We all know that the Underworld is under the rule of some strong and powerful representative of the dark forces. More often he is called the Devil. Some used to believe that the Underworld is ruled by Lucifer while others believes that the king of this kingdom is Satan himself. But for many, all three of these names are identical, although in fact, we are talking about completely different characters.
Hell for humans is such a non-geographical place where everyone is just like you. The hellish state of consciousness is when any of the surrounding living beings is perceived only as a projection of our image of ourselves, as an application intended for our enjoyment, but not at all as a person with free will, not as an individual who has his own unique nature.
An unconscious person is constantly and at least in his mind “on autopilot”, but usually without knowing it, engaged in trying to remake others for himself, for his “rules of the game”, for his point of view. The hellish state of consciousness means an absolute inability to see through and accept the personality, the inner world and the individual nature of other souls as they are.
The perception of someone who is in hell is tuned in such a way that as a personality he perceives only himself, and he depersonalizes all other beings, not giving them the right to be personalities. From a hell dweller’s point of view, this is quite logical and correct, because if he begins to perceive everyone as personalities with free will, then he himself will have to get down from the illusory throne he created, on which he feels himself to be the master of this hell.
An ancient Roman deity who essentially had little influence. Lucifer was not among the supreme gods of the Romans and its counterpart Phosphorus was not part of the divine forces of Olympus. On the territory of Arabia in the pre-Islamic period, the god Attar was associated with Venus and the Germanic-Scandinavians had Aurvandil who connected the worlds. The Phoenicians, Sumerians and Akkadians revered their “Lucifer” as the supreme deity or rather, goddesses. Ishtar (Inanna, Astarte) was very powerful, strong, domineering, a true queen of her people.
Astarte was often identified with the ancient Egyptian Isis. The same mother goddess, personifying loyalty, devotion and femininity. Her cult was very developed in Egypt and Christianity had to try to defeat Isis.
In Christian mythology, the deity identifying Venus has evolved into a fallen angel. Lucifer allegedly rebelled against God and was cast to earth. After that, he led the realm of Darkness.
But let’s pay attention to the mythology of the ancient Romans. Their Lucifer didn’t fall anywhere as Isis and Phosphorus did not fall. In the myth of the appearance of Astarte, it is said that she came to earth in the form of a flaming star which collapsed on the Asia Minor coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Then, she became a great mother goddess which has been revered for thousands of years.
In The Small Key of Solomon, there is a very interesting demon named Astaroth. It is he who is apparently identical to the ancient goddess Astarte (Ishtar). However, Astaroth, being a rather powerful demon, the ruler of the Underworld, certainly a Grand Duke. He is referred to as the most benevolent demon who is engaged in teaching humanity, bringing them knowledge, as the Greek Prometheus once brought them light.
In the Middle Ages, the image of Satan was greatly distorted. He suddenly had horns, a tail and other strange parts on his body. However, it was first described by Job. His book is by the way part of the Old Testament. So, Satan is not a horned and tailed man. He was described as an angel who did not believe in the righteousness of men. All people are potential sinners and Satan is ready to test them in order to reveal this sinfulness.
If Enoch is to be believed, then we need to talk about a whole rank of angels who accuse people. These angels are in the Fifth Heaven. By the way, they were the rebels who came down to Earth to teach people.
The question is, have they fallen? Let’s remember the most famous fall, Eve and the Forbidden Fruit. There was also a Serpent who tempted her and eventually got his way. So Enoch, the antediluvian patriarch, called the culprit of the fall of the first woman one of the angels-observers. His name is Gardiel.
While in search of the king of the Underworld, you can begin to list all the angels-accusers. You can search among the fallen and discuss their possible reign and success in this hellish field in the literal sense.
One thing must be clear. Satan is completely subservient to God, even if there were some apostates who decided to go against his will. Angel-accusers do not primarily see the righteousness of people because it doesn’t exist.
But let’s at least try to consider the most ruthless and possibly cruel angel Satan. His name is Mastema and he is an angel of calamity.
The Daman Covenant describes this angel as the “father of all evils” and also calls him a flatterer of God. The prophet Hosea in his book used a term similar to the name of the angel – mastemah which translates into hostility and hatred. Also, the name of the angel comes from the word mastim – opposing.
The Book of Jubilees does not favor this angel either. He is a prince under whose leadership are the demons. When the great flood happened, Mastema turned to God. He asked to leave some of the evil creatures under his control so that with their help, he could denounce humanity. For the sons of men exude great evil.
But who are these evil beings? The Christian tradition understands the pagan deities under “evil creatures” which corrupted the human race.
Even if Mastema is not the king of the Underworld, he is quite suitable for the role of the very Satan that many are so afraid of.
The Old Testament calls him the main evil and Satanists consider him to be the personification of the original nature of mankind. In general, it is necessary to develop to become civilized and bring good.
The devil is a collective image appearing as a separate character who commands the forces of evil, demons and devils. Every opponent of Christianity is already the devil, take Cernunnos for example. He was the oldest deity of the Celts who actually became the prototype of the Devil. In general, all horned gods became the so-called devils and the people who worshipped them were brutally murdered.
Therefore, if we proceed from the fact that the Devil is primarily an opponent of monotheism, then of course any god of antiquity can be considered him. Therefore for the Devil himself, this image is nominal. He has horns, because the horned gods were worshiped en masse and these cults were very powerful.
But who rules the Underworld? And does anyone rule it at all? After all, in “Goetia”, you can meet kings, rulers, princes and so on but there is no demon to which King Solomon would point, calling him supreme and central.
The deities of Venus, the angels-accusers and the demonized horned gods do not fall under the image of some Ruler of the Kingdom of Darkness. He is mysterious, intelligent, cruel, wise. He is the Lord of Darkness and Gloom but his or her name is hidden from us.
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