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The Machines Of The Gods: Robots In Ancient Times?

Were there robots with artificial intelligence in ancient times? Are myths and legends about mysterious android machines just a product of human imagination? In this article we will briefly review the ancestral mythology from a technological point of view and in light of the ancient astronaut’s hypothesis.

Robots In Ancient Times

Historians usually trace the idea of ​​automatons to the Middle Ages, when the first automatic movement devices were invented, but the concept of real and artificial creatures dates back to the myths and legends of thousands of years ago.

Ancient Greece

Artificial intelligence, robots and objects that move by themselves appear in the work of the ancient Greek poets Hesiod and Homer, who lived between 750 and 650 years before Christ.

For example, the story of Talos, first mentioned around 700 BC by Hesiod, offers what could be described as the conception of a robot.

The myth describes Talos as a giant bronze man built by Hephaestus, the Greek god of invention and blacksmithing. Talos was commissioned by Zeus, the king of the Greek gods, to protect the island of Crete from invaders. He marched around the island three times a day and threw stones at the approaching enemy ships.

At its core, the giant had a tube that ran from his head to one of his feet that carried a mysterious source of life of the gods that the Greeks called icor . Another ancient text, Argonautica , dating from the third century BC, describes how the sorceress Medea defeated Talos by removing a bolt on her ankle and letting the ichor fluid out.

Robots In Ancient Times

Medea and Talos.

Pandora’s myth, first described in Hesiod’s Theogony , is another example of an “artificial being.” Although many later versions of the story portray Pandora as an innocent woman who, unknowingly, opened a box of evil, Hesiod’s original describes Pandora as an artificial evil woman built by Hephaestus and sent to Earth by order of Zeus to “Punish humans” for discovering fire.

In addition to creating Talos and Pandora, the mythical Hephaestus made other objects that moved by themselves, including a set of automatic servants, who looked like women but were made of gold. According to Homer’s account of the myth, Hephaestus gave these artificial women “the knowledge of the gods” (artificial intelligence ?!).

Ancient china

It is said that Chi You had a human body, four eyes and six legs. As if it were an antenna, a bump was coming out of his head. According to the book Shuyiji (述 異 記), his eighty-eight brothers had the same animal form, but with a bronze and iron head. Everyone “fed” with rocks and sand.

Chi You was executed by the mythical yellow emperor Huangdi, after an epic battle involving a dragon, magical powers and “storm rays” as weapons. His head was buried by his followers in a cave, where he was worshipped by locals. His grave radiated a red cloud from time to time.

Robots In Ancient Times

Chi You representation.

Emperor Huangdi, on the other hand, legends grant properties such as being immortal, the god of Kunlun Mountain and the center of the Earth. He had a winged dragon named Huang Ti, whose body shone like metal. But despite having wings, this dragon could only fly with the right weather conditions. Legend has it, for example, that one day the emperor climbed “aboard” the creature, but it failed to take off due to a hurricane – a very strange circumstance considering that dragons were considered protectors of rain and rain. wind-.

Robots In Ancient Times

The “anomaly” described in the previous paragraph can be understood under the technological vision, which would look at the “dragon” as some kind of prototype flying machine. According to ancient accounts, this “dragon” could carry up to seventy passengers in their “moustaches.”

Ancient Sumeria

This is probably the most remote and distant mention of Robots In Ancient Times. And if we go back to the farthest past, Sumeria and the Gilgamesh Epic inevitably arise .

Gilgamesh was a semi-divine king of Uruk. He was considered “two-thirds divine and a human tecius,” something that did not assure him of immortality, so, in the face of uncertainty, he decided to seek it for himself.

Luckily, Enkidu, a former rival turned friend, knew how to get to the secret abode of the gods. Enkidu told Gilgamesh that he had wandered for a while on the mountain of cedars and knew the underground entrance that led to the residence of the god Shamash. But he warned him of the danger of getting there.

A sinister monster guarded the entrance of the gods. His name was Huwawa, “the guardian of Shamash’s entrance.”

Ancient times

Huwawa representation.

This is how Enkidu described the monster or Robots In Ancient Times: “Huwawa is an extraordinarily constructed machine. Its roar is like a flood, its mouth is fire, its breath is death … You can hear a cow moving at sixty leagues and its net can capture from a great distance … Weakness takes hold of those who approach the forest doors » .

Enkidu describes what we could now consider as a kind of robot, with radar systems and equipped with weapons that throw fire, radioactive gases, and paralyzing magnetic fields.

