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Apocalypse & Armageddon

The Real New World Order. Bankers Taking over the World

How quickly best laid plans become passé. New world orders come, it seems, as frequently as eclipses.

The old world order (ancien régime), along with 16 million people, died during the Great European War which began on June 28, 1914 when the Austrian heir to the throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was assassinated by a Serb nationalist, Gavrilo Princip, in Sarajevo. (Today he would be called a terrorist.) This assassination sent nations that had no desire to go to war into the most destructive war the world had yet experienced.

The Real New World Order. Bankers Taking over the World

Europe at the beginning of 1914 consisted of six major empires and an assortment of minor states that the major empires didn’t care much about. The six major empires, (the Austro-Hungarian, French, German, British, Ottoman, and Russian) were ensnared in military alliances (much like the US is today) which were formed to keep the peace. The diplomats, like those today, believed that forming alliances that balanced the powers of different groups would keep them from attacking each other. The Central Powers consisted of Austro-Hungary, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire; the Triple Entente consisted of the other three. Peace, the diplomats thought was assured. What happened?

When the archduke was assassinated, the Austrians, confident in their military prowess (as Americans are today), decided to punish Serbia which was attacked on July 28. But the Serbs ambushed the Austrians at the battles of Cer and Kolubara. The Austrians were thrown back with heavy losses. Russia came to the aid of its ethnically related Serbs, and Germany invaded France through Belgium and Luxembourg. Britain came to the defense of France and the Ottoman Empire joined the war in the Balkans on the side of the Central Powers. The alliances that were to ensure the peace changed a single assassination into a massive war. When it was over, the Austro-Hungarian, the German, the Ottoman, and the Russian Empires had vanished and the United States, which joined the war late on the side of the Triple Entente had become a world player. The old world order was gone!

Woodrow Wilson, the American President, sought to create a new old world order by proposing his Fourteen Points. Wilson wanted to create separate nations out of former colonies and ensure the peace by creating a League of Nations (another peace by treaty scheme). Territorial reductions were made to Germany and Austria, a slew of new and revived nations were created in Eastern Europe, while France and Britain carved up the Ottoman Empire to suit themselves. The new old world order was just a reconfigured old world order. It didn’t last and it didn’t ensure the peace. So much for the best laid plans of diplomats.

Germany was reborn in 1933 when Adolph Hitler became Chancellor. He, too, sought to create a new world order, one dominated by a Thousand Year Reich (Empire). To that end, his policies were aimed at seizing Lebensraum (living space) for the German people by extending Germany’s borders. Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia were annexed and Poland was invaded. But alas, Poland had a mutual defense treaty (another alliance formed to ensure the peach) with Great Britain and France, so the invasion of Poland started World War II.

When it was over, Germany again was destroyed and Great Britain and France, for the most part, had had their empires diminished. The United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russia) found themselves at the top of another new old world order.

The victorious powers, the US, the USSR, China, Great Britain, and France tried again to ensure the peace by creating the United Nations which they attempted to keep firmly in their control by making themselves rulers of the Security Council which had a veto on all UN Activities all five nations didn’t give unanimous approval to. That was to be the new old world order. But it began to come unglued immediately. China was not represented by mainland China which had become Communist but by “Nationalist” China whose government had fled to Taiwan. Communist China soon took the Chinese seat and the two Communist nations formed a bloc while the remaining three Capitalist nations formed another. The United Nations became the Disunited Nations and has remained so to this day. This new old world order was stillborn.

Sometime after 1950 (because of secrecy, the exact date is unknown) the Bilderbergers, realizing that the old world ancient régime and all of these new old world orders were founded on nation states that kept going to war with each other, began an attempt to create a truly new world order. David Rockefeller writes,

“We are grateful to the Washington Post, the New York Times, Time Magazine and other great publications whose directors have attended our meetings and respected their promises of discretion for almost forty years. . . . It would have been impossible for us to develop our plan for the world if we had been subjected to the lights of publicity during those years. But, the world is more sophisticated and prepared to march towards a world government. The supranational sovereignty of an intellectual elite and world bankers is surely preferable to the national auto-determination practiced in past centuries.”

