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Mysteries

The Myth Mill: Mysterious Stonehenge of the Third Reich

“Stonehenge” of the Third Reich is called a damn dozen sandy cliffs in western Germany. It is not known where it came from and what the name of the rocks means. Was this mysterious place a pagan shrine inherited by Christians? Why did Externstein even try to restore SS Reichsfuehrer Himmler? What cults still flourish here?

The mill of myths:

Until now, in the west of Germany, in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Lippe district (Kreis Lippe), in the northern part of the Teutoburg forest, where the Germanic tribes under the command of Arminius defeated the legions of Ancient Rome, there are 13 Externstein rocks. These places are shrouded in many myths and legends, and we will talk about some of them in this article.

Externstein consists of five massive main rock “columns”, sometimes reaching forty meters, located ten kilometers from the city of Detmold. It is believed that these rocks formed 120 million years ago, during the Cretaceous period, at the edge of an ancient sea that occupied most of today’s northwestern Europe. 

Another hypothesis is that the Externstein is located almost at the very edge of an ancient glacier, near the place where the border of a giant ice wall passed, which began in the south-west of England and went into the endless Eurasian steppes.

The current name Externsteine ​​did not appear earlier than the nineteenth century. There were different forms of writing: Eggstersteine, Eggerstersteine, Egistersteine. There are two etymological versions of the origin: from the German word Egge (stranded, shallow place in the river), or Elster (magpie). 

In any case, its name was never derived from the Latin externus (external, external). It is known that around 1564 two local theologians, Hermann Hamelmann and Mauritius Piderit, used the name Rupes Picarum – “magpie rock”. Although it is not known for sure whether magpies have ever settled in the vicinity of Externstein.

The original idea was expressed by the founder of the organization “Ancestral Heritage” – Ahnenerbe Herman Wirth. In his opinion, the name Externstein appeared in Saxony in the 3rd century and was originally pronounced as eccestan – “mother’s stone”. In short, experts still find it difficult to give a satisfactory answer to the question of the origin of this name and its subsequent evolution.

Before the National Socialists came to power, the Externstein did not enjoy the attention of specialists, although the first, very primitive archaeological excavations were carried out here between 1881 and 1888. The fact that the Nazis (albeit rarely) used the Externstein in their propaganda served the cause of his study a disservice. 

The archaeologists of the Third Reich were later, for ideological reasons, accused of all mortal sins, attributing to them, among other things, an “unscientific approach” to the study of Externstein. However, it is impossible to deny that the most valuable discoveries were made in these places precisely in 1934-1935.

The German amateur historian Wilhelm Teudt, who in 1929 published his main work, Germanische Heiligtümer, is still revered in esoteric and neo-pagan circles, especially for the study of Externstein. It was he who, after reading a number of monographs by professional historians and his own observations, called the Externstein “German Stonehenge”, since the solar cult was once practiced here too.

Knowing about the astronomical uses of the British megaliths, he drew the same conclusion about the Externstein rocks. Toidt believed that all the destruction occurred in the era of the adoption of Christianity. In 772, Emperor Charlemagne, who invaded Saxony, overthrew the pagan shrine of Irminsul located in Externstein.

At that time, a heated discussion broke out between “academics” and “amateurs”, which went far beyond the borders of Germany. Wilhelm Teudt, who became a devout National Socialist, nevertheless received no special awards in the Third Reich. In February 1938 he was expelled from “Anenerbe“.

However, the stigma on him and the ideas he promoted remained indelible. The curiosity is that Teudt’s theories did not inspire Nazi ideologue Alfred Rosenberg, and Himmler, after Hitler’s public criticism of the theory of Externstein’s “cult purpose”, chose to “forget” about these rocks forever.

It is no wonder that with such an attitude, Externstein in the post-war years became a cult place of pilgrimage for all kinds of followers of esotericism, who gather here on the eve of Walpurgis Night and on the day of the summer solstice. At this time, it is strictly forbidden to bring alcohol here, pitch tents and make fires. The authorities are closing all nearby car parks so that mystic lovers can walk the last kilometers to their shrine.

At the beginning of August 2013, a thematic exhibition “I Believe – Christianization of Europe in the Middle Ages” (Credo – Christianisierung Europas im Mittelalter) opened in Paderborn, which is once again designed to debunk the National Socialist myth about Externstein as a cult place of the ancient Germans. The scholarly community has repeatedly stated that “all previously conducted research, including archaeological excavations, could not provide convincing evidence that these were pagan religious buildings.

Therefore there is no reason to believe that the Externsteine was the center of worship of the sun and that there went the ancient cults, in particular the German cult of Irminsul and the Roman cult of Mithras. “Local Edition Westfälische Nachrichten (” Westphalian news “) with reference to the curator of the exhibition says that” the key to The bas-relief “Descent from the Cross” (Kreuzabnahmerelief), most likely created in 1100 by the monks of the Abdinghof monastery, in the vicinity of Paderborn, serves as an understanding of this complex.