Far from being scared, Gilgamesh would ask his friend to accompany him to fight together and stand before the secret abode of the gods, and thus claim the legitimate immortality he believed belonged to him for having divine blood.

After traveling a long distance to the west and entering the forest, Enkidu managed to find the door, but when he tried to open it an invisible force shook him a violent discharge that made him fly through the air, something that physically paralyzed him for twelve days .

When he finally recovered, he tried to convince Gilgamesh to return, but it was in vain. The monarch was determined to find immortality, so he went ahead and found an entrance tunnel. When they began to remove trees and stones to access inside, the monster Huwawa appeared.

«His appearance was powerful. His teeth were like those of a dragon, his face like that of a lion, but the most fearsome was his radiant ray, emanating from his forehead, devouring trees and bushes, from his murderous force no one could escape.

Huwawa drew a path of destruction with his killer beam, so it could be a sort of long-range laser beam.

However, and already fearing the worst of the finals, the heroes received help from above. The god Shamash, aboard his flying ship, “lifted a wind” that reached the eyes of the monster and paralyzed him. Moment that Gilgamesh took the opportunity to bring Huwawa to the ground. “Cedars resounded for two leagues, so heavy was the fall of the monster.”

Finally, Enkidu gave the coup de grace to Huwawa.

Sources:

Gods and Robots: Myths, Machines, and Ancient Dreams of Technology (2019), by Adrienne Mayor.

ChinaKnowledge.de – An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art .

The Anunnaki: Creators of Humanity (2012), by David Parcerisa.

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Ancient

The Janibekov effect and other indirect evidence of the existence of antediluvian civilization

Recently, in the northeast of Siberia, archaeologists have discovered the sites of ancient people thirty thousand years old. Before that, it was believed that the first people appeared there fourteen, fifteen millennia ago, that is, approximately when mammoths, cave lions and woolly rhinos disappeared. 

People were still considered to be responsible for the disappearance of these animals. Allegedly, the ancient people, who lived by hunting and gathering, mercilessly exterminated these animals for several centuries until they completely destroyed their population.

The decline in the number of rhinos and other animals does not coincide with the appearance of humans in this region, said the professor of evolutionary genetics at the Center for Paleogenetics Love Dalen.

New archaeological data refute this theory and testify in favor of some kind of global catastrophe that happened about 13 thousand years ago.

According to one of the versions, regular global cataclysms on Earth occur due to a regular change of poles (the Janibekov effect).

The Janibekov effect is the intermediate axis theorem, or the tennis racket theorem in classical mechanics – a statement about the instability of the rotation of a rigid body about the second principal axis of inertia. (Wikipedia)

The Janibekov effect and other indirect evidence of the existence of antediluvian civilization
The Janibekov effect and other indirect evidence of the existence of antediluvian civilization

It is believed that periodically, in the interval from 600 to 650 thousand years, the earth’s poles change, which is accompanied by global catastrophes. This is usually accompanied by powerful volcanic eruptions, intensified seething of mud springs, increased degassing, earthquakes and tsunamis, which ultimately leads to fatal changes in the climate and topography of the planet’s surface.

These practically proven facts about the global catastrophe that happened on Earth 13 thousand years ago also indirectly confirm the possible existence of an ancient (antediluvian) civilization in the northern part of the planet.

There is almost no intelligible evidence of the high development of antediluvian civilizations. There are controversial and unrecognized by science artifacts, legends, myths, traditions, strange anomalous areas, the poorly explored bottom of the ocean, probable places for mining stone and other minerals. 

All of this is either poorly researched or deliberately rejected and declared falsification. There are unique ancient structures made of stone, and their design features, construction methods and quality of stone processing are so high that sometimes they even surpass the capabilities of modern civilization.

The Janibekov effect and other indirect evidence of the existence of antediluvian civilization
The Janibekov effect and other indirect evidence of the existence of antediluvian civilization

According to the testimony of some enthusiastic researchers, namely, they are trying to unravel the mysteries of history and return historical science itself to the mainstream of truth, traces of some ancient civilization have been preserved on the Kola Peninsula. 

Most likely – Atlantis, (or Hyperborea), because somewhere in this area supposedly was the legendary island of Atlantis.

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Ancient

A fierce embodiment of Earth: The Mayan structure used for direct dialogue with the gods

Scientists at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) working in Guatemala have found evidence of the ritual significance of the classic Maya pairings. They found a structure the likes of which had never been found in Mesoamerica.