“For more than a century ideological extremists at either end of the political spectrum have seized upon well-publicized incidents such as my encounter with Castro to attack the Rockefeller family for the inordinate influence they claim we wield over American political and economic institutions. Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as ‘internationalists’ and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure – one world, if you will. If that’s the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it”

If there were no nation states, no wars could erupt between them!

Some believe that these international bankers have succeeded in taking over the world, but it has never succeeded in abolishing nation states. In fact, there is some evidence that nation states may be disintegrating into smaller ones. Scotland is going to hold a referendum on withdrawing from England, Catalonia is talking about withdrawing from Spain, Czechoslovakia has broken up into the Czech and Slovak republics, there is talk again of secession in the US, and no one quite knows what is really happening in the Arab world. A new world order ruled by one government? Not hardly!

But things began to break down in the 1950s. Until then, wars were fought between armies supported by nation states, and their endings were foreseeable. A war ended when one army, either voluntarily or on command, surrendered. That era appears to have ended. Old world order warfare appears to have become passé.

When the second world war ended, the Korean Peninsula was partitioned into Northern and Southern sections occupied by the Russians and Americans respectively. Elections for unification were to be held in 1948 but were not; the Americans were unsure the result would favor the South. Open warfare broke out when North Korean forces invaded South Korea in June, 1950. Because the Soviet Union was boycotting the United Nations Security Council at the time, the United States and other countries passed a Security Council resolution authorizing military intervention. The war’s progress favored each side from time to time and continued until July, 1953 when an armistice was signed. Officially, the war still goes on today. The US provided 88% of the 341,000 international soldiers which aided South Korea. The Russians and the People’s Republic of China aided North Korea. The West’s army was international, and the era of never ending, wars may have begun.

After a short pause, the American hubris led the US to play one-upmanship with France. Since the end of World War II, the French had been trying to maintain its hold on its Southeastern Asian colony of Vietnam. But at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the French were soundly defeated and decided to give up the fight. American hubris about its military prowess made American diplomats believe that the US could do what the French could not and began to use American military resources to keep South Vietnam from being united with the North.

The Pentagon’s military minds viewed this conflict as a traditional two-nation-state one and believed that America’s military only had to defeat a primitive North Vietnamese army to succeed. They were wrong, and after twenty years of fighting, 58,000 Americans, millions of Vietnamese had died, and the Americans fled. But this war marked another first: the army that won all the battles lost the war. That had never before happened in history. Today, winning battles does not win wars. Truly a new era in warfare has begun. What the Pentagon’s commanders failed to realize was that the war was not a two state war. It was a war between an invading army and an indigenous people who could only be defeated by total annihilation. No possible way existed for Americans (or any other nation-state) to “win” this war.

But Americans are hard learners and they learned nothing from Korea and Vietnam, so after two misadventures that appeared to be successful (Grenada and the 1st Gulf War), the US led another multinational force into Iraq and Afghanistan. After eight years in Iraq and the installation of a new government, the US withdrew without achieving its goals, leaving Iraq in disarray. And after more than a decade in Afghanistan a similar outcome seems to be imminent. Like Vietnam, these wars too are not two-state wars.

They amount to invading armies battling indigenous peoples who themselves are not united and not under the control of any government, group, or commander. No surrendering army in either country will ever be found. But now there’s a new twist. The forces facing the invaders do not merely consist of local peoples. Those peoples are assisted by non-state but similarly minded multi-state actors. The people opposing the West in Afghanistan are the same groups opposing the West in Libya, Algeria, Syria, Yemen, Mali, Somalia, the Sudan, and elsewhere. People who have been subjugated and exploited by the West have begun an undeclared war on the West and westerners everywhere, and winning this war will require not their defeat but their annihilation. The West cannot do that without annihilating itself in the process.

