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Mysteries

The theory of a hollow earth, real facts

Many lovers of interesting and inexplicable phenomena are familiar with the theory of a hollow earth. The idea is based on the ancient legends of many cultures. Ancestral stories claim that there are races of people – entire civilizations – that thrive in underground cities. And I must say that the theory of a hollow Earth, if taken as reality, can explain a lot of what is happening in our world.

The Hollow Earth theory opens up the wonderful world of underground civilization

It is often said that the inhabitants of the Earth’s inner world are technologically more developed than those living on the surface. Some even believe that outlandish UFOs do not come from distant planets, but are created by advanced creatures inside the Earth.

The Hollow Earth theory asks many questions: Who are these strange creatures of the Earth’s inner world? How did they come to live on earth? And where are the entrances to their amazing underground cities? Are there real facts in the theory of a hollow earth?

Underground world of Agartha.

One of the country’s most popular names for the community of underground inhabitants is Agartha. The source of this information, apparently, is the “biography” of the Norwegian sailor named Olaf Jansen. According to Agartha – Secrets of Underground Cities, a story written by Willis Emerson explains how Jansen’s ship passed through the entrance to Earth’s interior at the North Pole.

For two years, Jansen lived with the inhabitants of the agarthian colonies. These were people 3.5 meters tall and whose world was lit by the central sun. This world is the inner continent of our planet. According to some ideas, the inhabitants of Agartha took refuge in the underworld due to numerous disasters on the surface of the Earth.

The wars of civilizations have also led to withdrawal. For example, a long Atlantean-Lemurian war. Then the use of the powerful thermonuclear weapons ultimately sunk and destroyed these two highly developed civilizations. The Sahara, Gobi, Australian outback and the United States deserts are just a few more examples of the ancient devastation from the war. Thus, shelters for people and sacred records, teachings and technologies that nurtured these ancient cultures were created in the voids of the underworld of the Earth.

According to reports of knowledgeable people, there are several entrances to the Kingdom of Agartha:

Kentucky Mammoth Cave, in the south-central part of Kentucky, Mount Shasta, California, USA (presumably, under the mountain is the agar city of Telos). Manaus, Brazil
Mato Grosso, Brazil (the city of Posid is supposedly located beneath this plain)
Iguazu Falls, on the border between Brazil and Argentina
Mount Epomeo, Italy
Himalayan mountains, Tibet (entrance to the underground city of Shonshe supposedly guarded by Hindu monks)
Mongolia (the underground city of Shingwa is supposedly located under the border between Mongolia and China)
Rama, India (under this surface city is the long-lost underground city, some claim that it is also called Rama)
Of course the great pyramid of Giza, and finally North and South Poles.

Nagi

In India, there is an ancient faith that some people still adhere to. It reports on the underground race of serpent humans living in the cities of Patal and Bhogavati. According to legend, they are at war with the great kingdom of Agartha. The Nagas, according to William Michael Mott’s Underground Inhabitants, are a powerfully advanced race with highly advanced technology. They also have contempt for the people they visit and even conduct genetic experiments.

While the entrance to the Bhogavati is somewhere in the Himalayas, believers claim that Patala can be entered through the Sheshni Well in Benares, India. Mott writes that this entrance to “Forty steps that descend into a circular hollow and end at a closed stone door covered with bas-relief cobras.
Nagas also have intimacy with water, and it is often said that the entrances to their underground palaces are hidden at the bottom of wells, deep lakes and a river.”

The ancients

In an article for Atlantis Rising entitled Hollow Earth: Myth or Reality, Brad Steiger writes about the legends of the Ancients. He talks about the ancient race that inhabited the surface world millions of years ago and then went into the voids of the inner world of the Earth. “The old, extremely smart and scientifically developed race,” writes Steiger.

Underworld Journey to the Center of the Earth, Jules Verne

They decided to structure their own environment beneath the surface of the planet and make everything necessary. The ancients are hominids, extremely long-lived and earlier than Homo Sapiens, more than a million years old.

