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Mysteries

The magnetic soul of the universe

“In 1945, the primitive appearance of pre-intelligent primates on planet Earth blew up the first thermonuclear device. They did not suspect that they created an echo in the super-space web, used for non-local communication and the transmigration of souls by the civilizations of the Trans-galactic union, network , which the more mysterious races call the “body of God.”

Shortly afterwards, the secret forces of intelligent races were sent to Earth to observe the situation and prevent further electromagnetic destruction of the universal network. “

The introduction taken in quotation marks looks like a plot for science fiction, but just such a conclusion can be drawn after reading this scientific article. The presence of this network pervading the entire Universe could explain a lot – for example, the UFO phenomenon, their elusiveness and invisibility, incredible possibilities, and besides, indirectly, this theory of the “body of God” gives us real evidence that there is life after death.

We are at the very initial stage of development, and in fact we are “pre-intelligent beings” and who knows if we can find the strength in ourselves to become a truly intelligent race. Astronomers have discovered that magnetic fields permeate much of space. Hidden lines of the magnetic field extend for millions of light years throughout the universe.

Each time astronomers come up with a new way to search for magnetic fields in more and more distant regions of space, they inexplicably find them.

These force fields are the same entities that surround the Earth, the Sun and all galaxies. Twenty years ago, astronomers began to discover magnetism permeating entire clusters of galaxies, including the space between one galaxy and the next. Invisible field lines sweep through intergalactic space.

Last year, astronomers finally managed to explore a much more sparse region of space – the space between clusters of galaxies. There they discovered the largest magnetic field: 10 million light-years of magnetized space, covering the entire length of this “thread” of the cosmic web. A second magnetized thread has already been seen elsewhere in space using the same methods. “We’re just looking at the tip of the iceberg, probably,” said Federica Govoni of the National Institute of Astrophysics in Cagliari, Italy, who led the first discovery.

The question arises: where did these huge magnetic fields come from?

“This clearly cannot be associated with the activity of individual galaxies or individual explosions or, I do not know, winds from supernovae,” said Franco Vazza, an astrophysicist at the University of Bologna, who makes modern computer simulations of cosmic magnetic fields. “This goes far beyond all this.”

One possibility is that cosmic magnetism is primary, tracing all the way back to the birth of the universe.In this case, weak magnetism must exist everywhere, even in the “voids” of the cosmic web – the darkest, most empty areas of the universe. Omnipresent magnetism would sow stronger fields that bloomed in galaxies and clusters.

Primary magnetism could also help solve another cosmological puzzle known as Hubble stress – probably the hottest topic in cosmology.

The problem underlying Hubble’s tension is that the Universe seems to expand much faster than expected based on its known components. In an article published on the Internet in April and reviewed with Physical Review Letters, cosmologists Karsten Jedamzik ​​and Levon Poghosyan argue that weak magnetic fields in the early Universe will lead to the faster cosmic expansion observed today.

Primitive magnetism removes Hubble’s tension so simply that Jedamzik ​​and Poghosyan’s article immediately attracted attention. “This is a great article and an idea,” said Mark Kamionkovsky, a theoretical cosmologist at Johns Hopkins University who proposed other solutions to Hubble’s tension.

Kamenkovsky and others say that additional checks are needed to ensure that early magnetism does not interfere with other cosmological calculations. And even if this idea works on paper, researchers will need to find convincing evidence of primary magnetism to make sure that it is the missing agent that formed the universe.

However, in all these years of talking about Hubble stress, it is perhaps strange that no one has considered magnetism before. According to Poghosyan, who is a professor at Simon Fraser University in Canada, most cosmologists hardly think about magnetism. “Everyone knows this is one of those big puzzles,” he said. But for decades there was no way to say whether magnetism is indeed ubiquitous and, therefore, is the primary component of the cosmos, so cosmologists have largely stopped paying attention.