The real new world order has emerged–the world’s downtrodden against the West and its puppet, surrogate colonial governments. These non-state but similarly minded actors will determine the course of future world history. There is now a new world order that the West cannot control, that military force cannot subdue, and that concessions cannot placate. Ancien régimes relied on military power to influence events. The true new world order renders military power effete. All it can now accomplish is kill for killing’s sake. Pure barbarity is what the promise of Western Civilization has been reduced to. What a wonderful world we have made!

 

http://www.globalresearch.ca/

Apocalypse & Armageddon

The Indians of Canada have their “Old Testament” and its prophecies are now being fulfilled

One of the topics that has been gaining momentum in the world media in recent days has been the theme of a new strange virus spreading from China, the history (and secrecy) of which, as we have noted earlier, may end with unknown results. That is, either it will be another scarecrow similar to the early 2000s “bird flu”, or a sad cycle of epidemics will begin such as in 1820 (cholera), 1920 (Spanish), 2020 etc.

Since this whole plot is being discussed very widely, it so happened that during discussions about this new virus, the so-called “7 fires prophecy” surfaced, known today to very few in the United States.

The fact is that in this prophecy a certain disease is mentioned that will mow down the whole world, after which something like the Last Judgment will begin, followed by the landing of aliens.

The map above shows the territories of the settlement of the Indian Ojibwa, Chippewa and Anishinaabe. Today, the whole world has heard about the evil Iroquois and, as it were, the good delaware, glorified by Fenimore Cooper. However, the anishinaabe did not document much into literature, since they were engaged in agriculture more than the extraction of scalps and grew something like wild rice.

Anthropologists do not really know where the anishinaabe came from, but in North America these people somehow strangely repeat the history of Jews in the Middle East. In some time immemorial, some of the Creators who emitted light, came to their elders, handed them a code of laws and ordered them to move towards the Great Lakes, where there would be for them, as it were, the “Promised Land.” The Indians loaded the wigwams on sleds and set off.

Since the Great Lakes were indicated by the Creators quite accurately, the bulk of the Anishinaabe settled there, cultivating rice, however, some tribes liked the prairies more and, instead of wandering around the crowd to the West, they went towards Texas, where then many new tribes appeared.

Anishinaabe knew a certain degree of writing, using drawings on birch bark and a kind of nodular writing – their shamans wore belts embroidered with small beads, where ancient texts were recorded. In particular, the Creators gave them “The prophecy of the 7 fires”, which for the Anishinaabe Indians is something like the “Old Testament”. In their version, the following are written:

First Fire: During the First Fire, the Anishinaabe people will leave their camps by the sea and set off to build a wigwam to the land chosen for the Anishinaabe. At the end of your journey you will find a turtle-shaped island where food will grow on the water. This place will become a source of unity and great strength for the tribe. But if you do not move, you will be destroyed.

Second Fire: You will recognize the Second Fire when you camp near a large body of water. At this time, the direction of movement will be lost, but a boy will be born in the tribe, who will show you the way.

Third Fire: In the Third Fire, the people of Anishinaabe will find their way to the promised land in the west, where they must move their families. This will be the land where food grows on the water.

EUROPEAN ARRIVAL WARNING

Fourth Fire: Your future will be written on the faces of people who have white skin. If they come to you with faces of brothers, the time will come for wonderful changes for future generations. White people will bring new knowledge and the two nations will unite to create a new nation. Two more will join this new nation, so that four will form the most powerful nation of all. But you should also beware of the pale skinned. Their hearts will be filled with greed for the riches of your land. You must be careful because the face of brotherhood and the face of death are very similar.

Fifth Fire: During the Fifth Fire, there will come a time of great struggle that will take over the lives of all local people. With the decrease of this Fire among people will appear one who promises great joy and salvation. If people accept this promise of a new path and abandon the old teachings, then the Fifth Fire struggle will be with people for many generations. The promise that will come will be a false promise. All those who accept this promise will die soon.