The ancients, as a rule, are away from the life of superficial people. However, from time to time they intervene and direct the life of the outside world in the direction they need. The ancient inhabitants of the Earth often abduct human children in order to educate them and educate them as their own.

Senior race

One of the most controversial stories about the inner earth residents came from an alleged eyewitness. In 1945, Amazing Stories magazine published a story told by Richard Shaver. The author claimed that he was a guest at an underground civilization. Although few really believed this story and suspected that Shaver was a fictional character, he insisted on the veracity of his exotic story.

He claimed that the Elder Race, or Titans, came to this planet from another solar system in the prehistoric past. After living for some time on the surface, they realized that the radiation of the Sun causes them to age prematurely. That is why they were forced to flee underground, building huge underground complexes for life.

In the end, the aliens decided to look for a new home on another planet. They evacuated from Earth, leaving vast and developed underground cities inhabited by mutated creatures: malicious and good robots (demons and angels). It was with these creatures that Shaver met in his amazing adventure into the underworld of the Earth.

Hollow earth

A couple of years ago, at the Siegel readings (a conference devoted to new, including non-traditional, directions in various fields of knowledge), an elderly secret service general showed photocopies of German maps depicting continents … of the interior of the Earth.

Fact One: Folklore

The sensational statement made from the high rostrum, made those who were present to recall the diaries of the American admiral Richard Byrd (1888-1957), who claimed in his notes that he had seen holes in the Arctic and then in Antarctica through which one could get into the planet. Later, the admiral led the American squadron, which went to destroy the German underground city in Antarctica.

However, the ships of the squadron were attacked by mysterious flying disks that appeared directly from under the water.
In the holy books of the sages of Tibet, one can find a lot of evidence about the existence of the underworld of Agartha. Entrance into it was sought at the beginning of the 20th century by the special services of the USSR and Germany. But still, to talk about the theory of a hollow Earth, it is necessary, firstly, to have serious reasons not to trust the scientific idea of ​​the structure of our planet, and secondly, to have convincing facts confirming this theory.

The most amazing thing is that science has such evidence which for many years has been collecting facts testifying in favor of confirming the version of the hollow Earth.

Fact Two: Mathematical

During the conversation, the scientist first of all asked whether his interviewer knew what depth humanity was able to penetrate into the bowels of the planet today? Of course, this is known: the Earth was maximally drilled by 12,262 meters, as a result of which the Kola superdeep borewhole appeared. It turned out that the data available at that time on the structure of the mantle of the planet were largely erroneous. The theory did not coincide with practice. Modern science only suggests what exactly is under people’s feet.

The fact is that the idea of ​​the existence of a metal core in the center of the bowels of the Earth is a little over a hundred years old. At the same time, the theory of a hollow earth is several millennia old. We will not rely on legends and traditions, we turn to scientific data. The first, that the Earth was hollow inside, after lengthy calculations, was announced by the legendary astronomer Edmund Halley, the discoverer of the comet of the same name. Following him, calculations of the theory of a hollow earth were published by an 18th-century scientist, one of the founders of modern mathematics, Leonard Euler.

According to the famous mathematician, the dynamics of rotation of the planet, according to the laws of physics. proves that between the core and the mantle there is a vast hollow space. Moreover, a mathematician many years before Admiral Byrd claimed that, obviously at the poles, the planet has holes leading into its bowels. In addition, Euler believed
A similar opinion was shared by the father of the American space program Werner von Braun.

Hollow earth
Fact Three: Geographical

Any geographer who would be asked the question of whether the size of the earth is static, will answer negatively. The planet is growing. In particular, according to scientists. America is two centimeters distant from Europe every century.

