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The Hollow Earth Theory

Perhaps some of the most bizarre scientific theories ever considered were those concerning the possibility that the Earth was hollow. One of the earliest of these was proposed in 1692 by Edmund Halley.

Edmund Halley was a brilliant English astronomer whose mathematical calculations pinpointed the return of the comet that bears his name. Halley was fascinated by the earth’s magnetic field. He noticed the direction of the field varied slightly over time and the only way he could account for this was there existed not one, but several, magnetic fields. Halley came to believe that the Earth was hollow and within it was a second sphere with another field. In fact, to account for all the variations in the field, Halley finally proposed that the Earth was composed of some four spheres, each nestled inside another.

Halley also suggested that the interior of the Earth was populated with life and lit by a luminous atmosphere. He thought the aurora borealis, or northern lights, was caused by the escape of this gas through a thin crust at the poles.

Others picked up Halley’s hollow-earth theory often adding their own twists. In the eighteen century Leonhard Euler, a Swiss mathematician, replaced the multiple spheres theory with a single hollow sphere which contained a sun 600 miles wide that provided heat and light for an advanced civilization that lived there. Later Scottish mathematician Sir John Leslie proposed there were two inside suns (which he named Pluto and Proserpine).

One of the most ardent supporters of hollow-earth was the American John Symmes. Symmes was an ex-army officer and a business man. Symmes believed that the Earth was hollow and at the north and south poles there were entrances, 4,000 and 6,000 miles wide, respectively, that led to the interior. Symmes dedicated much of his life to advancing his theory and raising money to support an expedition to the North Pole for the purpose of exploring the inner earth. He was never successful, but after his death one of his followers, a newspaper editor named Jeremiah Reynolds, helped influence the U.S. government to send an expedition to Antarctica in 1838. While the explorers found no hole there, they did bring back convincing evidence that Antarctica was not just a polar ice cap, but the Earth’s seventh continent.

In 1846 the discovery of an extinct woolly mammoth frozen in ice in Siberia was used by Marshall Gardner as evidence of a hollow earth. Gardner subscribed to the single-sun-inside-the-earth theory and suggested that the mammoth was so well-preserved because it had died recently. Gardner thought that mammoths and other extinct creatures wandered freely in the interior of the earth. This one had wandered outside by using the hole at the North Pole, then was frozen and carried to Siberia on an ice flow.

That same decade a new theory about the hollow-earth appeared. It was the brainchild of Cyrus Read Teed. Teed proposed that the Earth was a hollow sphere and that people lived on the inside of it. In the center of the sphere was the sun, which was half dark and half light. As the sun turned it gave the appearance of a sunset and sunrise. The dense atmosphere in the center of the sphere prevented observers from looking up into the sky and seeing the other side of the world. Interestingly enough, Teed’s theory was hard for 19th century mathematicians to disprove based on geometry alone, since the exterior of a sphere can be mapped onto the interior with little trouble.

Teed changed his name to Koresh and founded what might today be called a cult. After buying a 300 acre tract in Florida, Koresh declared himself the messiah of a new religion. He died in 1908 without proving his ideas.

Even after his death, though, some continued to subscribe to his theory. A story is told that during World War II Hitler sent an expedition to the Baltic Island of Rugen. There Dr. Heinz Fischer pointed a telescopic camera into the sky in an attempt to photograph the British fleet across the hollow interior of a concave earth. He was apparently unsuccessful and the British fleet remained safe.

After World War II there seems to be a continuing connection between hollow-earth stories and Nazi Germany. One author, Ernst Zundel, wrote a book entitled UFOs – Nazi Secret Weapons? claiming that Hitler and his last battalion had boarded submarines at the end of the war, escaped to Argentina, and then established a base for flying saucers in the hole leading to the inside of the Earth at the South Pole. Zundel also suggested that the Nazis had originated as a separate race that had come from the inner-earth.

