by Brandon West, Project Global Awakening
In Robert Bauval’s 2008 book The Egypt Code, in his typical meticulously researched style has sets out to prove the theory that the ancient Egyptians built their pyramids on the Memphite Necropolis not in a random haphazard fashion, but to reflect the cosmos in order to unite Heaven and Earth.
Here I will present the core ideas and evidence from Robert Bauval’s book The Egypt Code that validate the existence of a high civilization that existed on this Earth around 12,000 years ago.
This is important because for one, it is essential that we understand the truth of our history and the truth of human origins.
And secondly, there is a lot of ancient knowledge and wisdom that the ancient Egyptians possessed which we have forgotten. In the words of Robert Bauval:
“I hope that the new generation of Egyptologists will come to see, as I did, that ancient Egypt is not a defunct civilization to be studied in a dispassionate way, but rather a cultural model that is very much alive and needs to be understood, with, perhaps, some of its principles put again into practice for the benefit of mankind.” (The Egypt Code, p.187)
What we are concerned about in this article is, more or less, is the origin of the myth that Egypt was made in “the image of Heaven.” In his book, The Egypt Code, Robert Bauval equates this with the creation myth of Heliopolis where they give the genealogy of the pantheon of Gods and how their interactions created Heaven, the Earth, the Air and so on.
He concludes, “this is probably where the idea came from that the image of the sky had been imprinted on the land and made Egypt ‘the image of Heaven’.” (p.44)
But what if the origin of that myth was not actually a myth at all but architectural in origin, and what if it was actually much more ancient? What if it was a memory that had been passed on to future generations, and that it had been mythologized once the meaning of the memory had been forgotten by some, maybe even the majority?
This is what I believe to be the case. Let us begin with the pyramids.
The Mystery of The Pyramids
It is almost unanimously accepted by scholars that the Great pyramid of Giza was built around the date of c.2500 BCE. This is based on the assumption that Khufu built this great monument, which places it nicely during the peak of ‘pyramid age’ in Egypt when it is undeniable that the Egyptians undertook a massive pyramid building project.
Yet there are some idiosyncrasies.
No other pyramid in Egypt comes close to the Great Pyramid. Especially the ones which we know were built during the pyramid age, many of which have been reduced to a pile of rubble today.
There is also the unexplained fact that it appears as if the building skill of the ancient Egyptians declined over time, instead of improved. And yet the great pyramid still stands, even though its outer layer of white limestone was mined off to build the city of Cairo, it remains today virtually unaffected.
Not to mention the fact that the ancient Egyptians themselves never even claim to have built the Great Pyramid.
There is only one piece of evidence which Egyptologists use to date the pyramid to 2,500 BCE, and it is a cartouche of Khufu’s name that was written on the wall in red ocher paint in a isolated little space within the great pyramid that we had to use dynamite to blast our way into.
Nowhere else in the entire pyramid is there a single inscription, except in this space that was enclosed even before the pyramid was fully completed. This to me is suggestive of the fact that the ancient Egyptians never even got inside the Great Pyramid simply because, as we know, they put inscriptions on everything and about everything.
So basically the official story of the dating of the pyramid is that we allegedly know it was built around c.2500 BCE because of an alleged original cartouche painted on a wall – not even inscribed – in a room that the builders would have fully believed that no-one would have ever entered again?
That to me sounds as flaky as the official 9/11 story. Perhaps the same people were behind it.
The other piece of evidence that admittedly is much more convincingly dates the great pyramid to c.2500 BCE was uncovered by Robert Bauval. He discovered that the southern shaft in the Kings Chamber points to the stars of Orion’s belt as they were in c.2500 BCE (Graham Hancock’s Quest For The Lost Civilization: Heaven’s Mirror).
This is far more convincing evidence that it could have been built then, but yet it still does not resolve the fact that the Egyptians never claimed to have built the great pyramid, and that a star map is created on the ground by the Giza pyramids specifically indicating 11,541 BCE (as we shall see), as well as the simple fact that these pyramids were beyond Egypt’s level of technology at that time (as they are probably even beyond our level of technology today).
This should, if we are open-minded, lead us to at least consider that it was built in an earlier time.
An Older Date For The Pyramids?
