**Gravity is a mysterious force that has fascinated scientists and philosophers for centuries. It acts as the invisible glue holding the universe together, dictates the movements of celestial bodies, and molds the fabric of reality itself. Despite its significant impact on the cosmos, gravity continues to be one of the most elusive forces in the field of physics.**

In physics, the mathematical principles governing the gravitational forces between masses are well-established. The most fundamental description of this interaction is provided by Newton’s law. Subsequently, Lagrange redefined these principles within his framework of scalar calculations.

However, the mathematical calculations alone do not elucidate the physics underlying the phenomenon. They merely delineate the observable effects of gravitational forces, which are contingent upon the mass of the objects involved and the separation between them.

Newton, when queried about the origins of gravitation, famously retorted, “I do not frame hypotheses.” Yet, not every scientist from his era or thereafter overlooked this fundamental question in physics regarding the nature of gravity or gravitational forces.

## Kinetic Theory of Gravitation

In the 18th century, mathematicians Louis Lesage, and prior to him Nicola Fatio, proposed a kinetic theory of gravity. This theory posited that minuscule particles moved randomly through space, which was permeated by a medium akin to atmospheric gases. The specific nature of these particles was not described, as it was merely a theoretical model. According to this model, bodies act as shields to the movement of these particles, creating a pressure differential when two bodies are in proximity, resulting in attraction. The attraction grows stronger as the bodies get closer, larger, and more massive due to increased shielding.

The exact nature of these particles remained a mystery, leading critics to argue that the absorption of such particles would inevitably heat the bodies, a phenomenon not accounted for in the theory, especially since quantum effects were yet to be discovered.

Simultaneously, such a medium would need to possess viscosity, causing moving bodies to decelerate within it. Consequently, planets would deviate from their orbits. Overall, this presents numerous contradictions.

In the 19th century, the astronomer and mathematician George Darwin attempted to substitute particles (corpuscles) with waves. However, this model was deemed unsustainable as it failed to address the fundamental question: what is the nature of these waves?

Newton, and later Leonhard Euler, advocated for a model that described gravitational forces as flows of ether. They proposed that bodies create a rarefaction in this etheric medium, resulting in a directed pressure towards the center of each mass. This model bears resemblance to the kinetic model, differing primarily in the terminology used for the medium, referred to as ‘ether’.

## Electric model of gravity

The 19th century saw significant advancements in electrical engineering and the exploration of laws pertaining to electricity. It is commonly understood that the formulas describing the attractive force between two charges and two masses are analogous. However, one force operates over short distances, while the other is virtually limitless. The electric model of gravitation was proposed to account for the unexpected shift in Mercury’s perihelion, which deviated from predictions, but it was not substantiated. Subsequently, A. Einstein’s General Relativity provided an explanation for this discrepancy.

Typically, gravity models are categorized into scalar, bimetric, quasilinear, tensor, scalar-tensor, and vector-tensor theories. These represent mathematical models of gravity, replete with intricate formulas and computations.

Physics has branched into two schools of thought. Some physicists posit that gravity is a force with a mediator, akin to the photon in electromagnetic force, leading to ongoing searches for the Higgs boson in particle accelerators. Others are satisfied with the deductions from Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, which posits gravity as merely the warping of space-time.

However, they do not elucidate how masses curve space, the force that causes this curvature, or the nature of this force.

In this framework, a satellite’s orbit around Earth is merely its trajectory within curved space. Envisioning this curvature where a raised object above Earth’s surface falls back to it is challenging, as we perceive everything as linear.

In the last century, there have been no specific proposals for a physical model of gravity. This task has been undertaken by mathematicians who work with tensor or scalar quantities and do not focus on the nature of the forces themselves.

A notable paradox in this field is gravitational waves.

It is believed by scientists that these waves are produced by moving masses, and after being emitted, they detach from these masses and exist independently. They are mathematically related to the distortion of space-time and are often described as “ripples in space-time.”

Take, for instance, two neutron stars orbiting a common center of mass, which create a disturbance in space-time. Scientists conceptualize it in the following manner:

Disregarding general relativity and the curvature of space, the essence of gravitational forces eludes scientific understanding. The graviton, theorized as the particle responsible for the attractive force between bodies, remains undetected. The processes that generate gravitational forces and their dependencies are also enigmatic. Neither the heating of a body nor the irradiation of its particles influences its gravitational pull.

In our view, science may eventually revisit the kinetic theory of gravitation and explore the concept of ether. It may seek to validate these processes or alternatively, reframe the theory using the term “dark energy,” a concept introduced in astrophysics to address certain paradoxes.

Dark energy likely holds some truths about the nature of gravitational interactions.

The enigma of gravity remains a focal point for the scientific community, driving research across various disciplines such as theoretical physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. As we delve deeper into this essential force, we edge nearer to deciphering the universe’s secrets and grasping the essence of reality. From the anecdote of Newton’s apple to the vast expanse of space, gravity is a puzzling force that molds our universe in both delicate and significant ways. Deciphering its enigmas holds the potential to enlighten our comprehension of existence and reshape our cosmic perspective.