As time has gone on the idea of a hollow-earth has become less a theory of fringe science and more a subject of science fiction and fantasy. Perhaps this has happened because new discoveries continue to show there is no validity to most of the hollow-earth ideas. United States Navy Admiral Richard Byrd flew across the North Pole in 1926 and the South Pole in 1929 without seeing any holes leading to inner-earth. Photographs taken by astronauts in space show no entrances either. Modern geology indicates the Earth is mostly a solid mass.

One believer did seize on a NASA photograph showing a black hole at the North Pole and called it proof of an entrance to a hollow-earth. As it turned out the photo was actually a composite of several pictures taken over 24 hours so that all sections were seen in daylight and the black hole at the top was the portion of the arctic circle never illuminated during the day over winter months.

Perhaps one of the most well-known books about hollow-earth is Jules Verne’s Journey to the Center of the Earth. The book illustrates a third theory of hollow-earth which is more plausible than the other two. This is that passages from the surface lead to caverns underground in which life thrives.

In the book three scientists climb down an inactive Iceland volcano in an attempt to find a path to the center of the Earth. They don’t make it, but they do find an underground sea populated with prehistoric creatures including plesiosaurs.

Verne may have been closer to that mark than most expected. For years scientists scoffed at the idea of life thriving underground without light to provide energy. Now explorations have found rock-eating bacteria living as far as a mile below the ground. In Romania a whole ecosystem, including spiders, scorpions, leeches and millipedes has been found in a cave cut off from the surface 5.5 million years ago.

In addition to this kind of a hollow-earth there may be a “hollow Mars.” A mars rock discovered in the antarctic suggests that bacteria may have, and might continue to, exist underground on the red planet.

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Fact or fiction

Is COVID-19 a direct proof of the existence of the Matrix?

The COVID-19 pandemic since its inception is full of mysteries, however, the biggest of them is the name of the pathogen itself, which does not fit into the framework of the generally accepted taxonomy of viruses.

Moreover, the name of the virus changed several times and there was even an attempt to rename the current COVID-19. Nevertheless, the name has remained the same and therefore many conspiracy theorists think that the name COVID-19 is fraught with something. But what?

In an attempt to answer this question, with a nickname Clawspiracy on May 25, 2020 he laid out his view of the situation for general discussion and invited all conspiracy theorists to follow the traditional path of Freemasonry and lay out the so-called “magic square” from an incomprehensible word:

The square is selected with a size of 5X5 characters, the numbers are discarded, and the word COVID is sequentially written five times in the forward and reverse sequence. And to the great surprise of the author, the picture was surprisingly symmetrical.

The center of symmetry of the square is the sequence VVVVV, which, obviously, stands for Vi veri universum vivus vici or, in Latin: “By the power of truth, I, the living, have conquered the universe.” The original quote is Dr. Faust, but it is better known for Aleister Crowley, who chose VVVVV as his magical motto. 

The next element of the square is the obvious digital sequence 01010/10101 – that is, an explicit binary code that clearly indicates something and, as it were, hints at the Microsoft digital identifier, patent application for which has the number 060606:

Continuing experiments with this binary code, Clawspiracy first translated the resulting sequences into English text, receiving the letters F and K, which can be understood as a hint of the word “f *** k”, and then tried to convert the binary string to Windows-12- code 52, as a result of which he received the symbol ™ … that is, a trademark.

The third side of the magic square contains a DCD sequence. Most often, this abbreviation stands for Developmental Coordination Disorder. This is also called dispraxia – impaired movement in children in the absence of impaired muscle tone and paralysis. At the same time, children experience difficulties in performing various complex movements, they have a violation of coordination, therefore one of the names of the pathology is “clumsy child syndrome”.

DCD can also be understood as the Compulsory Declaration of Disease System or as Donation after death from circulatory arrest   and involves the removal of organs for transplantation from patients whose death has been diagnosed and confirmed using cardiorespiratory criteria.

At the moment, the study, of course, is not the most profound and not exhaustive – the author only drew the attention of the public to things that are obvious and striking. Nevertheless, even a cursory acquaintance with the subject is enough to see some hidden meaning in the word COVID-19 – there is more than enough symbolism there and for sure conspiracy theorists will still have a lot of wonderful and surprising discoveries. 