According to EurekAlert, archaeologists visited the city of Ksultun, where an ancient bathhouse was found earlier. She received the name Los Sapos. Scientists have long known that the Maya built a kind of steam room – their baths, according to their principle of operation, were designed for profuse sweating.

These baths were believed to have religious significance. They also sent here for treatment, brought women in labor. However, new research showed that the importance of such structures was even more important. The fact is that the Los Sapos bath, dating from the early classical period (250-550 AD), turned out to be unlike any other ancient Mesoamerican bath.

The researchers concluded that this was not just a place for direct dialogue with the gods. The Maya considered this bath itself an amphibian goddess. Outside, near the entrance to it, scientists found an image of this little-known deity. The goddess is depicted squatting with legs on which iguanas and reed toads sit.

“No other structure in Mesoamerica – a bathhouse or anything else – is like this building,” says STRI archaeologist Ashley Sharp. the amphibian that personified this bath.”

According to lead author of the study, Mary Clarke, the name of this goddess remains undeciphered, although it is written next to the image. Preliminary analysis of the inscription led scientists to speculate that this goddess was responsible for the cycles of pregnancy. The connection between the ideas of the birth of children and the figures of reptiles is often traced in the Maya of the classical period.

She also noted that the Los Sapos baths have been actively used by the Sultun community for about 300 years. But then something important and frightening happened. The fact is that in the “doorway” archaeologists unearthed the remains of an adult man who was buried there around 600 AD.

The analysis showed that after that no one used the bath for another 300 years. Only three centuries after the funeral, someone re-entered this structure. It is interesting that this person or several people had a strictly defined goal – they dug out a burial place and took with them part of the remains.

The rest of them they put in another place, and in the vacated grave they lit a fire. Subsequently, they repeatedly put various offerings to the gods in this grave. Dogs, birds, reed toads and iguanas were sacrificed. Archaeologists found the remains of a child in this pit, as well as numerous stone tools and ceramic shards.

“Archaeologists often find clusters of artifacts that were probably dedicated to places of worship, but rarely is there such an obvious connection between artifacts and objects,” Sharpe says. “From the image on the outer wall of Los Zapos, we know it was a ‘steam room’ “It was a rare occasion for us to associate offerings with the role that this structure played in the life of the community.”

According to the authors of the work, the offerings were probably an attempt to seek help from the goddess who personified Los Sapos. Moreover, it could even be the last attempt to please a supernatural being and prevent the loss of their lands, which were abandoned shortly after the Mayan collapse in 900 AD.

“This supernatural figure is the fierce embodiment of Earth,” Clarke concludes. “When she is unhappy, she can take revenge or deny people the things they need to survive. they negotiated with this goddess for their survival. “

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Ancient

Secrets of the Forbidden City are being solved by modern archaeologists

If we compare the millennia during which palaces were built and restored in China with an epic novel, then the Forbidden City in Beijing is its last impressive chapter.

An exhibition celebrating the 600th anniversary of the completion of the Forbidden City opened in Beijing on September 10.  Photo: Jiang Dong / CHINA DAILYAn exhibition celebrating the 600th anniversary of the completion of the Forbidden City opened in Beijing on September 10. Photo: Jiang Dong / CHINA DAILY

The previous pages of this story, although no less amazing, were partially or even almost completely lost during the rise and fall of dynasties and turned into ruins, similar to archaeological puzzles. Experts are still solving them. However, in the heart of Beijing, there is a 720,000-square-meter palace complex built of wood and clay bricks – the last surviving structure of its kind in the world. This area, which served as an imperial palace from 1420 to 1911 and where 24 emperors once lived, celebrates 600 years since the completion of construction this year.

In honor of this event, the Umen Gate galleries at the entrance to the Imperial Palace Museum became a kind of lobby, where visitors to the exhibition “Eternal Splendor: Six Centuries in the Forbidden City” enter. It will run until November 15th.

“There is so much that has happened in 600 years that can be said,” says Zhao Peng, director of the museum’s architectural heritage department and chief curator of the exhibition. “It is best to focus on the ‘city’ itself, that is, on architecture: to understand how this place was formed and modified … This is the crystallized wisdom and talent of the ancient Chinese. “

Yet it is not easy to select just 450 items, including structural elements and imperial relics, to reveal a panorama of such architectural splendor. In order to chronologically show how the complex originated, expanded and developed with the help of the exhibits, 18 significant years were selected from the entire centuries-old history. 