At the same time, looking at the geographical map of the world, you can see that if modern continents are moved close to each other, they, as parts of the puzzle, will form a single continent. This fact clearly indicates that once the only continent of the planet was torn into pieces, which since then slowly move away from each other as the size of the planet grows. The question arises: where does matter come from for a given growth?

If, according to the German geophysicist and seismologist Emil Wiechert in 1896, the planet consists of a crust, mantle and iron core, then this question cannot be answered. The average volcanic eruption throws 600,000 tons of waste from its activity onto the surface of the planet. In this case, a simple calculation of the amount of gas. steam, magma and ash, thrown from the bowels of the Earth during its existence, will give a gigantic figure.

It would be logical to assume that the pressure in the Earth should have fallen for a long time, and the eruptions would cease, but volcanic activity continues. Therefore, according to Peter Paul, between the outer and inner shells of the planet’s crust there is a mechanism that synthesizes matter.

Many representatives of science agree with him. Today there are many scientific theories that the bowels of the planet generate matter,
In fact, this information indirectly confirms the presence in the center of the planet of the “inner sun”, about which ancient manuscripts spoke.

Fact Four: Lunar

As you know, the moon has a rather serious impact on our planet. It manifests itself in the form of ebbs and flows. lifting a wave in the oceans to seven to eight meters. At the same time, if we assume that the modern theory of the Earth’s structure is correct and the giant ocean of glowing magma really splashes under the mantle, then the Moon should influence it.

In this case, in the abyss of molten matter there must be its own ebbs and flows, because of which the surface of the planet would move daily up and down several meters, constantly bursting with emissions of magma. But in practice this does not happen. The question arises: why? The most interesting thing is that seismologists really record the ebbs and flows of magma under the mantle of the Earth, but they are insignificant and extremely uneven.

At the equator, the wave is larger, and almost attenuates towards the poles. Consequently, under the mantle of the planet is not the ocean of magma, but its relatively small layer. According to researchers, fans of the theory of a hollow earth, magma is located between the two shells of the earth in the form of a small layer. These spheres rotate relative to each other, warming up magma and forcing it to come to the surface.

At the same time, according to the analysis of mythological sources, the world of the inner Earth is a real paradise. The constant temperature there is kept at around 28 degrees, there are no natural disasters, no solar radiation. However, the inhabitants of the inner Earth do not really pity their neighbors from the outer shell of the planet, letting only the chosen ones into their world.

Hollow earth

Fifth Fact: Space

If scientists of the past are not mistaken and there are holes at the poles of the planet, then they would have long been seen from satellites. Even if such sensational discoveries as the existence of the inner Earth were kept secret, the leak should have happened sooner or later.

Indeed, among private researchers there is information that the American meteorological satellite ESSA-7 in 1968 took pictures of the North Pole of the planet with a giant hole in it. Similar images in December 2017 hit the Internet. It turns out that the American admiral Richard Byrd, who flew over the North Pole on May 9, 1926, did not fantasize on November 29, 1929. He really saw holes in the earth.

It is noteworthy that from ancient times, references to the contacts of residents of the inner and outer Earth have been preserved, in particular, the hero of Ancient Babylon Gilgamesh visited his relative Utnapishtim in the underground kingdom where his sun shines, Greek Orpheus led his wife Eurydice out of the underground kingdom, and the pharaohs of Egypt communicated with underground residents through special tunnels. Buddhists do believe that millions of people live on the back of the Earth’s shell. The Indians of both Americas are sure that they are the protectors of the inhabitants of the “inner Earth” and the guards of the entrances to the caves leading to the underworld. According to them, giants live there with a height of three to four meters, and a trip to the inner Earth takes from 13 to 15 days. Moreover, ancient maps, on which Antarctica is depicted without ice, have images of underground passages connecting in place,

Despite the enormous popularity of the theory of the hollow Earth and everything connected with it, the location of the entrance to this underworld has not been disclosed.