“The fifth century BC historian Herodotus called Egypt ‘the gift of the Nile’. The Egyptians themselves went a lot further. They claimed that their sacred river had its source among the stars.” – Robert Bauval (The Egypt Code, p. 33)
In Robert Bauval’s book The Egypt Code, in his meticulously researched style he provides a lot of highly persuasive evidence that the Egyptians built their pyramids in the Memphite Necropolis to reflect the heavens.
He realized that when observing the Memphite Necropolis from a northerly perspective, specifically from an ancient site known as Letopolis, he found that while looking south along the Nile, some of the major ancient sites would have created a start map with the Nile symbolically representing the Milky Way (The Egypt Code, p.106).
The city of Heliopolis would have been closest to this vantage point, south and to the left of the Nile, which as he shows in his book was an ancient cult center that revolved around stars, but also later around the Sun God, Ra. He further provides convincing evidence (The Egypt Code, pages 79-95) that Ra was later coalesced with the stellar god Horakhti (Horus-of-the-Horizon), who was often symbolized as a ‘recumbent lion’, merging to create the deity Ra-Horakhti (Ra-Horus of the Horizon).
In Robert Bauval’s own words:
“Being such attentive observers of the constellations to the point of obsession… it would be very odd indeed if the priests of Heliopolis did not take particular notice of the lion-shaped constellation that housed the sun at this time of year, and which was the perfect metaphor for Ra-Horakhti, the merger of Ra with the cosmic lion.” (The Egypt Code, p.85)
Therefore Heliopolis would have represented the constellation Leo in the sky.
Then further south and to the right (west) of the Nile this time we have the great pyramids of Giza which clearly are aligned to represent Orion in the sky. Curiously they are in the right alignment in accordance with the Nile as well to reflect the relationship between the Milky Way and the Orion constellation in the sky.
Then further south again on the right (west) side of the Nile we have the small cluster of Abusir pyramids which would represent the Pleiades constellation creating a sky map on the ground with the triangular relationship of Leo-Orion-Pleiades all accounted for on the ground and all located in sync with the Nile to represent the Milky Way.
The only thing is that at c. 2500 BCE the Nile, which runs south-north, would have been perpendicular to Milky Way in the sky which would have been parallel with the horizon at that time (The Egypt Code, p.107). This is where things get interesting, and where Robert Bauval courageously and admirably follows the evidence even though it breaks away from convention.
Was there a time when the Milky Way would have been running in a “north-south” direction in the sky so that it was in alignment with the Nile, and so that this star map was a mirror image of the heavens, instead of an image that had to be rotated 90 degrees for it to be a match? Robert Bauval believed so.
Star Map of the Memphite Necropolis
Based off of the Sothic cycles (which relate to the ancient Egyptians calendar which played an important role in The Egypt Code but which is unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) Robert Bauval decided turn back the heavens which change over time due to the phenomenon called precession of the equnoxes, to arrive at the date of 11,541 BCE (The Egypt Code p.110-111).
The amazing thing is that on the date of 11,541 BCE the Milky Way would have actually been turned 90 degrees compared to how it appeared in c.2500 BCE, and this time instead of running perpendicular with the Nile, it runs parallel with the Nile and perpendicular to the horizon actually giving the appearance that the Milky Way, the cosmic river, is flowing directly into the Nile river!
Thus when the Egyptians claimed that their Nile was sourced in the stars this was not merely myth, this was a direct reference to a much older date when it actually looked as if this was the case, albeit from an imaginative and poetic perspective.
Amazingly when we observe the stars and the alignments of the pyramids from this vantage point, the two brightest stars of Orion make an angle of 43° 20′ with the north-south meridian, and the two largest pyramids at Giza (Khufu’s and Khafre’s) also make an angle of 43° 20′ with the north south meridian. And they are both positioned to the left of the Nile-Milky Way. A perfect star map on the ground.
Copyright Robert Bauval, The Egypt Code, p. 110
Moreover, as the [above] image shows, Heliopolis which as we have seen was dedicated to Ra (which was sometimes symbolized as a lion) would have mirrored on the ground the location of the constellation of Leo, and the pyramids of Abusir were in the correct location (although not perfect) to represent the Pleiades star cluster.