RELIGIOUS IMPLICATION, BOARD SCHOOLS, DISEASE, LARGE THEFT, INDIAN ACT – SO MANY PROMISES WERE BROKEN

Sixth Fire: During the Sixth Fire, it will become apparent that the promises of the Fifth Fire were false. Deceived by this promise, people will turn their children away from the teachings of the Elders, and their grandchildren will rise up against the Elders. Elders will lose the meaning of life. And at this time a new disease will come to people. The balance of many tribes will be disrupted. The cup of life will spill and become an empty cup of death.

WHERE WE ARE NOW – THE FIGHT TO RETURN BACK.

Seventh Fire: During the Seventh Fire, New People will appear. In those days, the waters will be poisoned, most of the forests and prairies will disappear, animals and plants will die, and the air will lose its vitality. At this time, new people will come who will emerge from the clouds. And then a light-skinned tribe will have a choice between two roads. One road will be green, lush and very happy. The second road will be black and charred, and walking along it will cut off their legs. If they choose the right path, then the Seventh Fire will ignite the Eighth and final Fire, the eternal flame of peace and brotherhood. If the fair-skinned race makes the wrong choice of roads, the destruction that they brought with them will return to them and bring a lot of suffering and death to all the people of the world.

Unfortunately for everyone, today there is no single, complete and perfectly accurate translation of this prophecy into English. It is not a few years old, generations of shamans have changed it a lot, the written language of the Indians leaves much to be desired, after which different translations into English followed. But the general meaning is reflected in all variants of the same.

That is, some “Creators” (“Martians” or people who survived from the previous flood) came to the local shamans, outlined what to do and predicted that they needed to wait for the arrival of white people, the construction of some kind of mighty state, followed by plague and pestilence followed by “people from the clouds”.

What kind of plague it will be, what kind of “dark road there is, the journey along which will cut off your legs” – we do not know. However, judging by what is happening around, the times described in the prophecies are close, so we wait for the “green men” to start jumping from the clouds, which in some versions of the prophecies, for some reason, appear as “clouds of illusion”.

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Apocalypse & Armageddon

“World War III will begin in 2020 and will last 16 years,” says military mathematician

Ingo Piepers served as a Marine Corps officer, but after retiring, he subsequently achieved success in the academic world. In particular, four years ago he received a doctorate at the UvA in the field of war dynamics, and in 2016 Peepers published a monograph, which he called “ 2020 Warning ”. Now all dominoes seem to fall as he predicted.

Over the past 400 years, about 500 major wars have occurred in the world, and only four serious wars: the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), the French Napoleonic Wars (1792-1815), and then two “World Wars”.

Each major conflict is preceded by a series of small ones, which, for some time, occur on an increasing basis, reach a peak and, ultimately, come to naught. But at this moment a certain incident occurs, after which what is described by the concept of “world war” begins:

According to Piepers’s calculations, we are now in the fifth cycle. The turning point in the series of minor conflicts preceding WW3 (or the Great Fifth War) occurred in 2011, after which, by 2020, almost all of the current minor wars were nullified. Therefore, based on the model, the next big war will happen in 2020, plus or minus two years. It will last 16 years. 

In an interview with De Telegraaf, Piepers says: 

“ I myself survived the war in Sarajevo. As a soldier, I was interested in this phenomenon. We always have an explanation for every war, but how correct is it? Therefore, approximately 20 years ago, I began a “search. I began to analyze the databases: the start date of the war, the end date, the number of victims, and so on.

In the end, I identified 4 cycles that proceeded according to the same pattern. At first you have a stable period with small wars, but it’s becoming more and more difficult for states to adhere to the structure that has developed after the last war. The tension is growing. At some point, there is a major war in which everyone is involved. Then the cards shuffle again, but with a new world order. 