Of course, for some, the legend of the underworld of the Earth looks far-fetched and entertaining. However, many still believe that underground civilizations exist and are home to strange races. True, we rarely hear news about someone who goes on an expedition to look for these hidden entrances and confirm the theory of the hollow Earth with facts.

Mysteries

Starlite: a mysterious material whose recipe was taken to the grave

Enthusiasts continue to struggle with the riddle of the unique material, the creator of which died without revealing the secret recipe.

At the dawn of the 1990s, reports began to appear in the world media about the creation of a new plastic material that could withstand heating to incredible temperatures – up to those that develop during a fire or on the shell of a spacecraft when passing through the atmosphere. Such statements were very embarrassing for scientists also because the author of the find was a man without a diploma or any formal education at all – the British hairdresser Maurice Ward.

Starlite – this name was invented by the granddaughter of Maurice Ward – was repeatedly tested by NASA as a possible heat insulator, the military and large corporations looked closely at it. The author did not refuse to provide samples for research, but he kept the recipe in complete secret, not sharing it with anyone – until 2011, when Maurice died, taking this secret with him. Perhaps thanks to this twist, the plot did not disappear into oblivion along with Petrik filters and other “miracle inventions”, and the history of the mysterious Starlite continues to this day.

According to Ward himself (by the way, his personal blog and YouTube channel survived on the Internet), he was prompted to search for fire-resistant material by a television report, from which he learned that many victims of fires die from poisoning by the caustic smoke of burning plastic. Previously, the hairdresser dabbled in the search for his own shampoo recipes, but around 1986 he completely devoted himself to a new venture. Three years later, the composition was found – and, of course, it turned out to be incredibly simple and included the most common store ingredients.

It was not easy for the “genius upstart” to break through, and over the next few years he pounded the thresholds of laboratories and companies without any benefit. Fate smiled only in 1993, when a message about Starlite was published in the authoritative International Defense Review. It referred to “amazing results” from some of the independent experts who tested Starlite. According to some reports, the material did not burn at temperatures up to 10,000 ° C and was not supplied even by a high-power laser.

Moreover, in the same 1993, the incredible thermal insulation properties of Starlite were demonstrated to the public. On the Air Force show Tomorrow’s World, a chicken egg coated with a thin layer of this material was sprayed with the heat of a gas burner for several minutes, after which it was shown that it remained raw inside. It would seem that the deed is done: it remains to find out which of the industrial giants will be interested in the invention and from whom Ward will be able to get legitimate millions, if not billions of dollars for the miracle recipe. The prospects for its use in engineering and construction were discussed. In 1994, the material was tested at Boeing as an alternative to space shuttle thermal insulation ceramics.

It is worth saying that Maurice Ward has always shown a certain paranoia about the security of his invention. As far as is known, he refused any projects in which he could not maintain a controlling 51 percent. The inventor personally monitored all samples that were submitted for testing, making sure that no one had the opportunity to reconstruct the Starlite composition. Ward also did not file a patent so as not to reveal the secret formula and repeatedly announced attempts to steal. The story that took place in the late 1990s is characteristic. It is known that at this time the inventor found partners from Canada and organized a startup Starlite Safety Solutions, which presented the results of material tests to investors. However, according to those same partners, Maurice Ward turned out to be completely incapable of negotiating – “the more he was offered, the more he asked for”

On the one hand, Ward is understandable. If the author’s statements are accurate, the find could be worth billions, which no corporation likes to share. On the other hand, Starlite could well change the modern world and save many lives, and perhaps doing so was not entirely ethical. Again, if all statements about the properties of this material are true. And this is its main mystery.

Indeed, despite all the doubts of many observers, there is enough authoritative evidence in favor of Starlite every now and then. Thus, Joe Kissell, who wrote about him in 2009, received a letter from Pamela Pohling-Brown, who authored the same article in the International Defense Review. She in every possible way confirmed the reliability of the results presented then and even named the expert who conducted the testing. 