In the words of Robert Bauval,
“Controversial as this may at first seem, we have also seen how, when the sky is precessed to 11,451 BC and the three stars of Orion are aligned along the meridian with the three pyramids of Giza, the image of Zep Tepi in the sky (the triangular region of Orion-Pleiades-Leo) bears an uncanny resemblance to the image of zep tepi on the ground (the triangular region of Giza-Memphis-Heliopolis).” (The Egypt Code, p.184)
Now in the Egypt Code, Robert Bauval provides this as solid evidence that the ancient Egyptians built their pyramids on the Memphite Necropolis according to a master plan: to reflect the image of heaven in Egypt thus fulfilling the belief that Egypt was made in “the image of heaven” as we discussed at the beginning of this article.
I agree with Robert Bauval wholeheartedly … in part. It is clear that during the pyramid age, which comprised the third to sixth dynasties between c. 2686 – 2181 BCE (The Orion Mystery, p. 13) the ancient Egyptians did embark on a zealous pyramid building project and the evidence strongly suggests that they built according to a master plan to mirror the heavens in Egypt, after all, how could all of those alignments be chalked up to pure coincidence?
But is there not another explanation?
An Ancient Legacy From Zep Tepi
As I have explained previously, and not in very much detail as I could have (and will soon) write a whole article just based off of the scientifically advanced and mysterious nature of the great pyramid, I do not believe that it was built around 2500 BCE, and I believe the evidence supports this.
Even if we look at this truly groundbreaking and ingenious theory that Robert Bauval has proposed, there are a couple of things that don’t sit right with me.
Namely the fact that the Giza pyramids are aligned to a single arc minute to perfectly reflect the constellation of Orion as it appeared in 11,451 BCE, whereas Heliopolis and the Abusir pyramids are much less exact, and are merely built in the right places so that they resemble the location of the stars, but not the exact alignments as with the Giza pyramids.
Robert Bauval said himself of the Heliopolis site and the Abusir pyramids:
“Admittedly the match is not mathematically perfect due to bedrock realities of geography and topography.” (The Egypt Code, p.106)
The issue is, wheras the other sites are not mathematically perfect, it is clear that everything about the great pyramid, and the other Giza pyramids for that matter, are mathematically perfect.
And it seems to me that if it was the true pyramid builders intention to build more pyramids from the start, I believe the builders would have moved mountains not only to make it a reality, but to make it perfect.
For they clearly shown us that it was within their capabilities given the fact that they quite literally built a mountain, and that meticulous planning and surveying certainly went into the engineering and construction of these monuments. From everything to do with its architecture, all the way to the greater cosmic alignments it represents, the great pyramid is nearly perfect, and maybe it once was …
This suggests to me that it was the work of an entirely different civilization, and a more advanced civilization at that.
I think that the reason why the ancient Egyptian pyramid builders built their pyramids according to this master plan, and the origin of the myth that Egypt was made in “the image of Heaven” have a common source.
The evidence suggests, however unlikely or against our preconceptions it may be, that the Giza pyramids where built in or around 11,541 BCE in the specific alignment to commemorate the stars at that time, which is most probably the origin of the myth that Egypt was made “in the image of Heaven”.
I believe the ancient myth that Egypt was built in the image of Heaven was referring to these pyramids of great antiquity, and that this tradition was transmitted orally through each generation and that the pyramid age of centering roughly around c.2500 BCE was an attempt to continue to the work that was started much earlier by a race of Gods (to the Egyptian mind anyways), in the legendary first time, which as Robert Bauval has shown us has been fixed in time by these massive stone monuments no matter which way we look at it.
The question is, is there any proof? I would say yes.
The ancient astronomer-priest did hold advanced and to their minds truly sacred knowledge of the movements of the stars, and the heavenly cycles, as is commonly accepted. But what if they held another type of knowledge as well, ancient knowledge? Ancient knowledge the likes of which the Egyptian priest who Solon, Plato’s ancestor, refers to when he says to Solon:
Egyptian priest: Oh Solon, Solon, you Greeks are all children, and there’s no such thing as an old Greek.
Solon: What do you mean by that?