Meanwhile, astrophysicists continued to collect data. The weight of evidence made most of them suspect that magnetism is indeed present everywhere.

The magnetic soul of the universe

In 1600, an English scientist William Gilbert, studying mineral deposits — naturally magnetized rocks that humans have created in compasses for millennia — came to the conclusion that their magnetic force “mimics the soul.” “He correctly suggested that the Earth itself is“ a great magnet, ”and that the magnetic pillars“ look toward the poles of the Earth. ”

Magnetic fields occur at any time when an electric charge flows. The Earth’s field, for example, comes from its internal “dynamo” – a stream of liquid iron, seething in its core. Fields of fridge magnets and magnetic columns come from electrons orbiting around their constituent atoms.

Cosmological modeling illustrates two possible explanations of how magnetic fields penetrated galaxy clusters. On the left, the fields grow out of homogeneous “seed” fields that filled the space in the moments after the Big Bang. On the right, astrophysical processes, such as the formation of stars and the flow of matter into supermassive black holes, create magnetized winds that exit galaxies.

However, as soon as a “seed” magnetic field arises from charged particles in motion, it can become larger and stronger if weaker fields are combined with it. Magnetism “is a bit like a living organism,” said Thorsten Enslin, a theoretical astrophysicist at the Institute of Astrophysics Max Planck in Garching, Germany – because magnetic fields connect to every free source of energy that they can hold onto and grow. They can spread and influence other areas through their presence, where they also grow. ”

Ruth Durer, a cosmologist and theoretician at the University of Geneva, explained that magnetism is the only force besides gravity that can shape the large-scale structure of the cosmos, because only magnetism and gravity can “reach you” at great distances. Electricity, on the contrary, is local and short-lived, since the positive and negative charge in any region will be neutralized as a whole. But you cannot cancel magnetic fields; they tend to take shape and survive.

And yet, despite all its power, these force fields have low profiles. They are intangible and are perceived only when they act on other things. ”You cannot just photograph a magnetic field; it doesn’t work like that, “Van Reuen, an astronomer at Leiden University who was involved in the recent discovery of magnetized filaments, told Reinu Van.

Last year, Van Verin and 28 collaborators suggested a magnetic field in the filament between clusters of galaxies Abell 399 and Abell 401 is the way the field redirects high-speed electrons and other charged particles passing through it. As their paths spin in the field, these charged particles emit faint “synchrotron radiation.”

The synchrotron signal is strongest at low frequencies, making it ready to be detected with LOFAR, an array of 20,000 low-frequency radio antennas scattered across Europe.

The team actually collected data from the filament back in 2014 for one eight-hour span, but the data sat waiting as the radio astronomy community spent years figuring out how to improve the calibration of LOFAR measurements. The Earth’s atmosphere refracts the radio waves passing through it, so LOFAR considers space from the bottom of the swimming pool. The researchers solved the problem by tracking the vibrations of the “beacons” in the sky – the emitters with precisely known locations – and adjusting the vibrations for this to release all the data. When they applied the de-blurring algorithm to the data from the filament, they immediately saw the glow of the synchrotron radiation. LOFAR consists of 20,000 individual radio antennas scattered throughout Europe.

The filament looks magnetized everywhere, and not just near clusters of galaxies that move towards each other from both ends. Researchers hope the 50-hour dataset they are currently analyzing will reveal more details. Recently, additional observations have revealed magnetic fields propagating along the entire length of the second filament. Researchers plan to publish this work soon.

The presence of huge magnetic fields in at least these two strands provides important new information. “It caused quite a bit of activity,” Van Faith said, “because now we know that magnetic fields are relatively strong.”

Light through the Void

If these magnetic fields arose in the infant Universe, the question arises: how? “People have been thinking about this issue for a long time,” said Tanmai Wachaspati of Arizona State University.