“I’m afraid the topic is somehow classified,” summed up Pauline-Brown. By the way, Ward’s former partners from Canada hinted at the same. It turns out that there is still something to hide?

Maurice Ward has repeatedly stated that, fearing theft, he never even wrote down the recipe on paper, and keeps it in his head – fortunately, it is quite simple. According to him, the secret has been entrusted to only a few closest family members – however, they have not shown much activity since the death of the inventor in 2011. In 2013, two of Ward’s daughters announced the sale of a “certain version” of Starlite to the American company Thermashield, but the third said that she had kept the “best” formula. And since then nothing has been heard about Thermashield, and the company’s website has not been revoked.

But there are plenty of hypotheses and speculations about the composition of Starlite. They find the main clues all in the same publication by Pamela Pauline-Brown, where the following was said.

 “It consists of a set of organic polymers and copolymers with organic and inorganic additives, including borates, small amounts of ceramics and other barrier ingredients, for a total of 21. Perhaps uniquely, this thermally and explosion-proof material contains up to 90 percent organic matter.”

Armed with this data, yet another “genius self-taught” reproduced the recipe. Canadian Troy Hurtubise, known for developing the bear-repelling suit – and for testing inventions on himself – said he found the same or a similar recipe and demonstrated it under the name Firepaste. However, in 2014 he died in a car accident – as if the material really surrounds the halo of special operations.

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Mysteries

Forbidden places of the world: where people are not allowed – and what does it have to do with snakes and UFOs

It’s hard to believe, but in the 21st century there are blank spots on the maps. Or is it better to call them black?

The reasons for such prohibitions are different: in these places ancient secret books and sacred artifacts are kept, poisonous snakes live there, scientific laboratories and rock paintings are hidden there, which cannot be seen by anyone.

Snake Island – Captains Bypass

Just 35 kilometers off the coast of Brazil, there is a picturesque island called Queimada Grande. Tourists often ask to stop the ship in order to get off on this piece of land drowned in lush greenery, it beckons to itself.

Snake Island

But this never happens: the captains strictly observe the prohibitions. The fact is that this piece of paradise is teeming with poisonous snakes, and a few steps on land are enough to die from a fatal bite. The authorities banned visiting this island not only for the safety of people, but also for the safety of reptiles: many snakes are rare species.

Poveglia Island – Eerie Deaths and Restless Souls

Nobody wants to get to Poveglia Island, located in Italy: this is a very dark and mysterious place. 

In the 18th century, Italy was literally mowed down by a terrible plague epidemic. In order to somehow protect people, all infected were taken to a reservation set up on Poveglia Island. More than 150 thousand patients died there.

Poveglia Island

And then, already in the twentieth century, a psychiatric hospital was built here. It was rumored that doctors carried out inhuman experiments on unhealthy people, and many Italians are convinced that the souls of thousands of those who died forever remained here, on a terrible island. 

According to research results, the soil on Povelje is 50% human remains.

Lascaux cave – people are harmful to ancient rock paintings!

In 1940, archaeologists discovered a unique cave in France, the age of which was determined to be 17 thousand years. This is the oldest known caves on the planet, and inside it is decorated with numerous rock paintings.

Lasko cave

Have you already wanted to go to France and see this miracle with your own eyes? Will not work. The cave was closed for visits and mothballed after it was discovered: under the influence of carbon dioxide, precious specimens of ancient rock art began to deteriorate quickly, they were destroyed by a fungus.

And to console the lovers of antiquities, an artificial copy was arranged nearby – Lasko-2, where exactly the same drawings flaunt on the walls.

The Vatican Library is a secret archive for a very narrow circle

In the secret library archives of the Vatican, about 45 thousand books and other documents are collected. What is not here – and letters sent to the Pope from Michelangelo, and Galileo’s manuscripts, and documents left by the ancient Order of the Templars …

No one will tell you the whole truth about the funds of this treasure. It is believed that ancient documents are hidden here, which contain information about the origin of Christianity on Earth. It is quite possible, because the first manuscripts that appeared at the disposal of the Vatican date back to the 4th century. They were collected in the archives, and centuries later, in 1475, the Vatican Apostolic Library was founded.

