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The Hollow Earth Theory

Perhaps some of the most bizarre scientific theories ever considered were those concerning the possibility that the Earth was hollow. One of the earliest of these was proposed in 1692 by Edmund Halley.

Edmund Halley was a brilliant English astronomer whose mathematical calculations pinpointed the return of the comet that bears his name. Halley was fascinated by the earth’s magnetic field. He noticed the direction of the field varied slightly over time and the only way he could account for this was there existed not one, but several, magnetic fields. Halley came to believe that the Earth was hollow and within it was a second sphere with another field. In fact, to account for all the variations in the field, Halley finally proposed that the Earth was composed of some four spheres, each nestled inside another.

Halley also suggested that the interior of the Earth was populated with life and lit by a luminous atmosphere. He thought the aurora borealis, or northern lights, was caused by the escape of this gas through a thin crust at the poles.

Others picked up Halley’s hollow-earth theory often adding their own twists. In the eighteen century Leonhard Euler, a Swiss mathematician, replaced the multiple spheres theory with a single hollow sphere which contained a sun 600 miles wide that provided heat and light for an advanced civilization that lived there. Later Scottish mathematician Sir John Leslie proposed there were two inside suns (which he named Pluto and Proserpine).

One of the most ardent supporters of hollow-earth was the American John Symmes. Symmes was an ex-army officer and a business man. Symmes believed that the Earth was hollow and at the north and south poles there were entrances, 4,000 and 6,000 miles wide, respectively, that led to the interior. Symmes dedicated much of his life to advancing his theory and raising money to support an expedition to the North Pole for the purpose of exploring the inner earth. He was never successful, but after his death one of his followers, a newspaper editor named Jeremiah Reynolds, helped influence the U.S. government to send an expedition to Antarctica in 1838. While the explorers found no hole there, they did bring back convincing evidence that Antarctica was not just a polar ice cap, but the Earth’s seventh continent.

In 1846 the discovery of an extinct woolly mammoth frozen in ice in Siberia was used by Marshall Gardner as evidence of a hollow earth. Gardner subscribed to the single-sun-inside-the-earth theory and suggested that the mammoth was so well-preserved because it had died recently. Gardner thought that mammoths and other extinct creatures wandered freely in the interior of the earth. This one had wandered outside by using the hole at the North Pole, then was frozen and carried to Siberia on an ice flow.

That same decade a new theory about the hollow-earth appeared. It was the brainchild of Cyrus Read Teed. Teed proposed that the Earth was a hollow sphere and that people lived on the inside of it. In the center of the sphere was the sun, which was half dark and half light. As the sun turned it gave the appearance of a sunset and sunrise. The dense atmosphere in the center of the sphere prevented observers from looking up into the sky and seeing the other side of the world. Interestingly enough, Teed’s theory was hard for 19th century mathematicians to disprove based on geometry alone, since the exterior of a sphere can be mapped onto the interior with little trouble.

Teed changed his name to Koresh and founded what might today be called a cult. After buying a 300 acre tract in Florida, Koresh declared himself the messiah of a new religion. He died in 1908 without proving his ideas.

Even after his death, though, some continued to subscribe to his theory. A story is told that during World War II Hitler sent an expedition to the Baltic Island of Rugen. There Dr. Heinz Fischer pointed a telescopic camera into the sky in an attempt to photograph the British fleet across the hollow interior of a concave earth. He was apparently unsuccessful and the British fleet remained safe.

After World War II there seems to be a continuing connection between hollow-earth stories and Nazi Germany. One author, Ernst Zundel, wrote a book entitled UFOs – Nazi Secret Weapons? claiming that Hitler and his last battalion had boarded submarines at the end of the war, escaped to Argentina, and then established a base for flying saucers in the hole leading to the inside of the Earth at the South Pole. Zundel also suggested that the Nazis had originated as a separate race that had come from the inner-earth.

As time has gone on the idea of a hollow-earth has become less a theory of fringe science and more a subject of science fiction and fantasy. Perhaps this has happened because new discoveries continue to show there is no validity to most of the hollow-earth ideas. United States Navy Admiral Richard Byrd flew across the North Pole in 1926 and the South Pole in 1929 without seeing any holes leading to inner-earth. Photographs taken by astronauts in space show no entrances either. Modern geology indicates the Earth is mostly a solid mass.

One believer did seize on a NASA photograph showing a black hole at the North Pole and called it proof of an entrance to a hollow-earth. As it turned out the photo was actually a composite of several pictures taken over 24 hours so that all sections were seen in daylight and the black hole at the top was the portion of the arctic circle never illuminated during the day over winter months.

Perhaps one of the most well-known books about hollow-earth is Jules Verne’s Journey to the Center of the Earth. The book illustrates a third theory of hollow-earth which is more plausible than the other two. This is that passages from the surface lead to caverns underground in which life thrives.

In the book three scientists climb down an inactive Iceland volcano in an attempt to find a path to the center of the Earth. They don’t make it, but they do find an underground sea populated with prehistoric creatures including plesiosaurs.