But at the moment, the most important thing and one thing is not clear: such hidden links and parallels in the name COVID-19 – is this a conspiracy of globalist Illuminati, or is Artificial Intelligence behind the pandemic?

 Or maybe the world around us is not real, but some kind of digital, in which all things are invisibly interconnected and controlled only by the laws of computational mathematics?

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Fact or fiction

Humanoid Invasion. The mystery of one of the most mysterious photographs of the twentieth century

A photograph of a space alien taken at a family picnic has become one of the most famous photographs of the twentieth century.

On May 23, 1964, a photograph of the so-called Solway-Firth astronaut, who became one of the most famous in the twentieth century. A firefighter from the English countryside, who went with his family on a picnic, took a photo that circled all the world’s newspapers. Some researchers for a long time considered photography the only reliable picture of an alien.

The birth of a legend

On May 23, 1964, a fireman and amateur photographer from Carlisle Jim Templeton went with his wife and daughter to a picnic in Burg Marsh, a picturesque area near Solway Firth Bay on the border of England and Scotland. On the trip, he took with him a Zeiss Contax camera, hoping to take some pictures against the backdrop of local landscapes.

Nothing extraordinary happened during the trip, after returning Templeton gave the film to the developer. Several dozen pictures taken by him that day were not unusual, but one of the photographs was out of the ordinary. Behind his five-year-old daughter, the silhouette of a humanoid in a silver-white “space” suit or suit was clearly visible in the photo, and a helmet with dark glass could also be seen on his head.

Templeton was absolutely sure that strangers simply could not get into the frame, because that day no one was resting in the Burg March except for a couple of pensioners who were very far from them. In addition, he was convinced that he did not see anyone (except his daughter) in the frame at the moment when he was taking the picture.

An excited fireman took the picture to the police. The police shrugged and returned the photo back, not knowing what to do with it. Templeton then gave the photograph to Kodak representatives to tell him if this could be a defect in their film. The company studied the photo and came to the conclusion that there could be no defect, someone was really captured in the photo, moreover, the photo definitely does not have any traces of photo montage and fake.

Photo © Wikipedia

History got into local newspapers, and from there it passed on to the most popular and large-circulation English newspapers. Of these, she got into the world press. The Humanoid was dubbed the Solway-Firth Astronaut / Astronaut.

A few days after that, a rocket launch at the training ground was to take place in Australia. However, the launch was canceled due to technical problems. But the story of the Solway-Firth astronaut at that time was so popular that a rumor was born that the launch was actually canceled due to the fact that on the site they saw two figures similar to the English “astronaut” figures in silver spacesuits. They tried to detain them, but they disappeared without a trace, as if dissolved in the air.

Although no evidence of this story could be found in the archives (the launch of the rocket was filmed in photos and videos, but no presence of “astronauts” on the films was recorded), it became a popular urban legend, picked up by enthusiastic ufologists.

Men in black visit

There is a popular urban legend about people in black. Allegedly working for a top-secret government organization whose function is to hide the traces of an alien presence in the world. The legend originated in the circles of ufologists in the mid-50s, and Templeton made a certain contribution to its popularization, although he himself was not one of the ufologists.

A few days after the story with the “astronaut” hit all the world media, two people came to Templeton’s home. They called themselves government agents, but refused to give their names, stating that “they are identified only by numbers.” They demanded that the firefighter take them to the place where he took his famous photograph.

Screenshot © Youtube / Dave Armitage

On the way, they asked him about the circumstances in which he took a photo. After making sure that Templeton could not tell them anything sensational, and not finding anything unusual in the Burg March, the men left very upset.

Templeton himself in later interviews said that he believed that they were most likely not associated with any government organizations. Perhaps they were amateur ufologists or reporters longing for sensation. However, in ufological circles, the version about their involvement in the “people in black” was more popular.