In 1991, Vachaspati suggested that magnetic fields could arise during an electroweak phase transition – a moment, a split second after the Big Bang, when electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces became distinguishable. Others have suggested that magnetism materialized microseconds later when protons formed. Or soon after: the late astrophysicist Ted Harrison claimed in the earliest original theory of magnetogenesis in 1973 that turbulent plasma of protons and electrons may have caused the appearance of the first magnetic fields. Nevertheless, others suggested that this space became magnetized even before all this, during space inflation – the explosive expansion of space that supposedly jumped up and launched the Big Bang itself. It is also possible that this did not happen before the growth of structures a billion years later.

A way to test theories of magnetogenesis is to study the structure of magnetic fields in the most pristine parts of the intergalactic space, such as the calm parts of filaments and even more empty voids. Some details — for example, whether the field lines are smooth, spiral, or “curved in all directions, like a ball of yarn or something else” (according to Vachaspati), and how the picture changes in different places and at different scales — carry rich information that can be compared with the theory and modeling, for example, if the magnetic field occurred during the electroweak phase transition, as suggested by Vacaspati, the resulting power lines should be spiral, “like a corkscrew,” -. he said.

The catch is that it is difficult to detect the force fields, who have nothing to press on.

One of the methods, first proposed by the English scientist Michael Faraday back in 1845, detects a magnetic field by the way it rotates the direction of polarization of the light passing through it. The magnitude of the “Faraday rotation” depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the frequency of light. Thus, by measuring the polarization at different frequencies, you can conclude about the strength of magnetism along the line of sight. “If you do it from different places, you can make a 3D map,” Enslin said.

Researchers have begun making rough measurements of Faraday rotation using LOFAR, but the telescope has problems emitting an extremely weak signal. Valentina Wakka, an astronomer and colleague of Govoni from the National Institute of Astrophysics, developed an algorithm several years ago for the statistical processing of thin Faraday rotation signals, adding together many dimensions of empty spaces. “In principle, it can be used for voids,” said Wakka.

But the Faraday method will really take off when the next generation radio telescope, a gigantic international project called “an array of square kilometers”, is launched. “SKA should create a fantastic Faraday grid,” said Enslin.

At the moment, the only evidence of magnetism in voids is that observers do not see when they look at objects called blazars located behind voids.

Blazars are bright beams of gamma rays and other energy sources of light and matter, fed by supermassive black holes. When gamma rays travel through space, they sometimes collide with ancient microwaves, turning into electron and positron as a result. These particles then hiss and turn into low-energy gamma rays.

But if blazar light passes through a magnetized void, then low-energy gamma rays will appear absent, argued Andrei Neronov and Evgeny Vovk from the Geneva Observatory in 2010. The magnetic field will deflect electrons and positrons from the line of sight. When they decay into low-energy gamma rays, these gamma rays will not be directed at us. Indeed, when Nero and Vovk analyzed the data from a suitably located blazar, they saw its high-energy gamma rays, but not its low-energy gamma signal. “This is the lack of a signal, which is the signal,” said Vachaspati.

The absence of a signal is hardly a smoking weapon, and alternative explanations have been proposed for missing gamma rays. However, subsequent observations increasingly point to the hypothesis of Neronov and Vovkov that the voids are magnetized. “This is a majority opinion,” said Dürer. Most convincingly, in 2015, one team superimposed many dimensions of blazars behind voids and managed to tease the faint halo of low-energy gamma rays around blazars. The effect is exactly what one would expect if the particles were scattered by weak magnetic fields – measuring only about one millionth of a trillion as strong as a refrigerator magnet.

The biggest mystery of cosmology

It is amazing that just this amount of primary magnetism can be exactly what is needed to resolve the Hubble stress – the problem of the surprisingly fast expansion of the Universe.

This is precisely what Poghosyan understood when he saw the recent computer simulations of Carsten Jedamzik ​​from the University of Montpellier in France and his colleagues. Researchers added weak magnetic fields to the simulated plasma-filled young Universe and found that protons and electrons in the plasma flew along the lines of the magnetic field and accumulated in areas of the weakest field strength. This coalescence effect caused protons and electrons to combine into hydrogen — an early phase change known as recombination — earlier than they might otherwise have.

