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The Ten Biggest Mistakes of Medicine

The Ten Biggest Mistakes of Medicine 86
© CC BY-SA 2.0, Otis Historical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicine

Heroin, mercury, blood release, and surgical procedures that turn patients into apathetic zombies. Swedish Illustrerad Vetenskap offers a peek into the terrible archive of medicine. Here are ten of the biggest mistakes doctors made from antiquity to the 20th century – and only one of them brought not suffering, but pleasure.

Take a look at the terrible archive of medicine and get acquainted with the ten most terrible medical errors in history.

10. Orgasm against female hysteria – used until 1980

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, some women suffered from “hysteria”. Doctors treated this ailment with the help of a massage apparatus, which brought them to orgasm.

However, the results were very unstable, and the treatment had to be repeated at intervals of several weeks.

9. Children became drug addicts – used until 1930

“Mrs Winslow’s Soothing Syrup” is the name given to the remedy that many parents gave their restless children in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The medicine contained morphine, which caused addiction in children, and even killed many.

8. Homosexuals were treated with electroshock – until 1992

For most of the 20th century, science has stated that homosexuality is a disease that can be cured.

Therefore, doctors subjected homosexuals to a variety of treatments from “homosexuals” and hypnosis to psychotherapy and electroshock.

7. Useful cigarettes – used until 1926

The tobacco plant was brought to Europe from America, where doctors began to praise nicotine for its medicinal properties.

Today, tobacco is considered the main cause of lung cancer.

6. Dependence on “medicinal” heroin – until 1910

In 1898, the German pharmaceutical company Bayer began selling heroin as a cough and tuberculosis drug.

The chemists of the company were sure that the new drug was not addictive.

5. Drilling holes in the skull – used to this day

From the Stone Age to the middle of the Middle Ages, ancient surgeons tried to treat such ailments as migraines by removing part of the cranial bone or making holes in the skull.

The idea was that through the hole evil spirits come out of the head. Such operations were incredibly painful, and the risk of developing the infection was very high, however, excavations indicate that surprisingly many patients survived.

In principle, trepanation is still used today, for example, in the treatment of the effects of cerebral hemorrhages.

4. Mercury as a medicine – used until the 20th century

For several thousand years, doctors have been convinced that virtually everything can be cured with mercury. The Chinese emperor Ying Zheng (259 – 210 century BC), for example, took liquid metal all his life, despite the fact that his tongue was swollen and his gums inflamed.

Today, doctors know that mercury disrupts the brain, increases blood pressure, harms digestion, causes breathing problems, and contributes to the development of depression and anxiety.

3. They bleed to death – until the 20th century

Doctors once believed that illnesses arise from an imbalance in the body’s main body fluids: blood, mucus, yellow bile, and black bile. Bloodletting was supposed to save the patient from an excess of one of the fluids, but often it ended very poorly.

One of the victims was the first US president, George Washington, who in 1799 allowed doctors to try to cure his throat infection with bloodletting.

The main task of the blood is the transportation of oxygen and nutrients to the cells. Doctors released 3.75 liters of blood from Washington (80% of the total volume), after which he became very weak and died on the same day.

2. Poor hygiene killed millions – until the 18th century

Bathing is not only unnecessary – because of it, you can also get the plague. So doctors believed in the XVI century. “Baths and baths need to be banned, because after them the skin becomes soft and the pores open. Because of this, as we could see, plague-infected dirt enters the body and causes instant death, ”said, for example, the French court physician Ambroise Paré in 1568.

Therefore, for nearly 300 years, Europeans avoided soap and water, and only in the most extreme cases, they gently washed their skin if the contamination could not be removed with a dry towel.

However, aversion to water was a catastrophic mistake.

The plague was transmitted with flea bites, namely because of the uncleanliness of people, fleas spread. During the time that doctors needed to think of something better, their delusion took millions of lives.

1. Dissection of white matter: the patient became a zombie – was used until 1983

Such an eerie treatment has never received such magnificent recognition as in 1949, when Egas Moniz was awarded the Nobel Prize for the invention of “dissection of white matter” – lobotomy. Doctors of that time believed that a lobotomy cured the mentally ill, but in fact this procedure turned them into “vegetables”.

The Portuguese neurosurgeon Egash Monish in 1935 came to the conclusion that he could make patients with psychiatric illnesses calm and obedient, cutting the nerve connections in the frontal lobes.

According to his idea, the dissection of white matter allowed to separate the thinking part of the brain from the sensory. Doctors around the world have adopted the Monish method.

One of them improved the operational method so that the procedure took only six minutes. An instrument resembling an awl was driven into the frontal lobe through the cranial bone just above the eyeball, after which the doctor moved them up and down.

Then the same thing was repeated over the other eye. At least 50 thousand people underwent lobotomy.

After this, the emotional life of the majority became very limited, because it is the frontal lobes that are responsible for the person’s personality. Many, for example, began to act like little children or suffer from dementia, if not at all, turned into real zombies.

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Bizzare & Odd

The mystery of the “Mandalorian” with a Jetpack flying behind a plane is revealed

The mystery of the “Mandalorian”    with a Jetpack flying behind a plane is revealed 95

Documents have been released revealing the secret of a man with a rocket pack who flew behind passenger planes, according to The Drive.