Humanoid

Templeton’s photo immediately gained cult status in the circles of ufologists and UFO hunters. This was almost the first serious material evidence, since almost all the other stories about UFOs and aliens were based only on unverified eyewitness accounts or obviously fake photos. In this case, a convincing argument was the examination of the Kodak film manufacturer, which confirmed that the photo is genuine and not a photo montage.

Ufologists besieged the British Department of Defense for many years with requests to study and comment on the photo, but the military did not show much interest in it. The author of the photograph received many letters from conspiracy therapists, ufologists and paranormal researchers until his death. All of them put forward their explanations of what happened and once again asked Templeton to share memories of that day in the hope that he would remember something forgotten or lost.

Falsification

Skeptics believed that Templeton simply deliberately went to falsification. A bored fireman from a remote English province went on a forgery for the sake of five minutes of fame. In this regard, England had a rich tradition. At the end of the 19th century, in the wake of the universal popularity of spiritualism, a lot of fake photographs appeared with ghosts, spirits, fairies, elves, etc. So why in the middle of the twentieth century, in the wake of the popularity of UFOs and in general the space theme, do not go for a similar forgery?

Jim Templeton 

The main argument of the supporters of this version was the fact that there were no other witnesses who could independently confirm Templeton’s words on the Burg March that day. So, nothing prevented the fireman from dressing his wife in a “space” suit or even taking a picture of a mannequin.

Templeton himself, who lived almost 50 years after this photo and regularly gave interviews, always assured that at the time when he took the photo of his daughter, there was nobody in the frame. In any case, he did not see anyone through the viewfinder of the camera, otherwise he would not have taken the picture.

Optical illusion

In the XXI century, modern technology has allowed a more thorough study of the photograph of the Solway-Firth astronaut. So the version was born, which has become one of the most popular at the present time.

Researchers were encouraged by other Templeton photos taken that very day. Several of them depict his wife, dressed in a light blue dress. Annie Templeton wore short black hair, which in a blurry photo (the “humanoid” figure was in the background and was out of focus) could be mistaken for a helmet.

After examining the photo in several professional photo editors, the researchers concluded that the “humanoid” is definitely a human figure that stands with its back to the photographer. If you look closely at the photo, it will be noticeable by the “humanoid” arm bent at the elbow.

Due to overexposure of the exposition at the time of the photograph, Templeton’s light blue dress could have acquired a white and silver color, which is noticeable in some other photographs taken that day.

However, Templeton was not necessarily a liar. He really could not see that a few meters behind his daughter was his wife. The fact is that the viewfinder of his camera had a characteristic feature, he displayed the frame far from completely. The area in which Annie Templeton was located could simply be hidden from the eyes of her husband. Therefore, he was very surprised to see a strange figure in the photo shown, reminiscent of a character from then popular science fiction films.

Jim Templeton lived a long life and passed away in 2011 at the age of 91. Becoming the author of one of the most famous photographs of the twentieth century, he regularly gave interviews until his death. Templeton did not claim that the figure in the photo is an alien or a ghost, he insisted only that he did not see her in the viewfinder while photographing and he did not know who it could be.

Currently, most researchers believe that in the famous photograph there is nothing supernatural and unusual. But some still believe that this photo is one of the few reliable evidence of the existence of life outside the Earth.

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Fact or fiction

Is it true that thousands of Brazilians saw a UFO crash?

Well, lovers of conspiracy theories, it is your time! According to recent publications in the world media, thousands of Brazilians saw an unidentified flying object in the sky. Needless to say, the numerous videos published on social networks provoked a wave of real madness. Reports that a UFO allegedly crashed in a Brazilian forest instantly diverged on Twitter after users have uploaded videos in which the alleged unknown object glows with blue, red and yellow lights. 

In one video, you can see that the lights are arranged in a triangle. Eyewitnesses also report that Google maps hid pictures from the site of the UFO crash. But what is the likelihood that this unidentified object is actually something from other worlds, and not an ordinary satellite or drone, skillfully assembled by jokers?

Did the aliens suddenly decide to fly to Rio de Janeiro or is there another explanation?