Poghosyan, reading an article by Jedamzik, realized that this could relieve Hubble’s tension. Cosmologists calculate how fast space should expand today by observing the ancient light emitted during recombination. Light shows a young Universe dotted with blots that were formed from sound waves lapping around in the primary plasma. If recombination occurred earlier than anticipated due to the thickening effect of magnetic fields, then sound waves could not propagate so far forward, and the resulting drops would be smaller. This means that the spots that we see in the sky from the time of recombination should be closer to us than the researchers assumed. The light emanating from the clots had to travel a shorter distance to reach us, which means that the light had to pass through a faster expanding space. “It’s like trying to run on an expanding surface; you cover a smaller distance, ”said Poghosyan.

The result is that smaller droplets mean a higher expected speed of cosmic expansion, which greatly brings the estimated speed closer to measuring how fast supernovae and other astronomical objects actually seem to fly apart.

“I thought, wow,” said Poghosyan, “this may indicate to us the real presence of [magnetic fields]. Therefore, I immediately wrote to Karsten.” The two met in Montpellier in February, just before the prison closed, and their calculations showed that, indeed, the amount of primary magnetism needed to solve the Hubble tension problem is also consistent with the blazar observations and the estimated size of the initial fields needed for the growth of huge magnetic fields , covering clusters of galaxies and filaments. “So, it all somehow converges,” said Poghosyan, “if that turns out to be true.”

References: Quanta Magazine

Mysteries

The mysterious death of an equally mysterious tourist

No one ever found out who this man was, what his name was and where he lived and worked. He did not hide his face and allowed many to take pictures of himself, but so far no one has identified him. And his death turned out to be frighteningly strange.

The term “hiking” in the United States refers to long walks in the fresh air, mainly in the lap of nature. And “hikers” are those who are fond of it. Hiking does not require special equipment and preparation, because the walking routes are laid along well-known paths, where there are no difficult obstacles and which pass near settlements.

Many outdoor enthusiasts, including the elderly and the disabled, practice hiking in the United States. They usually take with them a backpack, some supplies of food and water, as well as a tent if they plan to spend the night away from the settlements.

In April 2017, the man walked outside New York City and walked 2,200 miles on the Appalachian Trail, a well-known hiking trail. Then he walked the Florida Trail through Key West. It had been a long and arduous journey, but he did it easily.

Along the way, the man encountered many people, but did not tell anyone his name and seemed a little strange. He quickly became famous among other hikers and earned the nicknames “Denim” and “Mostly Harmless” from them, because his favorite book was “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy”.

Everyone he met on the trails later described him as a friendly, likeable and cheerful person who had a friendly and smiling face, but at the same time tried to stay away from other hikers. He was often asked to come on a visit to wash, dine or do laundry, but he most often turned down these offers, preferring to spend the night in his tent or in tourist hostels.

What happened to him later turned into a real detective riddle, which no one has yet solved. On July 23, 2018, two hikers, Nikolaus Horton and Logan Bull, were passing through a site called Camp Noble at Big Cypress National Reserve in Collier County, Florida. Suddenly, not far from the trail, they noticed what seemed to them an abandoned tent of bright yellow color, and out of curiosity they came closer.

Inside the tent, they found something that shook them to the core, there was the dead body of another hiker, which looked unusual even for a corpse:

“His body was twisted, and his eyes were wide open and looked straight at me.” – said Horton.

Outwardly, it was a man between the ages of 30 and 50 with a beard, but as thin and haggard as a prisoner of a concentration camp. Near the tent were his boots, walking sticks, and in the tent there was a backpack with things, a wallet with $ 3,640 in cash, and two notebooks covered with travel notes and some sort of computer-like codes.