Of course, I myself was shocked when I discovered these patterns. I checked and double-checked them. And it’s true – we are at the end of the fifth cycle. Moreover – domino bones have already flown, as I predicted. Now, the Third World War begins, which, according to calculations, will last 16 years. ” 

Piepers is already a little scared by the assassination by the Americans of the important Iranian general Qassem Soleimani. He says:

“I fought in the Balkans and I know the history of local wars well. Before World War I, there were amazingly many of them. But at some point, an important world player was murdered – Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Habsburg empire. This caused all kinds of actions and led to war. And now another high-ranking military official has been killed. Serious tensions arose. A chain reaction begins. And this chain reaction will inevitably lead to war. ”

Source

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Apocalypse & Armageddon

The apocalypse is in doubt: the current climate change was milder than the previous

In the last two millennia, there have been two periods of global cooling, which led to rapid fluctuations in sea level – up to 4.23 millimeters a year. This is noticeably stronger than today. It turns out that the current climate change is not unprecedented in the history of mankind. And past sea retreats could cause as many as two civilizational crises. Let’s try to understand why this is important for us now.

Volcanic eruptions, along with other factors, could cause a couple of severe cooling, during one of which the Roman Empire collapsed. Traces of them were found on a distant Maldivian atoll / © Wikimedia Commons

Volcanic eruptions, along with other factors, could cause a couple of severe cooling, during one of which the Roman Empire collapsed. Traces of them were found on a distant Maldivian atoll / © Wikimedia Commons

Sea level: different everywhere, despite the law of communicating vessels

Usually we imagine the sea level as something unshakable and the same throughout the planet. This is not so: the sea level in Ireland is more than 150 meters higher than that of the Maldives, and even its current rise in some places is faster, but in some exactly the opposite: there the average sea level “sinks”.

It can be clearly seen that in the region of New Guinea, the sea is more than 80 meters above the average planetary level, and in the Maldives – more than 100 meters lower / © Wikimedia Commons

At first it seems that this contradicts the law of communicating vessels: after all, the oceans are one, and water from a higher place should flow to a lower one, leveling the surface. In fact, there is no contradiction. Our planet is not a sphere, but a geoid, and those parts of it where the sphere is slightly “hewn” have a different surface shape. Limitations from gravity and the shape of the Earth create a huge, up to a couple of hundred meters, difference in sea level in different places.

The red places of the greatest convexity of the geoid, the blue - the places of its greatest concavity / © Wikimedia Commons
The red places of the greatest convexity of the geoid, the blue – the places of its greatest concavity / © Wikimedia Commons

In order not to get confused and understand what is happening on the planet as a whole, they use the concept of global sea level. All the irregularities of the geoid are averaged in it, which makes it possible to obtain a single measure of the change in the “average” sea level.

So, until the 1980s it grew by 1.8 millimeters a year, and since the 1980s – by 3.2 millimeters a year (now 3.3 millimeters). The value itself is small, but there are places where, due to the local specifics, the sea comes especially fast: say, in the Pacific Ocean.

Specifically, this has not affected badly on the islands of the Pacific Ocean: on the contrary, the area of ​​Tuvalu and Kiribati, recorded by satellite images, has grown. But, definitely, in the future somewhere on the Earth a situation may come when the rise of the sea will force the shore to be strengthened by pouring sand on it.

However, it should be remembered that the sea is able not only to advance, but also to retreat. And such processes can be even more dangerous.

Ancient Crisis: First Cooling

One of the most important properties of changes in sea level is that it clearly reflects what is happening with the climate. If it changes, the sea changes with it. Due to global warming, the sea has risen to 21 centimeters since 1900 . Mainly due to the expansion of sea water from heating. Additional factors were the melting of parts of the ice of Greenland and other areas. Sea level rise is one of the key evidence of global warming.

The question arises: did the sea level change before that? Previous measurements on the Atlantic Ocean gave different data: somewhere, changes over the past two thousand years were recorded, somewhere not, and it seemed that all these fluctuations in any direction did not exceed 0.25 meters. Not very much, but still more than the current rise of the sea due to global warming.

The problem with these numbers is that they were calculated according to the level of salt water in coastal swamps. This is not a direct measurement of sea level, and it may contain significant errors. The data on the Pacific Ocean are scattered, not always clearly dated, and therefore a number of researchers consider them to be speculative.