Verne may have been closer to that mark than most expected. For years scientists scoffed at the idea of life thriving underground without light to provide energy. Now explorations have found rock-eating bacteria living as far as a mile below the ground. In Romania a whole ecosystem, including spiders, scorpions, leeches and millipedes has been found in a cave cut off from the surface 5.5 million years ago.

In addition to this kind of a hollow-earth there may be a “hollow Mars.” A mars rock discovered in the antarctic suggests that bacteria may have, and might continue to, exist underground on the red planet.

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Fact or fiction

Scientists have found fragments of bones and wood in nails, which could be used to crucify Jesus Christ

Researchers have not yet undertaken to draw parallels with the biblical story, but they argue that the found nails have definitely crucified someone.

Scientists have discovered fragments of ancient bone and wood in nails that could have crucified Jesus Christ. Debates about their authenticity are still ongoing in scientific circles. It is reported by The Sun.

The nails are believed to have been found in Jerusalem, in a first-century burial cave that could have been the resting place of Caiaphas, the Jewish priest who sent Jesus to death, according to the Bible.

But in 1990, from the excavation site, the aforementioned nails disappeared.

Years later, filmmaker Simha Yakubovich announced that he had found nails driven by the Romans into the cross of Jesus. Then scientists rejected Yakubovich’s statement, saying that the nails he found did not resemble those that were found in the tomb of Caiaphas.

nails, Jesus Christ, crucifix
One of the nails found. Photo: Pen News / Aryeh Shimron

But a new study showed not only that the nails were from the same tomb, but also that they actually crucified someone.

nails, Jesus Christ, crucifix
Another found nail. Photo: Pen News / Aryeh Shimron

The lead author of the study, Aryeh Shimron, compared the material from the nails to the material from the ossuaries of the tomb – limestone boxes in which the bones of the dead were kept.

“The material entering the caves does not differ significantly from burial to burial depending on the topography, soil composition in the region, microclimate and surrounding vegetation. Consequently, the caves have excellent physical and chemical characteristics,” says Shimron.

He investigated the properties of the materials that had fallen into the tomb and its ossuaries over the centuries. Shimron discovered that Caiaphas’s cave was the only place where the nails could have been. A total of 25 tombs were checked.

nails, Jesus Christ, crucifix
Ossuary for the bones of the deceased. Photo: Pen News / Aryeh Shimron

“We also found small pieces of wood in the iron oxide rust on the nails. They were well preserved and completely fossilized. Therefore, this is an ancient tree, not accidentally or artificially attached to nails. In the rust and sediment on the nails, we also identified and photographed several microscopic bone fragments “, – the scientist notes.

For Dr. Shimron, a retired geologist who worked with the Israel Geological Survey, the evidence is compelling.

“I believe that the scientific evidence that nails were used to crucify someone is strong enough,” the author emphasizes.

nails, Jesus Christ, crucifix
Pieces of wood on nails. Photo: Pen News / Aryeh Shimron

It is also important to note that crucifixion nails were previously considered powerful amulets. Therefore, the repentant Caiaphas could have left the nails with him, Yakubovich claims. He also says that the nails found would be enough to nail a human hand to the bar. The nails themselves could be bent at the ends to prevent the convict from freeing himself.

nails, Jesus Christ, crucifix
A fragment of bone on one of the nails. Photo: Pen News / Aryeh Shimron

But Dr. Shimron believes that his discovery does not in any way connect the ancient nails with Christ.

“The evidence that the nails were used in the crucifixion is really compelling. But the only evidence of their connection to Jesus is that they were found in Caiaphas’s tomb. Is there enough evidence? on assumptions “, – summed up Shimron.

The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) previously argued that the found nails had nothing to do with Caiaphas’ tomb. The department decided not to change its position now, in the light of a new study.

“It seems that the nails mentioned were indeed found in one of the caves in Jerusalem dating back to the same period. However, a direct connection with this particular cave has not been proven. In fact, even if such a connection were found, we still cannot confirm with certainty that the burial place belonged to the high priest Caiaphas,” the department said in a statement.

They also note that in the past there were many questions related to the arrangement of the cave, which was too simple and did not correspond to the higher social status of the priest.

Be that as it may, if the nails were indeed used in the crucifixion, it is a surprisingly rare find. There is currently only one undeniable example of a crucifix found in 1968. Then archaeologists discovered a heel bone with a nail driven into it.

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Fact or fiction

The date of the beginning of the Great War has become known?

As our readers and visitors to many other sites and forums have already noticed more than once, in the past few months people around the world have begun to see some alarming, sometimes even completely wild and crazy dreams – atomic war, rain from asteroids, zombie invasion etc. Is it connected with the approach of something like that, or is it someone is inspiring people?

It is impossible to unequivocally answer this question, nevertheless, it can be assumed that if the world is waiting for a war, it means that if not every person on Earth, then many people will be somehow informed about this by some prophetic dreams.

A couple of days ago, one of the participants in the discussion on abovetopsecret.com shared a dream with interlocutors, which he rightly qualifies as prophetic. Since in this prophetic dream we are talking about the approximate date of the beginning of the Third World War, we offer it to the attention of our readers. So:

Good day all, I normally keep this stuff to myself as it’s usually along the lines of Deja Vu, but as most of it is lining up with current events I figured I’d throw it up here. Take it as you will.