The hikers called the police and soon an investigation was launched into the death of the unknown traveler. His body weighed only 83 pounds (37 kg) and all over it appeared that he died of severe exhaustion.

This immediately seemed very strange to everyone, because not far from this place was a road where there were eateries and cafes, and the dead man had a lot of money. Then the investigation was faced with the problem of identifying the corpse, it turned out that his prints were not in the police database, and a sample of his DNA sent for research at the University of North Texas did not show any similarity to any of the samples from the national databases.

Detectives looked through hundreds of cases of missing people in the United States to try to find a photo of a similar person, but this also did not lead to any result. Only later, when the portrait of the deceased began to be shown to other hikers, one of them recognized the deceased as a man nicknamed “Mostly harmless.”

One of the first to recognize him was a woman named Kelly Fairbanks, who said that she met him on the routes and talked, and he told her that he left New York and was walking the trails to Key West. For some time they walked along the path and Kelly spoke of him as a kind and very nice person with good eyes.

“I was surprised that he didn’t have a phone with him, it’s strange for hikers not to take the phone, and then we wished each other a good journey and said goodbye. So sorry for him, but he died doing what he loved.”

Then many more were found with whom “Harmless” met on the trails between New York and Key West, and they all told about the same. Many even photographed him as a keepsake. No one, however, knew his name, or who he worked for, whether he had family or friends.

It was discovered that he once registered at the hostel under the name Ben Bilemi, but this name was not listed in any of the US databases, so it was assumed that it was a pseudonym. Hikers could not name a single trait of “Harmless” by which it was possible to identify his identity. He did not have an unusual accent, and among his things, only unusual codes in his notebook indicated that he could be associated with computer scientists. One of the hikers claimed that Harmless once told him that he was working in the high-tech industry, but that was the only statement of this kind.

The police were taken aback. Who was this guy? Where did he come from and where did he live? If he worked in the field of IT technology, then why did no company identify him when his photos were repeatedly shown on TV? Was he engaged in some kind of secret activity, with which his strange death could be connected? In the meantime, a medical examination of Harmless’s corpse presented new puzzles.

Experts have never been able to find the cause of his death. He did not have any dangerous diseases, moreover, he was in general surprisingly in excellent health. The only clue was extreme exhaustion.

And this exhaustion was also very unusual, because it turned out that some other hikers met “Harmless” just before they found him dead, while he did not look exhausted at all. The photographs of “Harmless” taken as a souvenir by these hikers proved the veracity of their words.

All this made the case even more strange and incomprehensible, but on this the investigation finally stood up. Even the active dissemination of his photographs on social networks did not help in the hope that Internet users would recognize him.

This man did not hide his face, he had a cheerful and kind disposition, he seemed not afraid of anything and just enjoyed his rest on the trail. And then he suddenly died of extreme exhaustion in his tent, not far from the cafe and with a lot of money in his wallet. What happened to Harmless?

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Mysteries

‘Alien’ message creativity. What the crop circles really hide

At the beginning of last month, an ordinary French farmer, Gerard Benoit, suddenly became famous throughout the district. Early in the morning of July 5, 2020, walking out into his field near the town of Vimy in the very north of the country, he found that it was hopelessly spoiled. 

A little later, with the help of a drone, it turned out that the plots of crushed wheat form a gigantic pattern – the Templar cross. The farmer’s outrage knew no bounds, and he shared the “vandalism” on social networks. And completely in vain. 

A few days later, a huge geoglyph became a place of pilgrimage for thousands of curious people who began to trample the remnants of the unfortunate harvest. Mr. Benoit unwittingly turned out to be another victim of the mysterious “circles” that have regularly appeared in the fields around the world since the late 1970s. 

Tens and hundreds of thousands of enthusiasts still perceive them as evidence of contact with long-awaited extraterrestrial civilizations, although it has long been clear how these circles with an endless set of plots appear and who is really behind them. Why are these objects so common in southern England? What does the tourism industry and informal art have to do with it? Understanding.