An international team of scientists recently published a work in Nature Geoscience , where they studied the coral atolls of the Maldives – islands in the Indian Ocean close to the equator. The advantages of this research point are that there is no noticeable tectonics; lowering and raising land for geological reasons are extremely slow. Coral atolls are rigidly connected to sea level: when it drops noticeably, corals at low tide are in the open air and die.

Maldives Atoll, on which samples of dated corals were collected / © Paul S. Kench et al.
Maldives Atoll, on which samples of dated corals were collected / © Paul S. Kench et al.

In addition, the authors used the exact uranium-thorium dating of ancient corals. It is based on the fact of the decay of uranium with the formation of thorium atoms: and, since the rate of such decay is known, it allows you to accurately calculate the chronological framework of sea level changes (more precisely than in most previous work on the topic).

One of the sampling points for coral samples at the measurement stage / © Paul S. Kench et al.
One of the sampling points for coral samples at the measurement stage / © Paul S. Kench et al.

It turned out that in 2000-100 BC, the sea level in the Maldives was 0.5 meters above the average in our era, which also means a fairly warm climate. In the years 234-605 AD, the level began to fall sharply, at a minimum it was 1.34 meters below the current average sea level. Two samples even indicated a level 1.45 meters lower than the current one.

The event lasted 371 years and can not be explained by anything other than a noticeable drop in temperature in the equatorial regions of the Indian Ocean. Equatorial waters are often more sensitive to warming, since the water in them rises faster, expanding and leading to the onset of the sea – but the same pattern works in the opposite direction.

It turns out that in the years 234-605 the planet could have been noticeably colder than today. Interestingly, this period coincides with the decline and collapse of the Roman Empire and the Great Migration of Peoples.

The decline of the Roman Empire is associated by historians with systematic crop failures, which often lasted several years in a row / © Wikimedia Commons
The decline of the Roman Empire is associated by historians with systematic crop failures, which often lasted several years in a row / © Wikimedia Commons

Previously, on the basis of narrow tree rings (the norm during cooling), other scientific groups have already put forward the hypothesis of the “Late Antique Small Ice Age”. However, then it was about the 500-600s, and there was no data for an earlier time. Now it becomes clear that the cooling could begin in the III century, coinciding in time with the crisis of ancient civilization.

The authors of the study note that it is on these 371 years that the 13 coldest decades of the last two thousand years are accounted for. Since colder periods normally coincide with a decrease in rainfall, they should have had catastrophic consequences for agriculture in the form of droughts and crop failures.

After the 7th century, corals in this zone do not grow until the 15th century: the authors believe that sea levels have risen at least to the present or even higher, not giving the local coral reefs enough light to grow.

New time: the second wave of cooling

In the years 1481-1807, the Maldives experienced a second period of low sea level: on average, at that time it was 0.71 meters lower than today. By 1807, the level reached a minimum – 0.89 meters below the modern average. It should be emphasized that the fall of the sea in the Maldives both in modern times and in antiquity is noticeably stronger than its rise during modern global warming.

Illustration of February from the French watch book of 1412-1416. Light clothes, thin snow, and all this in the midst of winter. In the illustrations of the remaining, less severe months, there is no snow at all. It seems that as early as the beginning of the 15th century, the climate in Europe was quite warm / © Wikinedia Commons
Illustration of February from the French watch book of 1412-1416. Light clothes, thin snow, and all this in the midst of winter. In the illustrations of the remaining, less severe months, there is no snow at all. It seems that as early as the beginning of the 15th century, the climate in Europe was quite warm / © Wikinedia Commons

Only in 2017, the sea level in the Maldives rose by 0.89 meters, that is, it reached the present. Over 210 years of anthropogenic global warming, the sea has grown by the same amount by which it retreated for much shorter periods of time in the III-VII and XV-XIX centuries.

The peak sea retreat recorded in the work for the last two thousand years is 2.8 millimeters per year. The peak rate of sea level rise today is 3.4 millimeters per year (this is the limit, usually called 3.3 millimeters per year). From this it is clear that the current offensive of the sea in speed is comparable to its retreat in the last thousand years.