Egyptian priest: You are all young in mind, you have no belief rooted in old tradition, and no knowledge hoary with age. And the reason is this … With you, and others, writing and the other necessities of civilization have only just been developed when the periodic scourge of the deluge descends and spares none but the unlettered and the uncultured – so that you have to begin again like children, in complete ignorance of what happened in early times … You remember only one deluge, though there have been many … (Timaeus and Critias, p.35-36)
Now the veracity of Plato’s claims have been called into question, and rightly so. We should never believe anything completely just because it was claimed by someone, or written somewhere… even if it was Plato who said it.
But the interesting thing is that there is supporting scientific evidence and mythical evidence from another ancient culture both of which identify the same dates for the global flood, and the claim that “there have been many” floods.
The more ancient flood myth is from India, and it is the Kumari Kandum myths which are the myths about an ancient advanced civilization that existed more than 10,000 years ago in India who built great centers for learning and in general is very reminiscent of the Atlantis myth.
Graham Hancock explores this in detail in his phenomenal book Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization.
“The first great deluge took place in 16,000 BC … The second one occurred in 14,058 BC when parts of Kumari Kandam went under the sea. The third one happened in 9564 BC when a large part of Kumari Kandum was submerged.” (Underworld, p. 245)
Coincidentally the dates given in the Kumari Kandum myth for the last deluge closely match the date that Plato (and thus the Egyptian priest gives Solon) for the inundation of the civilization of Atlantis. According to the Egyptian priest Atlantis was inundanted around 9600 BCE.
The fact that these ancient cultures have myths which identify that specific date is highly intriguing and at least increases their credibly.
But astonishingly, not only does modern science identify a very similar time frame for a global superflood that occurred right around that date, science also predicts that there were in fact three global superfloods just like the Kumari Kandum myth states occurring roughly between the approximate time bands: 15,000-14,000 years ago, 12,000-11,000 years ago, and 8000-7000 years ago. These dates are given to us by the work of Professor John Shaw from the University of Alberta (Underworld, p.65).
As it it can be clearly seen, the Egyptian priests date of 9500 BCE lies right in the middle of the period for the global superflood which is given to us by science.
Now the point of all of this in relationship to the age of the pyramids is merely to prove the validity of the statements made by the Egyptian priest, and thus how he specifically says that the Egyptian culture is many thousands of years old with written records extending back 8000 years, and “knowledge hoary with age”.
Now that we have seen that the priests date of the global flood was true, and the occurrence of multiple floods, we must accept that the rest of his claims also have at least some truth to them, if their are not entirely truthful.
Thus as an ancient Egyptian priest states clearly, there was much ancient knowledge passed on within the Egyptian priesthood. And then at such a time that they were either instructed to act on the knowledge, or that they decided that it was time to, the could have, in their position as adviser to the Kings and Pharaohs, enlightened them of this knowledge and the cosmic alignment within Egypt and urged him to act on it.
It would not have taken much convincing considering the glory in the eyes of man and the Gods that the Pharaohs would have gained to participate in this work.
Therefore, based on the evidence at hand (that which I have provided here and that which is beyond the scope of this specific article) we should at least consider the possibility that the pyramids of Giza where built around the date of 11,451 BCE by an ancient and as yet lost civilization.
And it was these specific pyramids and their alignment with the Nile and thus the cosmos, which gave birth to the idea that Egypt was made in “the image of heaven”.
It may have even been this knowledge and the pyramids themselves which spurred the ancient Egyptians into the massive pyramid building project that was the pyramid age.
Not necessarily in an effort to mirror heaven on earth, although that was definitely a motivation, but more to bring themselves closer to the Gods who had already begun this work, and thus become Gods themselves by continuing on with the work that had already begun in the Memphite Necropolis.
The Sphinx itself acts as another key to this cosmic mystery on earth. As Graham Hancock has shown in his Quest For The Lost Civilization: Heaven’s Mirror (which can be found on youtube), exactly due East in alignment with the sphinx gaze, the sphinx will be looking at a very specific constellation rising just before the sun on the vernal equinox every year, the first day of spring.
But due to the phenomenon known as precession of the equinoxes that constellation changes over time. The precession of the equinoxes is generally explained as a slow axial wobble of the Earth with a period of approximately 26,000 years, but the period is not fixed.
So if the Sphinx was built in 2500 BCE as is proposed by the Egyptology community, then the sphinx would be facing the constellation Taurus just before the sun rises on the spring equinox. Therefore you would expect the sphinx not to be in the shape of a lion, but in the shape of a bull to represent that constellation.