Devil-mower

It all started in a pub, as it sometimes happens.

Location: a place called Percy Hobbs on the outskirts of the British city of Winchester in the very south of England.

Time of action: 1976.

Heroes: some Doug Bower and Dave Chorley.

Evening, it was getting dark.

The two friends were spending their time, as befits two respectable gentlemen, with a pint of ale and an interesting conversation. At some point in the conversation, Bower, who had recently returned from Australia, recalled an interesting story that flashed in Australian newspapers in the second half of the 1960s. 

Near Tully, Queensland, local farmers began reporting to police and then reporters about the mysterious circles that appeared at night in their sugarcane fields. The reasons for the appearance of the circles were never established, which made it possible with a clear conscience to call them saucer nest (“flying saucer nest”), especially since one of the farmers swore that he saw a UFO take off from this site. Having laughed at the Australians, Bower and Chorley went outside to freshen up, saw a wheat field in front of them, and then the logic of their thought, warmed up by used pints, it was quite obvious. So with the help of an ordinary iron beam and rope, their hoax began.

Over the next couple of years, friends staged several more such provocations, but no one noticed them, until in 1978 Bower and Chorley chose a particularly successful location – the natural Cheesefoot Head amphitheater, popular with tourists. 

The effect exceeded expectations – a 25-meter circle, just a circle without any pattern, first got into the regional and then national media and, naturally, fell into the sphere of close attention of various ufologists and experts in the field of inexplicable phenomena, who began to comment on the origin with a clever look object. 

It was the complete success that Bower and Chorley had been waiting for. In the future, friends themselves began to report to the media about their next work, pretending to be casual witnesses who discovered an unidentified.

The circle created by Bower and Chorley in 1978

In the second half of the 1970s – early 1980s, the popularity of all kinds of hoaxes was at its peak. Not only in narrow circles keen on the topic of the paranormal, but also among the general public, the mystery of the so-called. Bermuda Triangle, reports of another “unidentified flying object” began to be ubiquitous, the search for the “Bigfoot” was carried out in earnest, expeditions to the Scottish Loch Ness were organized. Crop circles, which began to appear in southern England, proved to be the most appropriate in such a discourse.

It immediately became clear that in fact similar objects had been recorded before. In the British Library, a pamphlet from 1678 was discovered in which a creature was doing something that looked like a circle on a field. The story of the source, whose full title was “The Devil Mower, or Strange News from Hertfordshire,” was about a farmer who refused to pay a peasant to mow a field, saying that the devil had better mow him. 

The next night, that same field was engulfed in fire, and the next morning it turned out that it was perfectly mowed. In fact, it was not very similar to the circles that appeared in England, where wheat (or other cereals) were only crushed (and not cut), but such nuances did not interest the hunters for sensations.

Much more excitement was caused by another fact – the location where these objects began to appear en masse.

Place of power

The success of the action, which began in a Winchester pub, was largely due to the place where Bower and Chorley began to arrange their antics. In the neighboring county of Wiltshire, there is the largest complex of Neolithic monuments, which by that time had already become a Mecca for lovers of everything occult. The most famous structure in this series is undoubtedly Stonehenge, located 40 minutes from Winchester. But this megalith, cult in a certain environment, did not end there. 

Fans of the New Age and similar currents were attracted by the Avebury sanctuary located in the same county (which is very conveniently a circle-ring that should have resembled objects in the wheat fields), the artificial chalk mound of Silbury Hill, the fortress of Barbury Castle, the so-called … Uffington white horse (carved in prehistoric times image of a white horse)

All these outstanding monuments of the Neolithic and Bronze Age have traditionally been in the center of attention of fans of inexplicable phenomena, who assured that the objects are covered with energy domes, connected by energy flows and, in general, are ancient relics that served for contact with someone outside of our mortal planet. 