In addition, after the retreat of the sea in late Antiquity, its rapid offensive followed – and by the beginning of the 700s, according to work, the rate of offensive of the sea was 4.23 millimeters per year, that is, significantly more than today.

It is no less interesting that specifically in the case of the Maldives, the current sea level is still significantly below the level of the heyday of the ancient world – 2000-100 BC (a difference of half a meter).

Canals of Holland, XVII century. Clothing is noticeably warmer than in the Middle Ages. In Western Europe, the use of sleds has become normal / © Wikinedia Commons
Canals of Holland, XVII century. Clothing is noticeably warmer than in the Middle Ages. In Western Europe, the use of sleds has become normal / © Wikinedia Commons

The events of the New Age – this period is also called the “Little Ice Age” – included a series of wars and famine years. The most cruel of them belong to the first half of the 17th century, when a series of several hungry years led to the Time of Troubles in Russia, and the German population fell from 50 to 70% from a combination of wars and starvation.

Definitely, this is also very similar to the civilizational crisis. Key countries of 1481, such as Spain, Portugal, leading Italian republics such as Venice, Florence and Genoa, by 1807 became only a pale shadow of themselves, and China was so weak that it experienced the conquest of another wave of barbarians.

Nevertheless, a number of other states have noticeably strengthened their positions during this time. England, France and Russia by 1807 became significantly larger, had more population and opportunities. True, in all three cases, this coincided with the active territorial expansion of these states, which allowed them to obtain resources that were not there in 1481.

Why is it important

The sea cannot recede either by 89 centimeters (peak value from work), or by 0.7 meters (average value for two cold periods), if there is no cooling. Today, the Maldives atolls are the most accurate measured at sea level over the past thousand years.

And from measurements on local corals, it follows that during this time there were two rather strong cooling, in amplitude similar to the current warming. In terms of speed – judging by the record sharp retreat of the sea by 2.8 millimeters per year – these cooling could even come faster than the current warming.

Meanwhile, a work was published earlier in 2019 that generally denied the very reality of the small ice age of the New Time, as well as of the Late Antique small ice age. Its authors argued that the most reliable signs of cold weather in the small ice age for different regions occurred at different times, therefore, as a whole, the temperature on Earth as if did not change.

Fluctuations in sea level of up to 0.89 meters indicate the extreme doubtfulness of this conclusion, often made on the basis of historical records or indirect temperature indicators. Sea level is a more reliable measure of global temperatures than indirect evidence.

The authors of the new article note that their predecessors could not get accurate data on sea level changes in other places, mainly because coral reefs have been actively growing over the past 200 years after rising sea levels. In the process of secondary growth, they often destroyed or mixed strongly the materials of older reefs, which were preserved only in a limited number of places with exceptionally favorable conditions such as the Maldives. That is, the method used in their work allows a deeper and more realistic assessment of changes in the climate of past centuries.

Unprecedented climate change? Does not look like

Researchers conclude with the conclusion: “The magnitude and speed of sea level changes in the present Indian Ocean are not unprecedented over the past 2000 years.” These words look dry and mean – in fact, this is a scientific journal, what else can its text be in style?

But there is a lot to them. If the sea in the last 20 centuries receded at a speed of up to 2.8 millimeters per year, and came at a speed of 4.23 millimeters per year, then it turns out that its current growth of 3.3 millimeters per year is not only not unprecedented, but also quite moderate. The authors believe that the antique period of sea level for the Maldives (half a meter higher than the present) will be achieved only in the 21st century.

More importantly, temperature changes in the pre-anthropogenic era, when people could not influence the climate as they are today, are comparable in scale to the current ones. This is a very unpleasant sign. Accidental climate fluctuations such as the Late Antique or Small Ice Age can lead to alarming consequences in the form of high cold mortality (and it is much higher than mortality from heat), crop failures and droughts.

It would be nice to sort out and find out the exact culprit of the events of those years – in order to try to avoid repeating them. Or at least not to be taken by surprise.

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