But, if you rewind the stars you will find that there is a time in history when the sphinx would be facing its own ‘celestial counterpart’ in the sky: 10,500 BCE.
As the work of John Anthony West and Robert M. Schoch also suggests, the sphinx itself is almost certainly much more ancient due to the fact of the weathering patterns on the side of the sphinx that could have only been caused by thousands of years of torrential rainfall which at the very least bring its date of construction out of the grips of c.2500 BCE period which the Egyptologists have stubbornly fixed it in.
But in spite of the inflexibility of the egyptologists, the ancient Egyptians themselves are speaking to us clearly. Almost as if to tell us that we have unraveled this mystery correctly, there is a block inbetween the paws of the sphinx covered with inscriptions, and one of the lines mysteriously reads:
“This is the Splendid Place of the First Time.” – (The Egypt Code, p.66)
It is almost as if the sphinx is gazing not in space, but in time, silently imploring to us to make this connection and to remember the events of that pivotal period in our pre-history.
What could have happened in between 11,500 BCE and 10,500 BCE?
The magnetic soul of the universe
“In 1945, the primitive appearance of pre-intelligent primates on planet Earth blew up the first thermonuclear device. They did not suspect that they created an echo in the super-space web, used for non-local communication and the transmigration of souls by the civilizations of the Trans-galactic union, network , which the more mysterious races call the “body of God.”
Shortly afterwards, the secret forces of intelligent races were sent to Earth to observe the situation and prevent further electromagnetic destruction of the universal network. “
The introduction taken in quotation marks looks like a plot for science fiction, but just such a conclusion can be drawn after reading this scientific article. The presence of this network pervading the entire Universe could explain a lot – for example, the UFO phenomenon, their elusiveness and invisibility, incredible possibilities, and besides, indirectly, this theory of the “body of God” gives us real evidence that there is life after death.
We are at the very initial stage of development, and in fact we are “pre-intelligent beings” and who knows if we can find the strength in ourselves to become a truly intelligent race. Astronomers have discovered that magnetic fields permeate much of space. Hidden lines of the magnetic field extend for millions of light years throughout the universe.
Each time astronomers come up with a new way to search for magnetic fields in more and more distant regions of space, they inexplicably find them.
These force fields are the same entities that surround the Earth, the Sun and all galaxies. Twenty years ago, astronomers began to discover magnetism permeating entire clusters of galaxies, including the space between one galaxy and the next. Invisible field lines sweep through intergalactic space.
Last year, astronomers finally managed to explore a much more sparse region of space – the space between clusters of galaxies. There they discovered the largest magnetic field: 10 million light-years of magnetized space, covering the entire length of this “thread” of the cosmic web. A second magnetized thread has already been seen elsewhere in space using the same methods. “We’re just looking at the tip of the iceberg, probably,” said Federica Govoni of the National Institute of Astrophysics in Cagliari, Italy, who led the first discovery.
The question arises: where did these huge magnetic fields come from?
“This clearly cannot be associated with the activity of individual galaxies or individual explosions or, I do not know, winds from supernovae,” said Franco Vazza, an astrophysicist at the University of Bologna, who makes modern computer simulations of cosmic magnetic fields. “This goes far beyond all this.”
One possibility is that cosmic magnetism is primary, tracing all the way back to the birth of the universe.In this case, weak magnetism must exist everywhere, even in the “voids” of the cosmic web – the darkest, most empty areas of the universe. Omnipresent magnetism would sow stronger fields that bloomed in galaxies and clusters.
Primary magnetism could also help solve another cosmological puzzle known as Hubble stress – probably the hottest topic in cosmology.
The problem underlying Hubble’s tension is that the Universe seems to expand much faster than expected based on its known components. In an article published on the Internet in April and reviewed with Physical Review Letters, cosmologists Karsten Jedamzik and Levon Poghosyan argue that weak magnetic fields in the early Universe will lead to the faster cosmic expansion observed today.
Primitive magnetism removes Hubble’s tension so simply that Jedamzik and Poghosyan’s article immediately attracted attention. “This is a great article and an idea,” said Mark Kamionkovsky, a theoretical cosmologist at Johns Hopkins University who proposed other solutions to Hubble’s tension.