Bower and Chorley subsequently honestly admitted that they began to stamp their circles, not least because of the reputation of the area, where, among other things, there was the densest concentration of UFO “sightings”.

Silbury Hill Mound
Avebury shrine 
Avebury shrine 
Fortress Barbury Castle
Uffington White Horse
Ridgeway road

Alien contact became the first, most popular, version of the origin of geoglyphs. However, soon the scale of what was happening acquired such a character that real scientists also took up an attempt to find a scientific explanation for it. 

The most vigorous activity in this field was developed by the meteorologist and physicist Terrence Meaden of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Canada. First, he put forward the theory that the profile of the hills in southern England directly influenced the formation of specific air vortices, which in turn could stabilize at certain points and form the necessary circle of crushed wheat. And although this version did not explain in any way why such objects (at least in such quantities) had not formed before, Bower and Chorley, who created the fake on the UFO topic, decided to take the necessary measures. 

They developed their next geoglyphs, starting to “draw” constructions from several circles instead of one circle. This, by the way, subsequently led to an ever greater complication of such objects.

In response to new facts, Meiden adapted his theory. Instead of ordinary air vortices, he made certain “electromagnetic hydrodynamic plasma vortices” responsible for the appearing mysterious formations. 

The explanation of the Canadian looked so plausible that even Stephen Hawking, after another circle appeared at his house in Cambridge, said that a certain natural vortex could have caused it. True, at the same time, the famous theoretical physicist considered human impact more likely.

A crop circle that appeared in early July of this year in France

Bower and Chorley did not give up in their fight against the scientist Meaden. In the end, in order to refute the “vortex” fabrications, they constructed an object of two circles and five rectangles. The latter certainly could not have been created by Mother Nature, which in the end had to be admitted by the unlucky Canadian meteorologist. 

Well, in 1991, Bower and Chorley decided to get their 15 minutes of fame and get out of the closet. Friends gathered the journalists and confessed to them that this whole grandiose hoax had been started by them in the second half of the 1970s. 

They said that over the past time they have created more than 200 different geoglyphs in the fields of southern England, and for convincingness they demonstrated the technology of their creation. The usual circle was extremely simple. It was necessary to determine its center, stick a conventional stick there, tie a rope to it and go around the center in a circle,

For the sake of completeness, after the formation of this exemplary circle, Bower and Chorley brought in an unsuspecting cereologist to the scene (cereology is the activity of studying “crop circles”). The expert confirmed the authenticity of the object (i.e., its inexplicable origin), after which he was quite disappointed when he was told the truth.

Occam’s razor

It must be said that the exposure of the hoax had practically no effect on the number of believers in the paranormal version of the appearance of geoglyphs. On the contrary, the hit of this entire 15-year history in newspapers and on television only contributed to the spread of such objects around the world. 

Another trend has become the progressive complication of geoglyphs. The drawing that appeared in early July 2020 on the French field is far from the most complex of those that appeared in southern England and other countries of the world. Bower and Chorley, who once started in a Winchester pub, could only envy the scale and complexity of many of them.

In the fields, not just combinations of large and small circles appeared, sometimes whole pictures were drawn there, mathematical functions, fractals were visualized (for example, the Mandelbrot set).

But if there are no questions about the authenticity of the human origin of many simple figures, for example the works of Bower and Chorley, then how much more complex drawings appeared, because many of them appeared in just one fairly short night. 

The answer to this question lies in the plane of experience and effective organization of work. Obviously, modern production of crop circles is not complete with two pairs of hands – large teams are working on them now, the actions of the participants of which are clearly coordinated. 

They already have at their disposal not only a primitive rope and a board, but also modern means of determining the geo-position, as well as laser devices that allow them to correctly calculate the distances between the elements of the figure and create objects of the desired shape.