Who can get here? Very few people: the Pope himself and his entourage, as well as (with his written permission) some scientists and researchers.

Mormon warehouse 

Not far from the American city of Salt Lake City, Granite Mountain is located, in which a tunnel has been cut, extending almost 200 meters deep into the mountain. There, behind massive doors that weigh 15 tons, under round-the-clock armed protection, the most incredible documents are stored in a secret bunker: information about the family tree of Jesus Christ, allegedly information about his relatives and descendants … These data are very approximate, to say exactly which artifacts can be found in the Mormon vault, no one can. They say that, in addition to the secret storage, secret laboratories are equipped in the depths of the mountain. 

Spy Museum – no move to anyone but the Chinese

The Spy Museum, located in northern China, is not a forbidden place: anyone can get into it. True, only if this person is Chinese. The exposition is not intended for foreigners. There is no need for them to see all those miniature cameras, microscopic pistols and unique caches! The Chinese carefully guard their secrets.

Gold Vault in London – one-fifth of the world’s gold reserves are collected here

The vault of the UK Central Bank does hold 20% of the world’s gold reserves. It is impossible to imagine this amount of gold: there are 5,134 tons of it! If you translate that into dollars, you get almost 250 billion.

Gold vault in London

Needless to say, the bank vault is carefully guarded. Only a few can get here – authorized bank employees.

Area 51 – aliens are investigated here

In the United States, 130 kilometers from the city of Las Vegas, a military base was once built. In addition to the usual functions, it also performs research. They say that it was in the local laboratories that aliens who crashed on their own plate in the 90s were studied. True, the US officials denied these rumors, but how could one expect confirmation?

Area 51

The American government generally preferred not to mention Area 51 until recently. According to the official version, aircraft are tested here. But for some reason, access is prohibited here, and the airspace above the base and the surrounding area is closed.

Bohemian Grove – either a world conspiracy, or just a closed men’s club

This is the name of a nature reserve in a California paradise. A person “from the street” cannot get here. Bohemian Grove is a meeting place for the most influential people in the world. It periodically attracts politicians, businessmen, even some artists – from the “initiates”.

Bohemian grove

There is so much talk about this community! They talk about “world government”, about strange and terrible rituals, even about sacrifices.

And some of these legends have a foundation. There is a documentary film that was filmed by two American journalists: they managed to get into a protected grove and filmed one of the rituals during which the symbol of the club, the giant Owl, is worshiped and sacrifices are made to it. The journalists suggested that the members of the closed club belong to the Freemasons or Satanists.

However, most of their calculations are just speculation. Perhaps, in the Bohemian Grove, influential men, tired of bearing the burden of responsibility, are gathering, seeking to rest away from annoying problems? 

Metro 2 is the secret underground for the government

Did you know that there is another “floor” under the Moscow metro? It is called “Metro 2”, and this line has remained a secret for a long time. Its existence first became known from the report of the US Department of Defense, which was published in 1991.

The information was later confirmed by Vladimir Shevchenko – “a person close to the emperor”: he was the head of the protocol service during the times of Gorbachev and Yeltsin.

This classified facility was built under Stalin’s personal supervision. Some government locations are connected via Metro 2 to Vnukovo Airport. It is clear that a branch begins under the Kremlin. According to some reports, Metro 2 has several levels and reaches a depth of 250 meters.

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Mysteries

Ferry “Estonia” sank after collision with unknown object

© athanasopoulos andreas / Shutterstock

For a long time, the ferry “Estonia” was considered sank due to a strong roll and overturning, which led to the death of more than 800 people. Now it turns out that all this is a lie and the ship was destroyed from a collision with a certain object that rammed the “Estonia”, which led to the end of the ferry.

