will briefly review the ancestral mythology from a technological point of view and in light of the ancient astronaut’s hypothesis.

Robots In Ancient Times

Historians usually trace the idea of ​​automatons to the Middle Ages, when the first automatic movement devices were invented, but the concept of real and artificial creatures dates back to the myths and legends of thousands of years ago.

Ancient Greece

Artificial intelligence, robots and objects that move by themselves appear in the work of the ancient Greek poets Hesiod and Homer, who lived between 750 and 650 years before Christ.

For example, the story of Talos, first mentioned around 700 BC by Hesiod, offers what could be described as the conception of a robot.

The myth describes Talos as a giant bronze man built by Hephaestus, the Greek god of invention and blacksmithing. Talos was commissioned by Zeus, the king of the Greek gods, to protect the island of Crete from invaders. He marched around the island three times a day and threw stones at the approaching enemy ships.

At its core, the giant had a tube that ran from his head to one of his feet that carried a mysterious source of life of the gods that the Greeks called icor . Another ancient text, Argonautica , dating from the third century BC, describes how the sorceress Medea defeated Talos by removing a bolt on her ankle and letting the ichor fluid out.

Robots In Ancient Times

Medea and Talos.

Pandora’s myth, first described in Hesiod’s Theogony , is another example of an “artificial being.” Although many later versions of the story portray Pandora as an innocent woman who, unknowingly, opened a box of evil, Hesiod’s original describes Pandora as an artificial evil woman built by Hephaestus and sent to Earth by order of Zeus to “Punish humans” for discovering fire.

In addition to creating Talos and Pandora, the mythical Hephaestus made other objects that moved by themselves, including a set of automatic servants, who looked like women but were made of gold. According to Homer’s account of the myth, Hephaestus gave these artificial women “the knowledge of the gods” (artificial intelligence ?!).

Ancient china

It is said that Chi You had a human body, four eyes and six legs. As if it were an antenna, a bump was coming out of his head. According to the book Shuyiji (述 異 記), his eighty-eight brothers had the same animal form, but with a bronze and iron head. Everyone “fed” with rocks and sand.

Chi You was executed by the mythical yellow emperor Huangdi, after an epic battle involving a dragon, magical powers and “storm rays” as weapons. His head was buried by his followers in a cave, where he was worshipped by locals. His grave radiated a red cloud from time to time.

Robots In Ancient Times

Chi You representation.

Emperor Huangdi, on the other hand, legends grant properties such as being immortal, the god of Kunlun Mountain and the center of the Earth. He had a winged dragon named Huang Ti, whose body shone like metal. But despite having wings, this dragon could only fly with the right weather conditions. Legend has it, for example, that one day the emperor climbed “aboard” the creature, but it failed to take off due to a hurricane – a very strange circumstance considering that dragons were considered protectors of rain and rain. wind-.

Robots In Ancient Times

The “anomaly” described in the previous paragraph can be understood under the technological vision, which would look at the “dragon” as some kind of prototype flying machine. According to ancient accounts, this “dragon” could carry up to seventy passengers in their “moustaches.”

Ancient Sumeria

This is probably the most remote and distant mention of Robots In Ancient Times. And if we go back to the farthest past, Sumeria and the Gilgamesh Epic inevitably arise .

Gilgamesh was a semi-divine king of Uruk. He was considered “two-thirds divine and a human tecius,” something that did not assure him of immortality, so, in the face of uncertainty, he decided to seek it for himself.

Luckily, Enkidu, a former rival turned friend, knew how to get to the secret abode of the gods. Enkidu told Gilgamesh that he had wandered for a while on the mountain of cedars and knew the underground entrance that led to the residence of the god Shamash. But he warned him of the danger of getting there.

A sinister monster guarded the entrance of the gods. His name was Huwawa, “the guardian of Shamash’s entrance.”

Ancient times

Huwawa representation.

This is how Enkidu described the monster or Robots In Ancient Times: “Huwawa is an extraordinarily constructed machine. Its roar is like a flood, its mouth is fire, its breath is death … You can hear a cow moving at sixty leagues and its net can capture from a great distance … Weakness takes hold of those who approach the forest doors » .

Enkidu describes what we could now consider as a kind of robot, with radar systems and equipped with weapons that throw fire, radioactive gases, and paralyzing magnetic fields.

Far from being scared, Gilgamesh would ask his friend to accompany him to fight together and stand before the secret abode of the gods, and thus claim the legitimate immortality he believed belonged to him for having divine blood.

After traveling a long distance to the west and entering the forest, Enkidu managed to find the door, but when he tried to open it an invisible force shook him a violent discharge that made him fly through the air, something that physically paralyzed him for twelve days .

When he finally recovered, he tried to convince Gilgamesh to return, but it was in vain. The monarch was determined to find immortality, so he went ahead and found an entrance tunnel. When they began to remove trees and stones to access inside, the monster Huwawa appeared.

«His appearance was powerful. His teeth were like those of a dragon, his face like that of a lion, but the most fearsome was his radiant ray, emanating from his forehead, devouring trees and bushes, from his murderous force no one could escape.

Huwawa drew a path of destruction with his killer beam, so it could be a sort of long-range laser beam.

However, and already fearing the worst of the finals, the heroes received help from above. The god Shamash, aboard his flying ship, “lifted a wind” that reached the eyes of the monster and paralyzed him. Moment that Gilgamesh took the opportunity to bring Huwawa to the ground. “Cedars resounded for two leagues, so heavy was the fall of the monster.”

Finally, Enkidu gave the coup de grace to Huwawa.