The owner of The Black Vault, John Greenewald, took advantage of the US Freedom of Information Act to secure the publication of material relating to the rocket pack incident. From the records of the air traffic controllers’ conversations, which he received, it follows that the man maneuvering at an altitude of about 900 meters was noticed by several pilots. At the same time, the radars did not record a single object that would correspond to their description.

It also turned out that in early September 2020, government officials contacted David Mayman, the chief tester of the California-based company Jetpack Aviation, which develops rocket packs. Meiman said that the company had not flown for several months, and questioned the existence of rocket packs that would allow them to climb and hold at an altitude of 900 meters.

Another letter provided to Greenwald mentions that the FBI interrogated an American Airlines pilot who spoke of a man with a jetpack. During the conversation, he confirmed that the figure he noticed resembled a drone in the form of a man from a video filmed at the German Aircraft Modeling Festival in 2019.

This is a radio-controlled drone that was built by model aircraft designer Ralph Kayser. It resembles a life-size human figure, but weighs less than five kilograms. The Rotor Drone Pro website wrote that the device is made from a paintball suit stuffed with packing film and can stay in the air for up to eight minutes.

The incident leading to the investigation took place on August 30, 2020. According to press reports, an unidentified person with a jetpack flew approximately 270 meters from an American Airlines plane landing at the Los Angeles airport. In October, the man with the rocket pack was reported by several other pilots in southern California.

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An abnormal phenomenon on Earth captured from space: NASA and ESA have never seen such lightning

An abnormal phenomenon on Earth captured from space: NASA and ESA have never seen such lightning 96

The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) observatory has recorded five blue jets , an anomalous type of lightning that strikes from the top of a thundercloud into the stratosphere. This is reported in an article published in the journal Nature.

On January 20, a video filmed from the International Space Station was posted on the channel of the European Space Agency, which puzzled all academics who study the atmosphere and build theories about how everything works there:

The 10 microsecond jets were sighted on February 26, 2019, near Nauru Island in the Pacific Ocean. One of the lightning flashes produced a jet that reached the stratopause – the boundary between the stratosphere and the ionosphere at an altitude of about 50 to 55 kilometers. In addition to the jets, “elves” were recorded, which are expanding rings of optical and ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere, lasting no more than a millisecond.

Electrical phenomena in the upper atmosphere are poorly understood and attract a lot of attention from physicists from around the world. They are short-lived and vary greatly with altitude. 

Blue jets occur during electrical breakdown between the positively charged top of a thundercloud and the negatively charged air layer above it. As a result, a leader is formed – a conducting channel of ionized air, through which the discharge propagates. However, in this case, the radiation from the leader was weak, which indicates that the leader itself was short compared to the conductive channels of conventional lightning.

The blue jets belong to streamers – branched filaments of electrical discharges, similar to those generated by Tesla coils. In addition, blue jets are more likely to occur as a phenomenon than previously thought.

Some of the most mysterious are the “elves”. Their name comes from the abbreviation ELVES , which stands for “Emission of Light and Very Low Frequency perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources.”. These phenomena reach four hundred kilometers in diameter and occur at an altitude of about one hundred kilometers. The list of optical phenomena associated with electrical discharges in the upper atmosphere does not end there. There are also TROLL , Pixie , Ghost, and Gnome , but their nature is even less understood. 

There is nothing like this, that is, such strange huge lightning has never been observed before. Something is happening in the Earth’s atmosphere, and it started quite recently. How it will end and what will result in – we do not know, since people living today have no such experience.

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Ancient asteroid sent dinosaur bones into moon

Ancient asteroid sent dinosaur bones into moon 97

The impact of the asteroid that destroyed the dinosaurs 66 million years ago was so powerful that it sent into space huge volumes of earth’s soil and rocks from the crash site. But together with them, he could send into orbit the remains of living beings, including dinosaurs.

Such a possibility is discussed in the book “The End of the World” by the scientific journalist and winner of several awards Peter Brannen, according to the Daily Mail.

It is known that an asteroid or meteorite about 10 km in size collided with the Earth 66 million years ago, forming the Chikshulub crater on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. About 15 trillion tons of ash and soot were thrown into the air. Because of  this, during the day it was dark on Earth, like a moonlit night.

As a result of the lack of light in plants, photosynthesis slowed down, which could lead to a decrease in the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere. Temperatures on continents dropped by 28 ° C, in oceans by 11 ° C. The disappearance of phytoplankton has led to the extinction of zooplankton and other marine animals. Other species died after them. 

This is one of the largest mass extinctions in the history of the Earth, which is called the Cretaceous-Paleogene. Brannen, trying to make the numbers more descriptive, points out that the asteroid (or meteorite) was larger than Everest and crashed into the atmosphere 20 times faster than a flying bullet. At the same time, the pressure of the atmosphere was so strong that a crater in the Yucatan began to form even before the asteroid fell.

The “response” release of soil into the atmosphere occurred only within a second or two after the impact and was incredibly powerful.

“So there are probably little pieces of dinosaur bones on the moon,” Brannen suggests.

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