About the beginning or middle of last year I had an unusual dream. It lasted the entire night. It ran in chronological order and after each set I woke up. After going back to sleep the dream picked back up at where it left off.

The dream:

I was leaving a vehicle and walking towards a large, long building. I was walking through the parking lot towards it. A woman walked up to me and showed me a box, or frame with something important on it that I needed to see. I could not make out what it was. The moment froze and it was explained to me that what was on the frame was not important. The moment was the image that I needed to remember. That moment of standing in this parking lot, outside this building, with this woman presenting a frame or box for me to observe, this was a marker for me to know that the events to follow were about to start. I woke up and then went back to sleep.

I will make a note that this event happened in Oct of last year, 2019. I was taking a Class A driving course and had pulled the rig into the DMV parking lot for the test. I got out and started walking towards the building when the female instructor came out and met me in the parking and presented a clip-box with paperwork on it for me to read. That moment popped and I remembered the dream and knew it was that moment I had seen.

Returning to the dream. I was shown a series of events in succession as I was led through the streets. People were roaming the streets in protest and bewilderment. The elderly had been removed from society and placed into homes that were now off limits to anyone younger. No one could go in and see them. Throngs of people gathered around these homes demanding access but were denied. Resources grew scarce and a conflict arose between the young and the old. The elderly argued that they should be provided some of the few resources as they could not obtain it themselves due to their predicament. The young argued that all resources should be given to them alone as they were the future and had to survive. This is the second time I woke up.

After falling back asleep a voice spoke to me and said that Cannabis would be decriminalized at the Federal level. I was told this was the second marker for me to watch for. When this happened it would signal the beginning of the great war. I was told that this war, unlike the others, was not going to be about land or money or religious ideologies, but the strife between the young and the old. After this I woke up.

Upon going back to sleep, I saw a figure of a woman like a warrior on a field of flame and strife. She said each night she would return to the battle grounds.

Given recent events I figured I’d share. I don’t completely get the whole strife between young and old causing a war, but who knows what tomorrow brings.

This dream is now being discussed in several forums, since in the summer of 2020 a bill was put to the vote in the US Senate to legalize marijuana at the federal level – now it can only be smoked in a few states. Voting was scheduled for September 18th, but when September 18th came, the Senate moved the vote to “post-election.” Thus, the third and most important part coincided with the prophecy from the dream.

Only the story about young and old is not very clear. Some see it as a fight against a pandemic, during which older people in many countries were indeed locked in their homes. There is also an opinion that this part of the dream is allegorical. That is, the elderly are conservatives, republicans, and the young are liberals and democrats or, the elderly are the West and the United States, and the young are the recently reared China.

The author of the post finds it difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, a 2/3 dream came true and its last third is the legalization of marijuana in America. As soon as the bill is voted on, will the Great War begin?

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Fact or fiction

Earth is threatened by asteroid collision a day before US elections

A refrigerator-sized asteroid could hit Earth a day before the US presidential election , which is scheduled for November 3. American astrophysicist Neil DeGrasse Tyson announced this on his Instagram page.

“Asteroid 2018VP1, a refrigerator-sized asteroid in space, is speeding towards us at over 25,000 miles per hour,” he wrote.

At the same time, the scientist assured that there would be no particular harm from such a collision, since the asteroid is relatively small in size. According to Tyson, if “the end of the world comes in 2020, it is not the fault of the universe.”

According to NASA, the probability that an asteroid will enter the Earth’s atmosphere is 0.41 percent. It is expected to flyby at 384 thousand kilometers.

Asteroid 2018 VP1 was discovered on November 3, 2018. It belongs to the “Apollo” group – these are asteroids whose paths cross the earth’s orbit.

No protection from dangerous asteroids

Humanity does not have the technical ability to prevent a large asteroid from falling to Earth. Currently, there are no such opportunities. The only means is to notify the population. However, we cannot predict where on Earth the asteroid will hit. The orbit and angles of entry into the atmosphere are determined with an error. It turns out that one asteroid can have a whole track from possible points of impact, which can stretch for half of the Earth.

The origin of life when an asteroid falls

Japanese scientists studying the origin of life on Earth simulated on an experimental setup the conditions that arise when an asteroid falls into the ocean. It turned out that with such an event complex organic compounds such as amino acids are formed in water.It turned out that the shock produces amino acids such as glycine and alanine, which serve as building blocks for proteins involved in many biological reactions.In the early stages of development on Mars, as on Earth, falls of meteorites and asteroids were common, and the formation of amino acids induced by impacts could well be the first step towards the origin of life, scientists say.

US presidential election

The US presidential election will be held on November 3. The current leader of the country, Donald Trump, is running for a second Republican term. His main rival is Democratic candidate Joe Biden. 

According to the data on the number of views in the past debate, Biden’s speech was watched by 600 thousand more people than Trump.

Most states vote in whole or in part by mail. Earlier, Trump called Biden “the worst presidential candidate in history” and jokingly promised to leave the United States if he loses the election.

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