Sources:

Gods and Robots: Myths, Machines, and Ancient Dreams of Technology (2019), by Adrienne Mayor.

ChinaKnowledge.de – An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art .

The Anunnaki: Creators of Humanity (2012), by David Parcerisa.

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Alien Technology And Out Of Place Artifacts

Sometimes archaeological artifacts appear to be chronologically out of place. An example of an out of place artifact (OOPART) might be a bullet hole in a Tyrannosaurus Rex skull.

Out of place artifacts (OOPARTs) sometimes appear unexpectedly among ancient ruins when there is no evidence of their development in older layers. It’s led some researchers to suggest that aliens once visited ancient civilizations and left evidence of advanced technologies in periods where human technology had not yet evolved to the point of inventing the devices itself.

Ancient Alien Theory

In his book, Chariots of the Gods, Erich von Daniken laid the foundation for his controversial theory about ancient aliens. He suggested that alien lifeforms came to earth from other planets in the ancient past of humanity.

The aliens gave mankind the means to develop more technologically advanced civilizations, and the earliest humans believed that the aliens were gods from the sky.

Ancient aliens

Almost every civilization on this planet has similar tales about encounters with the alien gods. According to von Daniken, the fact that these stories and myths are similar globally may support the ancient alien theory.

Adolf Hitler was especially interested in exploring ancient Nordic mythology in his effort to create a German ideology about alien visitors coming to earth in UFOs and grooming the white Aryan race to become the true ancestors of the Germanic peoples.

Pseudoarchaeology and Nazi Germany

After WWI, Hitler’s Nazi party used archaeology to brainwash the public for the Nazi political and nationalist agenda. The Germans, as a whole, were largely ignorant of their cultural roots, and Hitler used this to his advantage.

He assigned various Nazi leaders, such as Heinrich Himmler and a select group of German scholars and archaeologists, to research the German roots in antiquity. He wanted to find proof that the Germans were descended from a white Aryan race which had fled to northern Europe when Atlantis was destroyed. If he couldn’t find the evidence, he made it up.

Hitler aliens

Thus the Nazi regime developed its own brand of pseudoarchaeology or false archaeology for political propaganda use. In their search into prehistoric Nordic mythology, Nazi researchers spread out and combed the world in search of supporting data that ancient aliens were the core of the German heritage in establishing the Aryan blonde, blue-eyed master race that ultimately became the root of all advanced human culture.

Teams of archaeologists from the Ahnenerbe, Nazi Germany’s center of archaeology and research, investigated areas of Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, the Far East, Tibet, Iceland and even Antarctica.

A total of 18 Nazi research expeditions yielded no real evidence that prehistoric Germans once ruled the world, and their work degenerated into occult studies and mysticism. However they did discover some OOPARTs of interest to the rest of the world.

The Baghdad Battery

In 1936, near the village of Khuyut Rabboua in Iraq, archaeologists discovered about a dozen curious devices which were dated to the Parthian era (250 BCE to 225 CE).

Each was a five inch tall terracotta jar with a 1.5 inch wide mouth. It contained a copper cylinder enclosing but not touching an iron bar. At the top of the jar, asphalt plugs separate the iron rod from the copper.

In 1938, the German Director of the National Museum of Iraq, Wilhelm Koenig examined one of the artifacts and speculated that it might have been a galvanic cell or a battery. He proposed that it might have been used to electroplate gold onto silver objects.

Later, researchers tested the batteries with grape juice and lemon juice as electrolytes to activate the electrochemical reaction between the iron and the copper. They discovered that the “battery” did produce a weak voltage. When hooked up in series, the devices produced an increased voltage.

This discovery begs several questions:

– How did the ancients of Mesopotamia learn about this mechanism?
– Did ancient aliens show humans how to build the devices?
– How did they use the batteries?

The Antikythera Mechanism

Archaeologists found this OOPART in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek Island of Antikythera and dated it to 150-100 BCE. X-ray analysis revealed that there are a series of 32 gears inside the object, and archaeologists think it might have been an ancient mechanical calculator or computer.

Recently researchers have discovered that the mechanism might be a type of planetarium used for navigation. It displayed the Sun’s position in the zodiac throughout the year. It also displays the phases of the moon.

Again this discovery raises the same questions as the Baghdad battery.

A Native American OOPART

The “Goddard Coin” was discovered in a Native American site in Maine and has produced controversy about its origins. In 1957, an amateur archaeologist, Guy Mellgren, discovered a silver Norwegian coin dating back to the reign of King Olaf Kyrre (1067-1093 CE). This is the only Norse pre-Columbian artifact found in the US.

There is evidence that the Goddard site was a busy Native American trading center operating from 900-600 years ago. It served traders from as far away as the area of present-day Pennsylvania, the Great Lakes and Labrador.

But there is no evidence supporting a theory that a Norse settlement existed in the vicinity. Currently archaeologists theorize that the coin was brought here from another area through trading activities.

Other OOPARTs

Out of place artifacts have been discovered in other ancient, once commercially busy areas of the world. This is true especially around the Mediterranean Sea, in areas which were, at one time, active trade centers.

Artifacts from Imperial China have been found in ancient Roman trading vessels which sank in the area. This raises the question of whether Rome once traded with China during ancient times.

Misplaced artifacts don’t necessarily imply an ancient alien astronaut intervention in the history of humanity, but the theory does add another dimension of thought to the study of ancient peoples and their archaeology.

Source: Source: Secrets of the Lost Races: New Discoveries of Advanced Technology in Ancient Civilizations by Rene Noorbergen; Teach Services; 2001

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