In the German media, the point of view is expressed that the Externstein is an extremely inconvenient construction of human hands and nature, since each generation has its own opinion about it, which depends more on the tastes prevailing in society than on scientific research. 

These rocks are treated more like a work of art and express their preferences and tastes, rather than engaging in a real study of this unique object. Externsteins are often taken out of the historical context and enjoy its magic and charm, completely forgetting that this structure needs to be carefully examined.



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Mysteries

The origin of gold turned out to be a cosmic mystery

Astronomers calculated the origin of all chemical elements and wondered: where is there so much gold in the universe? The fact is that there are not enough known processes to explain the observed abundance of this precious metal.

Details are set out in a scientific article published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Astronomers believe that the earliest atomic nuclei appeared in the era of primordial nucleosynthesis, which began in the first seconds after the Big Bang and lasted several tens of minutes. At the same time, almost all the hydrogen available in the Universe was formed, a significant part of helium, a certain amount of lithium and an insignificant amount of beryllium and boron. All these chemical elements are light and are located at the very beginning of the periodic table.

The appearance of all the other atomic nuclei is somehow connected with the stars. New nuclei are formed in the bowels of all the stars without exception, as well as in the atmospheres of red giants, during supernova explosions and collisions of neutron stars.

What contribution does each of these processes make to the formation of certain chemical elements? This remains a matter of controversy.

The authors of the new study were the first to calculate the process of formation of all stable nuclei from carbon to uranium from first principles. This means that they solved the equations of nuclear physics in all their complexity, without resorting to simplifying assumptions.

These calculations made it possible to find out how much of this or that element is formed in a typical small star, in one supernova explosion, and so on. Based on this, scientists calculated the role of various celestial bodies and the events occurring with them in the huge chemical complex of the Universe.

The origin of various chemical elements in the periodic table according to a new study.  Illustration by Chiaki Kobayashi et al., Sahm Keily.

It turned out, for example, that small stars that do not explode like supernovae produce half of all carbon in the universe. The second half falls on massive luminaries that end their lives in a supernova explosion.

It is supernovae, according to the authors, that supply the universe with iron. Moreover, half of it falls on explosions of massive stars, and another half – on type Ia supernovae, that is thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs .

However, the most unusual result concerns gold. In previous studies, the origin of the noble metal was attributed to collisions of neutron stars. Now scientists have questioned this.

“Even the most optimistic estimates of the neutron-star collision rate simply cannot explain the apparent abundance of this element in the universe,” says co-author Amanda Karakas of Monash University in Australia. “It came as a surprise.”

However, astronomers already have their own version of the origin of gold. They speculate that the problem is in supernovae of an unusual type. Explosions of very massive stars with strong magnetic fields could provide space with the observed amount of gold, experts say.

At the same time, the authors do not deny the contribution of collisions of neutron stars to the synthesis of other chemical elements .

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Mysteries

Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi desert

Is this part of China’s classified space program or another Chinese surprise?

For the first time, mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert, which is located in China, near the border with Mongolia, were seen in 2011. Seen, as is often the case in this century, using Google Earth. The program does not comment on the signs in any way, and no official reports from the Chinese government about exercises or tests in the Gobi Desert have followed.

There are several mysterious patterns, and each next one is even more mysterious than the previous one. Judge for yourself.

City models?

These two patterns resemble streets, only without houses, cars and shawarma stalls – in general, without everything that we are used to on the streets. Perhaps these street models were made in order to test weapons “in the city”. Then why not build houses? Or have the weapons already been tested, and this is all that remains of the “cities”?

Photo # 1 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert
Photo # 2 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Destroyed car park?

In this picture, those with an inquisitive mind and keen eyesight will make out destroyed cars. But why are they here? Perhaps they participated in weapons tests. Or is it just a warehouse of disused vehicles? But then why do we need large squares in the picture?

Photo # 3 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Runways?

Of course, this is the first thing that comes to mind. And the most logical thing, even if there is no hint of airplanes in this picture. Okay, let’s say these are really runways. But why then is the right stripe so defiantly glowing?

Photo # 4 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Chinese Stonehenge?

The most mysterious pattern of all. A circular one, consisting of stones or small structures, in the center of the pattern at the time of shooting there are three planes. Anyone who has flown an airplane at least once cannot help but wonder: where is the runway? Indeed, if this is a kind of air base, then where is the runway?

After the images were released, The Telegraph spoke with defense expert Tim Ripley. He authoritatively stated that the circular pattern resembles a test site for jet weapons, something similar he saw at Area 51 in Nevada.

Photo # 5 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Since the images with the mysterious signs were published, the Chinese government has not bothered to reveal the purpose of these objects. (It did work to block Google Earth in China, but it did not work.) Moreover, in 2018, another mysterious pattern was discovered not far from the patterns listed above.

The new pattern was studied in detail in a video with the explanatory title “No one can still explain what was found in the Gobi Desert.” This time we are talking about cross “runways” surrounded by incomprehensible glowing circles, vaguely resembling an infinity sign.