New circumstances of the sinking of the ferry “Estonia”

The team that created a documentary film about the disaster of the ferry “Estonia” for the Discovery TV channel, while diving to the remains of the ship, found a four-meter hole in the hull, which was previously partially hidden by the seabed, Postimees writes.

“It cannot be ruled out that damage played a role in the sinking,” said Jorgen Amdahl, professor of marine technology at the Norwegian University of Engineering and Science, in the new documentary series “Estonia – a find that will change everything”, which aired today on the Discovery streaming platform. in the Nordic countries. The footage of the hole in the ship’s hull was taken by a robotic diver. The find may confirm the theory that the accident was provoked not only by the tearing off of the visor: there was a hole in the ship’s hull, which accelerated the sinking of the Estonian. The authorities of the countries involved in the investigation of the disaster have previously denied this, Aftonbladet reported.

The place where the wreckage of the “Estonia” lies is clayey, so over the years the vessel has shifted, as a result of which places that were not visible before became visible, where the film crew found a hole.

The film crew began their dives at the bow, going first along the backboard, where they discovered two holes that were cut in the hull by the Norwegian diving company Rockwater in December 1994.

When moving with the underwater robot towards the starboard side in the film, you can hear journalist and director Hendrik Evertsson saying that the ship’s roll there is 130 degrees.

The camera moves on and first rests on the sand and rocks that were installed around the wreck in 1996. Then a hole in the ship’s hull is opened in front of the film crew – under the last letter of the inscription “Estline”. The crew estimated the height of the hole at four meters, and the width at 1.2 meters at its widest point.

The damage to the hull of the ferry is in the place where the cabins were on the other side of the wall. Among other things, the footage shows a hand towel sticking out of the hole.

After discussing the causes of the hole with experts, the film crew came to the conclusion that the explosion could not cause such damage in the ship’s hull. Norwegian Navy Captain Frank Burrsen, who takes part in demining operations and teaches at a naval educational institution and has studied the effects of explosives on ships, told the film crew after reviewing footage of the Estonian wreck that an explosion was unlikely there.

“It is characteristic here that it is very elongated,” he said of the hole captured on the video, and based on the drawings made. – It is clearly visible that the side of the ship is pushed inward. If you compare with the pictures of explosions, you can see from them that the metal usually bends. “

According to him, the damage to the ship’s hull creates the impression that this hole was knocked out there: “I cannot rule out an explosion. But it seems unlikely that it was. “

Experts assumed that this was an external force: a large object that crashed into the hull of the “Estonia”, punctured it and damaged the metal structural gaskets inside the ship.

The visor could not have caused the hole

According to Professor Amdahl, who focuses on investigating collisions between ships and platforms, external damage appears to be a very logical explanation for the breach.

“It seems that the paint has been peeled off, or perhaps by a body impact of one kind or another. External influence. The question one might ask ourselves is how this could have happened. What was the reason? ” – he reasons.

Amdal believes that there are many versions of how the hole originated in the ship’s hull: “Maybe it got hit by something in the water. It could also be a visor. On the visor itself, I would guess marks if it hit the side. “

But after reviewing the footage taken around the raised visor, the professor noted that there was no damage to it, which would indicate a collision with the ship’s hull.

He said that it was possible to calculate very accurately what the force would have to be to cause such damage to the hull of the ship, and on the basis of this it was possible to assume what mass the object had collided with: “This needs to be studied more carefully.

According to Amdahl’s calculations, “Estonia” was hit with a force corresponding to a mass of 500-600 tons. For comparison, he gave an example of how such an impact would have been made, for example, by a fishing boat weighing 1,000 tons, moving at a speed of four knots, or a 5,000-ton vessel at a speed of 1.9 knots.

Since no ships of this size were seen on the night of September 28, 1994, according to the professor, the only possible vessel that Estonia could collide with was a submarine, some of which weigh less than a ton, and some weigh several tons.

