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The Y chromosome degrades. Will men soon disappear?

The Y chromosome degrades. Will men soon disappear? 90

Scientists have been talking for a long time about the fact that people can lose the chromosome that determines male affiliation. A recent study by biologists from Denmark and the United States reopened this topic: according to their calculations, the Y chromosome in humans could completely disappear in 4.6 million years. What will happen to men?

To begin with, a short excursion into the school biology course Most of our hereditary information is contained in the chromosomes that are in the nucleus of each cell, and a person’s sex is determined by the combination of two sex chromosomes (or gonosome).

The Y chromosome degrades. Will men soon disappear? 91

They are usually designated by the letters X and Y. This sex determination system works not only in humans, but also in the vast majority of mammals. The combination XX sets the development of the body according to the female type, XY – according to the male.

These two chromosomes are not similar to each other either in shape or in gene composition, although they were originally the same size and contained the same genes. The problem is that the Y chromosome is passed only from father to son, which means that the genes in it cannot combine, which is why negative mutations accumulate. With each generation, they are increasingly leading to the degradation of this chromosome. As biologists say, it becomes shriveled. In any case, against the background of the X chromosome.

In general, the male chromosome contains very few useful genes. The most important of them is the SRY gene, which determines the male sex of an organism and serves as a genetic “switch” for its development in the male pattern. There are also genes necessary for normal sperm formation. All the rest are genetic trash. Over the entire period of the existence of Homo sapiens, its Y chromosome has already lost 1393 of the 1438 genes originally present in it. And this process continues. Therefore, scientists have repeatedly expressed fears that the human Y chromosome may completely disappear in a few million years.

For example, Jenny Graves, a professor at Australian National University, likes to talk about it. “Men will lose completely in the battle of the sexes. The process is already running, ”she says. The researcher spends 5 million years on everything about everything. And he refers to examples from the animal kingdom.

Some species of rodents have already lost the Y chromosome: the Japanese spiny rat, the Transcaucasian mole vole, etc. And now a group of scientists from Denmark and the United States has published a new study, where an even shorter period is named: 4.6 million years. And, although the Y chromosome has developed several mechanisms that should slow down the process of its disappearance, the researchers are sure that this will not save it, although there has been a long debate about this in the scientific community. But will it save men?

The Y chromosome degrades. Will men soon disappear? 92

“It is not the first time there are reports that the Y chromosome will disappear and men will disappear with it. As a justification, they put forward the fact that once the human ancestors had two sex chromosomes of the same size, and then one of them, which determines the male sex, began to lose genes and decrease in size, – says the head of the genome analysis laboratory of the Institute of General Genetics. – Do you need to fear such prophecies? No, men shouldn’t expect tricks from the Y chromosome.

First, not every process is going in one direction all the time. For example, a child is actively growing after birth. Should we conclude from this that it will grow throughout its life and grow to such a size that it will not crawl through any door? In evolution, the decrease and increase in size is also not infinite, they have their limits. Secondly, the very presence of a separate chromosome that determines the male mole is not at all necessary in nature.

There are species in which males do not have such a chromosome, they just have one less chromosome than females. Or sex is generally not determined by chromosomes, but by external conditions. Therefore, the study of the evolutionary history of the Y-chromosome is very interesting, but does not give any frightening predictions.”

Again, some species of rodents have already gone through this scenario. They still have males and females, and the breeding method is still the same, and the SRY gene, which determines sex, simply moved to another chromosome. It is not excluded that humanity will follow the same path.


Fact or fiction

Was an Angel filmed over a house extinguished by firefighters?

Was an Angel filmed over a house extinguished by firefighters? 99

Having appeared on the network, this photo caused a lot of comments – from the fact that it really was a Guardian Angel who guarded the firefighters during work, to those who assured that all this was just an illusion, no more complicated than a cloud in the shape of a lamb.

At the end of December 2020, while extinguishing a fire in the Polish village of Maldyty, an Angel hovered over the firemen, or at least something like an Angel. This photo appeared on the Facebook page of the Maldyta fire station and generated many comments.

“This is something that was formed during the last extinguishing of the fire from the ignition of soot in the chimney in Maldyty. Write in the comments your thoughts about it,” was written under the picture on their FB page.

Poles are known to be very religious and there are plenty of people willing to comment on the picture.

Many indeed believed that the Angel oversaw the work of the firemen and, perhaps, even helped them to extinguish the fire. But there were also enough of those who believed that it was all just a random silhouette between clouds in the sky and pareidolia (illusion). The photo was taken by an unspecified person sitting in the cab of a car parked next to the burning house.