“These time periods help to see a fuller historical picture,” Zhao says.

In 1406, Zhu Di, the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), proposed to move the capital from Nanjing (today it is the administrative center of Jiangsu Province) to Beijing in order to better guard the northern borders. Zhu Di himself lived in Beijing as a prince.The Forbidden City was built according to rules derived from centuries of Chinese history.

The construction was completed in 1420, after almost ten years of preparation and three years of active work. The following year, the capital was officially moved to Beijing.

“A striking feature of the Forbidden City is how, despite the changing eras, certain architectural forms are strictly adhered to,” Zhao says. “This reflects traditional Chinese thought that emphasizes the importance of ritual and harmony between people and the sky.”

The Forbidden City was built according to rules derived from centuries of Chinese history. The exhibition presents “Notes on the Study of Crafts” (Kaogongji) – a treatise that spells out the basics of building a palace. It was published during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) and is part of the classic Chinese work Zhou Rituals (Zhouli) on rituals and notions of order.

“Notes on the Study of Crafts” regulate the symmetrical layouts of the capital cities, in the center of which on the north-south axis should be a palace. The historic districts of modern Beijing, including the Forbidden City, fully comply with this rule.

“Finally, this ideal layout, which has been guided for nearly 2,000 years, has been faithfully embodied in Beijing,” Zhao says.

Following the rituals is reflected in the architectural details.

For example, only the roof of the Hall of Higher Harmony – the most prestigious structure in the palace, where the most important ceremonies took place – can be decorated with ten figures of deified beings. The simpler the roof is decorated, the lower the status of the building.

The Hall of Supreme Harmony also has 11 rooms – more than any other building in the complex. (In ancient Chinese architecture, a room was a square space between four columns.)

Roof shape is another important indicator by which you can determine the status of a building. For example, the roof of the Hall of Higher Harmony is four-pitched and two-tier, its ends protrude and bend upwards. Only buildings of the highest status can have such a roof.

In 1734, Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) issued an official guide to the construction of palaces. The book, which is over 2,700 pages, spells out all the architectural criteria, including the size of the columns and the decoration of the roofs. According to Zhao, this is an important milestone in the history of the fusion of rituals with Chinese architecture.

The Forbidden City in Beijing has two older brothers. When Zhu Yuanzhang founded the Ming Dynasty and became emperor, he made the capital of his hometown, which is today in Fengyang County, Anhui Province. However, the construction of a huge palace complex for unknown reasons suddenly stopped, and Zhu Yuanzhang decided to build an imperial city in Nanjing.

The Gate of Supreme Harmony is one of the most visited attractions of the palace complex. Photo: Courtesy of CHINA DAILY

Both imperial cities fell into ruins, but some important details have survived to this day, such as stone fences and tiles in the galleries of the Umen Gate. They help to imagine what the early architecture of the Forbidden City might have looked like.

“The original appearance of buildings can often be seen in the paintings,” says the deputy director of the architectural heritage department of the museum, Di Yajing.

No matter how the new emperors followed the precepts of their ancestors, it is clear that they wanted to decorate their new home. “The Ming emperors preferred simple yet stately architecture, and therefore large buildings were built during their reign,” Di says. “However, the Qing emperors tended to be more sophisticated.”To understand whether the pictures correspond to historical reality, you need to conduct additional checks

Sometimes this was a forced decision, since it was difficult to find giant pieces of valuable timber to renovate the palace. However, the Qing emperors demonstrated their wealth and status with handicrafts of the most skillful work. Thanks to Emperor Qianlong (1711-1799), who adored fine arts, this trend reached its peak. In 1766, he ordered the construction of the Palace of Serenity and Longevity in the Forbidden City, where he planned to live after leaving the throne. The garden of this palace has become a real treasure trove of exceptional decorative objects.

The lacquered gauze fabric, which used to be placed on the window, allows visitors to appreciate its uniqueness, because the garden has never been opened to the public before. The decor of this silk combines techniques such as paper cutting, gilding, dyeing and varnishing. This means that several artisans worked on its creation at once. 12-ply fabric is paper thin.

“We tried to replicate this decor, but even modern manufacturing techniques did not help us,” Dee says. “This lost technique reminds us that cultural heritage must be carefully preserved.”

Complex renovation of the main buildings of the complex has been going on since 2002. Although it was originally planned to be completed by a round date this year, in the end the architects decided not to rush to complete the work with full responsibility and respect for history.

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