“It is also possible that a rock or something from the seabed hit the vessel,” he added, but the clayey seabed in the area where the ferry was destroyed speaks against this.

To find out what Estonia is facing, according to Amdal, now it is necessary to thoroughly analyze the testimony of witnesses.

Explosions after midnight

In many documentaries, the survivors of the tragedy recall that before the sinking of the “Estonia” they felt as if the ship had collided with something. “A little after midnight, two very strong bangs were heard,” Anders Erisson described what was happening in the fifth part of the documentary.

According to the recollections of Karl Erik Reintamm, it was as if a ferry was making its way through the ice.

He was one of the first passengers to be evacuated from the Estonian: “When I got off the ship, I did not see a single person. There was no one where I stood. I was one of the first. I saw nothing strange in the water, except for something white, several meters long. It went to the left, and the waves covered it. “

He cannot explain what he saw:

“I have never served in the army, I have no idea what submarines look like in the water. It was dark. I have no idea if a submarine might look lighter than water. But the ferry clearly ran into something, otherwise how else can you explain the sound that the ship is driving on ice? “

This summer, footage from the wreckage of “Estonia” showed some of the survivors of the disaster, their relatives and people associated with the investigation of the disaster, among whom were the former Estonian leading public prosecutor and member of the investigation commission for the death of “Estonia” Margus Kurm and a former member of the investigation commission. mechanical scientist Jaan Metsaveer.

It needs to be investigated

“It is not known where this hole came from,” Metsaveer said after reviewing the footage. – It really is something that arose from the outside. And they did not know about this before, this is really a discovery. Why this was not discovered earlier, I cannot say. “

Kurm, after talking with the film crew, called the findings that change the whole thing:

“I believe that after that the Estonian government will not be able to do nothing. It’s just impossible.”

In August, the footage was viewed by adviser to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Mart Luik and adviser to the Minister of Justice Kalle Muuli.

In the documentary, Luik noted that what he saw requires an investigation of the issue, since it is difficult to say at once what exactly he saw and what to think about it. “The main problem, of course, is that the three countries have agreed that they will not dive and shoot,” he added, assuring that in cooperation with experts it will be decided what steps should be taken in the future. The Swedish media reported just today, citing Estonian newspapers, that the Estonian Prime Minister had discussed the ferry issue with his Swedish counterpart Stefan Löfmen last week.

Lars Engström, a former member of the Swedish parliament and member of the Defense Commission, has long advised the government to investigate the causes of Estonia’s disaster more deeply.

“This is new information that fully confirms the widespread criticism of the flooding explanations and investigation,” he told the TT news agency. “Now the materials show, and experts saw it, that something collided with the side of the ship with a force of several thousand tons, and in this case they are talking about another ship.”

The documentary series “Estonia – a find that will change everything” was produced by Monster Discovery for Norway. Director – Hendrik Evertsson, who is accused of violating the grave because of filming near the remains of the ferry.

The ferry “Estonia” left the port of Tallinn on the evening of September 27, 1994 and headed for Stockholm, where it was supposed to arrive in the morning of the next day. There were 803 passengers and 186 crew members on board.

When the ferry entered the open sea, it was overtaken by waves of many meters, and about half the way to Stockholm, next to the island of Utö, which belongs to Finland, the “Estonia” heeled and quickly sank.

Of all those on board, only 137 people were able to escape, 852 people were killed, most of whom were trapped and drowned along with the ferry. Among the dead were 501 Swedish citizens and 285 Estonian citizens. In total, there were citizens of 17 countries on board.

According to a final report by an investigation commission convened by Estonia, Finland and Sweden, the disaster was caused by bad weather, which tore off the vessel’s visor and associated ramp, causing water to fill the car deck.

The authors of the investigation cautiously hint that the governments of Estonia and Sweden may know the truth about the ferry disaster, but for some reason they hid it all these years.

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