“Christians have always believed in the existence of guardian spirits. Some call them Guardian Angels. The Bible confirms their existence,” Pastor Leszek Kozheniecki told reporters, commenting on this photo.

By the way, Kozhenetskiy is a well-known Polish pastor who believes in the existence of supernatural beings.

Three years ago, he told the press that he had driven out the evil spirit that settled in his house in Turza Wielka. One of the firefighters who worked on the extinguishing of the house that night said:

“If we have this kind of protection watching over us, I am pretty calm about safety during work.”

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Fact or fiction

The skeleton of a mysterious “prehistoric beast” found in Antarctica?

The skeleton of a mysterious "prehistoric beast" found in Antarctica? 100
Photo: © Earth

Blogger MrMBB333 shared an image of a “mysterious creature.” It was discovered 80 kilometers off the coast of Antarctica in a remote region of Antarctica, according to the Sun.

According to the blogger, the pictures are screenshots from the Google Earth service, which were sent to him by his subscriber and conspiracy theorist under the nickname BONKERS.

They estimate the length of the remains at 3.6-6 meters.I don’t know if it was frozen for thousands of years or appeared recently,- the blogger said.

MrMBB333 believes the skeleton belonged to a dinosaur. He came to this conclusion by examining the front and hind limbs of the creature. His subscribers are sure that these are the remains of a seal.

The skeleton of a mysterious "prehistoric beast" found in Antarctica? 101
© Earth

A google search for seal skeleton images shows a pretty good match,- one of them wrote.

Other subscribers call the skeleton “suspicious”. They explain that “seals have no hind legs.” Another wrote that the remains belonged to an alligator or some other reptile.

In the comments, conspiracy theorists also expressed their opinion that “Antarctica is full of unexplained phenomena that may be related to ancient aliens.”

It is also believed that most of the “discoveries” made by users of Google Earth can be explained by the unusual shape of ice or other natural phenomena.

MrMBB333 uploaded his investigation video to YouTube on January 5. Since then, the video has been watched more than 200,000 times.

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Fact or fiction

150 thousand years old Metal pipes in Tibet, contradict the official history

150 thousand years old Metal pipes in Tibet, contradict the official history 102

It is said that there is a mountain in Tibet that contains a network of special formations that extend to the nearest lake. Many researchers believe that this is an artificial pipeline system. But, strangely enough, its origin dates back to the era of the Neanderthals.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

This mountain rises about 40 km from the city of Dalingha in the Tibetan Autonomous Region. It is called Baigongshan (White Mountain). In the world, it is better known for the wonderful formations that are in its heart and wide surroundings – they are called the Baigong pipes.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

This miracle has been the subject of controversial discussions for many years. Some believe they are a natural formation, but there are many who are sure that someone built them in the distant past to drain the lake. They base their arguments on research results, but there is a catch; the mysterious aqueduct should have appeared 150 thousand years ago. Traces of settlements around the mountain are not even older than 30 thousand years. So who could build metal pipes inside an uninhabited mountain?

There are three caves at the foot of Mount Baigongshan, two of them have already collapsed and are inaccessible, but the largest of them has since been the target of many tourists who come to the area.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

The cave looks like it was artificially created by someone. Visibility is enhanced by a massive pipe about forty centimeters in diameter that sticks out of the stone.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

Another apparently hollow pipe of the same diameter ran into the cave from the top of the mountain. Another one came from the bottom of the cave somewhere below.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

At the entrance to the cave, you can see several other pipes with a diameter of 10 to 40 cm. All this gives the impression of the remains of some ancient system or mechanism. About 80 meters from the cave, Lake Toson sparkles with a large number of scattered pipes on the beach.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

They stretch from east to west and have a diameter of 2 to 4.5 cm, these archaeological finds are described by the Chinese scientist Liu-Shaolin:

The unmistakable rust color indicates that they are made of metal. And their craftsmanship showcases advanced attachment techniques. Who could have built such a complex pipe system? Only one who knew well what he was doing and why.

The version that such an engineering miracle was created by the Chinese disappears immediately. The inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom could not build something like that 150 thousand years ago. As the authors of many amazing inventions, bureaucracy became one of them. Therefore, it is simply impossible to imagine that such a large-scale and, without exaggeration, a great construction project was reflected in any ancient Chinese source. Any emperor, during whose reign this happened, would make sure that his great deed was not forgotten by descendants.

Baigong tubes are another unsolved mystery in human history. This find once again refutes the facts of the official history. Where is the true and where is the misconception? Maybe there will be people among the readers who will logically explain the origin of the ancient aqueduct.

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