I see a UFO!

To understand what really happened in Brazil, you should turn to history. Hundreds and thousands of people around the world with an enviable frequency report that they have seen a real flying saucer. Some are convinced that they were completely abducted by the “little green people” and conducted various, often intimate, experiments on them. So, sperm was traditionally taken from men and eggs from women or the embryo was cut (hereinafter referred to as the list).

The astronomer and popularizer of science Carl Sagan in his book “The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a candle in Dark” writes:

In 1992, a survey conducted in the United States showed that more than 6,000 adult Americans believe in aliens. But for some reason, no one bothered to answer the question of why creatures so successful in physics and engineering – they overcome huge interstellar spaces, pass through walls through ghosts – are they much less able in biology? Why, if they try to keep a secret, simply do not erase all the memories of the abduction? Can not? And why do all of their equipment correspond to the size of a person and looks very much like the equipment of a regional clinic? Why do these multiple coexistence of aliens with humans?

Nothing, next time we’ll be taken for sure

The first mention of “flying saucers” appeared in the middle of the twentieth century. That was the time when humanity was preparing for travels to the moon and other planets. The idea that another, more ancient and development civilization could well reach us from a distant star system was in the air. At the same time, all testimonies about meetings with aliens and flying saucers are based solely on the testimonies of witnesses – broken and extremely contradictory. For some, the object was moving rapidly, for others, it froze in the air, still others reported that the ship had the shape of a ball, disk, and even a cigar. The UFOs were buzzing, completely silent, or just sparkling, shimmering in different colors.

In fact, most UFO reports were … honest. In most cases, people observed natural, albeit not quite ordinary phenomena. So, some UFOs turned out to be high-altitude balloons, luminous insects, optical illusions, mirages, planets seen under unusual atmospheric conditions, light refraction, meteors, artificial satellites, launch vehicles, orbits, etc. Moreover, it cannot be ruled out that these could be small comets that decayed in the upper atmosphere.

Needless to say, this sphere of the “unknown” attracts a huge number of charlatans who want to make money on UFO stories and aliens who just need to collect your seminal fluid or eggs. Journalists, science fiction writers, cinema, the Internet and social networks also contributed to the spread of the flying saucer myth. Well, what can I say, the topic is really interesting.

Video of UFO eyewitnesses in the sky over Brazil. What do you think it could be?

I note that all the evidence for the existence of flying saucers and gray (or green?) Men turned out to be frankly weak and unconvincing. For the most part, this evidence was generated by gullibility, hallucinations, ignorance of the laws of physics, fears, thirst for attention, fame, money. One way or another, today there is no evidence that mysterious objects in the sky, which are sometimes reported by people – alien ships. But what, then, did they see in Brazil?

UFO in Brazil – what is it?

So, on numerous videos on social networks you can see a fancy glowing object – what is it? According to some eyewitnesses on Twitter, “something fell into the lake. But that doesn’t seem to be a satellite. ” Then, as Express writes , dozens of posts with the #MageUFO hashtag on Twitter “disappeared”, on Reddit “posts related to Brazilian UFOs also started to disappear.” 

After that, UFO enthusiasts shared a link to a satellite image of Google Maps, which depicts a forest in Mage, located north of Rio de Janeiro. The picture showed something white in a bizarre shape. Instantly, the photo spawned several conspiracy theories.

This image was subsequently removed from Google maps

A Google spokesman tried to explain this mysterious phenomenon to Vice:

In this case, what people see in the pictures is a reflection that temporarily overloads the satellite’s sensor. In fact, the sun’s rays reflected off the building’s surface at a right angle, which briefly “blinded” the satellite. This is a fairly common occurrence.

Witnesses also reported loud explosions and shots near the crash site, as well as increased attention of police and military to what was happening. 

One way or another, even if an unidentified flying object in the sky above Brazil is indeed an alien ship, a more reasonable explanation is a satellite or another, possibly previously unknown to science, astronomical phenomenon. Agree, it is better to accept the unknown than a false explanation of the truth.

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