Photo # 6 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

According to the author of the video, if these are runways, then they have never been used. In addition, there are several dozen structures next to the runway that look abandoned. And here is the video itself:

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Mysteries

What secrets are kept by the stones of pharaohs and kings

One of the most beloved topics of the yellow press of the last century was the scary tale of precious stones, a typical example of which is the story of the “curse of the Hope diamond.”

It was a beautiful blue diamond with a purple tint and looked something like this: The modern history of the stone began in the 17th century in India, where it was somehow obtained by the jeweler Jean Baptiste Tavernier. He brought the stone to France, where he sold it to King Louis XIV, after which Louis fell from the slope, injured his leg, got sepsis and died, and Jean Bastist himself had been eaten by dogs before that.

The next owner of the stone was Louis XV, who presented it to Madame de Montespan. After a couple of months, the king lost interest in Madame and she moved to a monastery, where she died. The king returned the gift and passed it on to Marie Antoinette, who was soon executed by fiery French revolutionaries. With this pebble in the pendant, she ascended the scaffold.

What happened to the revolutionary Jacques who stole the stone is unknown, most likely he died or was eaten alive by lice, but in 1813 the stone appeared in a jewelry store in London, where the Englishman Henry Francis Hope bought it – he began to show everyone the diamond, so he entered into history as the “Hope Diamond”.

But, as you might expect, Hope glued the flippers together and gave the diamond to his heir, Lord Francis Hope, who presented it to his bride. After that, the lord went bankrupt and was forced to descend to the plebeian hotel business, but his very first hotel burned down with his wife.

Then the stone was sawed and sold to new owners. One of them was American Evelyn Wolls McClynn. After that, her son died in a car accident, her husband ended up in an insane asylum, and Evelyn herself also went a little crazy and died. The second owners made it to America unsuccessfully, because they chose the Titanic as a means of travel.

Approximately the same fairy tale surrounds many famous stones. The balance with the bulldo in these fairy tales does not always converge, since the tales are invented by journalists for the money of jewelers: when the public learns that someone died from the stone, this leads to incredible enthusiasm and everyone rushes to look at the miracle, allowing the jeweler to make money out of thin air. However, these tales are based on the truth.

In particular, Hope’s diamond was stolen from the temple of the Indian goddess Sita, where it somehow decorated a statue. The energy of the stone was monstrous – sensitive people who took it in their hands sometimes fainted and then they were tormented by nightmarish visions for months.

But Sita was definitely out of business there. The topic was Indian priests who used temples and statues to collect energy from the flock: pilgrimage went to the temple for decades, prayed to one or another deity, and as a receiving matrix, the deity had a stone in its forehead or two stones in its eyes.

Then, when the stone was pumped up, it was replaced with a new one, and the old one began to be used in rituals. In particular, it could be presented to your own or a neighboring king in order to vacate the throne as soon as possible – the ruler who accepted such a gift would immediately die under certain circumstances.

In general, the magic of stones is a complex and poorly studied topic. Some people seem to be doing it, blowing some “secret knowledge” into the ears of adepts. Nevertheless, there seem to be some very interesting developments in the topic.

We will not compose an introduction to modern and, most likely, not very correct views of quantum mechanics, but in general terms we will recall and clarify. An electron in an atom rotates in two directions, as it were: on the one hand, it rotates around the nucleus (orbital angular momentum), on the other, around its axis (spin).

Therefore, if, in theory, you learn to change either the spin of an electron of a single atom, or the angular momentum, then the atom can be used as a cell for storing a unit of information.

The idea, of course, is quite crazy, but, as scitechdaily writes with reference to the just published scientific work, researchers from the Delft University of Technology managed, using a scanning tunneling microscope, to first capture an individual iron atom, then plant it astride a nitrogen atom, after what the orbital angular momentum of some of the electrons of the outer cloud has changed for the iron atom. Thus, an eternal unit cell of information was created:

Of course, experimenters are still quite a long way from creating a full-fledged storage ring – nevertheless, the direction of work is interesting. Most likely, they will not be able to write data to the atoms of crystals soon, but the technology for reading them already exists. And this opens up interesting perspectives.

If the guys from the Delft University of Technology came up with the idea of ​​writing data into the atoms of the crystal, then the guys who lived long before them probably came to the same idea, and given the antediluvian technologies of the builders of magalitic structures, the idea was most likely implemented in practice. Therefore, many stones may turn out to be something like ancient flash drives that contain a lot of information about the ancient world. Perhaps that is why all the rulers collect stones with terrible power.

In addition, pebbles around which jewelers have created aura of horror stories, pebbles from places of worship of various kinds, and so on are also of interest. All these objects carry some kind of information that is inaccessible to analog devices. But now, when the technology appears that allows us to consider various rubies and diamonds as a digital massif, pebbles can tell a lot about the real story, and about the role of people in this story, and about the outside world in general.

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