Back in 1998, a group of authors known under the pseudonym Circlemakers demonstrated to BBC reporters the ability to create in one night the most complex spiral of 100 circles of different sizes. Even more complex drawings are sometimes made in uncrowded places, but in a few days. Or, for their creation, a formal (or informal) permission from the home team is obtained. 

Many creators of the most beautiful circles consider themselves to be real artists. Most of them even prefer to remain anonymous, as do some of their colleagues from the city streets, for example Banksy. This maintains the necessary aura of mystery of the creative process. Well, the second reason why the creators of circles do not take responsibility for their works is the fact that most often the figures in the fields can be regarded as vandalism,

Crop circle created by the Circlemakers in 1998

Despite the fact that the human origin of the circles is quite obvious (how can conventional “aliens” know, for example, about the Templar cross, and why should they draw it?), There are still many people in the world who believe in outright fantasy.

 A large number of relevant literature and specialized sites help maintain this belief. There is nothing strange about this. Firstly, rational thinking is generally not characteristic of many people, and secondly, a whole small tourism industry has been created and exists around such geoglyphs. 

Exactly the same as it happens around Loch Ness or the Bermuda Triangle. It is possible that some circles and their combinations (at least in southern England, the place of their greatest concentration) are created on purpose, as a result of the collusion of farm owners and “expert cereologists”, for whom excursions to “places of power” became a source of income. Any figure of this kind – and the latest French example confirms this once again – invariably attracts increased public attention.

Well, the victims of this whole hoax, building another theory of the origin of such tempting objects, forget about the principle of “Occam’s razor”. More often than not, the correct explanation is indeed the simplest.

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Mysteries

“Prophecy of God” about coronavirus found in an old Japanese newspaper: “Half of humans will suffer from infectious diseases in 2020”

Meticulous readers found in a newspaper thirty years ago a prediction of a coronavirus pandemic – it indicated exactly 2020 and it was predicted that half of humanity would become infected. 

The editors of the Japanese edition “Gifu Shimbun” were forced to give explanations, but this did not reassure the conspiracy theorists.

In the May 2, 1990 issue of the Gifu Shimbun, an article was published under the loud headline “Prophecy of God.” It said that in thirty years, due to global warming, the world could be swept by a pandemic of infection, which will affect half of the population. Additionally, against the background of the destruction of the ozone layer, people will also have their immunity weakened.

Conspiracy theorists who dug up the newspaper in the archives began to discuss the old publication on social networks, comparing its author to Nostradamus. Passions reached such a level that the editorial staff of “Gifu Shimbun” eventually issued a statement. The journalists explained that the article was written on the basis of the next WHO report of that time, and there are no specific details indicating the features of the coronavirus pandemic in the publication.

Japanese netizens have mixed reactions to this “prophetic” report. Some people marvel that this report is more accurate than the “big prophecy” of the French Jewish prophet Nostradamus↓

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“This is more accurate than Nostradamus’ big prediction.”

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“The big predictions of Nostradamus are more powerful than those of Nostradamus. Although the details are different, the years are all right! Even though I sometimes have things published by scientists and researchers, it’s true. Is it true?” Thoughts such as’I’ve been taken carelessly day by day, but now there are so many natural disasters, it’s time to take these issues seriously.’

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“The people who predicted the new crown are really amazing”

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“‘Half of humans are infected’ means there is more than just the new coronavirus. I want to know what the final outcome will be.”

But some people expressed disbelief↓

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“What’s this. #新冠Prophecy”

Some netizens borrowed a line from the “Doraemon” comics↓

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“Reports 30 years ago predicted that the new coronavirus epidemic has become a hot topic, but please take a look at Iduki Sugi’s comments:’I don’t believe in prophecies. People either say it by accident or are far-fetched. Interpretation attached to the meeting.'”

Nevertheless, lovers of esotericism and the theory of conspiracy began to assert that, if so, the journalists were led by a “higher power”, which, they say, was trying to give a sign to humanity. Poor WHO, which in fact issued many similar warnings, was deprived of its laurels.

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