Kamenkovsky and others say that additional checks are needed to ensure that early magnetism does not interfere with other cosmological calculations. And even if this idea works on paper, researchers will need to find convincing evidence of primary magnetism to make sure that it is the missing agent that formed the universe.
However, in all these years of talking about Hubble stress, it is perhaps strange that no one has considered magnetism before. According to Poghosyan, who is a professor at Simon Fraser University in Canada, most cosmologists hardly think about magnetism. “Everyone knows this is one of those big puzzles,” he said. But for decades there was no way to say whether magnetism is indeed ubiquitous and, therefore, is the primary component of the cosmos, so cosmologists have largely stopped paying attention.
Meanwhile, astrophysicists continued to collect data. The weight of evidence made most of them suspect that magnetism is indeed present everywhere.
The magnetic soul of the universe
In 1600, an English scientist William Gilbert, studying mineral deposits — naturally magnetized rocks that humans have created in compasses for millennia — came to the conclusion that their magnetic force “mimics the soul.” “He correctly suggested that the Earth itself is“ a great magnet, ”and that the magnetic pillars“ look toward the poles of the Earth. ”
Magnetic fields occur at any time when an electric charge flows. The Earth’s field, for example, comes from its internal “dynamo” – a stream of liquid iron, seething in its core. Fields of fridge magnets and magnetic columns come from electrons orbiting around their constituent atoms.
Cosmological modeling illustrates two possible explanations of how magnetic fields penetrated galaxy clusters. On the left, the fields grow out of homogeneous “seed” fields that filled the space in the moments after the Big Bang. On the right, astrophysical processes, such as the formation of stars and the flow of matter into supermassive black holes, create magnetized winds that exit galaxies.
However, as soon as a “seed” magnetic field arises from charged particles in motion, it can become larger and stronger if weaker fields are combined with it. Magnetism “is a bit like a living organism,” said Thorsten Enslin, a theoretical astrophysicist at the Institute of Astrophysics Max Planck in Garching, Germany – because magnetic fields connect to every free source of energy that they can hold onto and grow. They can spread and influence other areas through their presence, where they also grow. ”
Ruth Durer, a cosmologist and theoretician at the University of Geneva, explained that magnetism is the only force besides gravity that can shape the large-scale structure of the cosmos, because only magnetism and gravity can “reach you” at great distances. Electricity, on the contrary, is local and short-lived, since the positive and negative charge in any region will be neutralized as a whole. But you cannot cancel magnetic fields; they tend to take shape and survive.
And yet, despite all its power, these force fields have low profiles. They are intangible and are perceived only when they act on other things. ”You cannot just photograph a magnetic field; it doesn’t work like that, “Van Reuen, an astronomer at Leiden University who was involved in the recent discovery of magnetized filaments, told Reinu Van.
Last year, Van Verin and 28 collaborators suggested a magnetic field in the filament between clusters of galaxies Abell 399 and Abell 401 is the way the field redirects high-speed electrons and other charged particles passing through it. As their paths spin in the field, these charged particles emit faint “synchrotron radiation.”
The synchrotron signal is strongest at low frequencies, making it ready to be detected with LOFAR, an array of 20,000 low-frequency radio antennas scattered across Europe.
The team actually collected data from the filament back in 2014 for one eight-hour span, but the data sat waiting as the radio astronomy community spent years figuring out how to improve the calibration of LOFAR measurements. The Earth’s atmosphere refracts the radio waves passing through it, so LOFAR considers space from the bottom of the swimming pool. The researchers solved the problem by tracking the vibrations of the “beacons” in the sky – the emitters with precisely known locations – and adjusting the vibrations for this to release all the data. When they applied the de-blurring algorithm to the data from the filament, they immediately saw the glow of the synchrotron radiation. LOFAR consists of 20,000 individual radio antennas scattered throughout Europe.
The filament looks magnetized everywhere, and not just near clusters of galaxies that move towards each other from both ends. Researchers hope the 50-hour dataset they are currently analyzing will reveal more details. Recently, additional observations have revealed magnetic fields propagating along the entire length of the second filament. Researchers plan to publish this work soon.
The presence of huge magnetic fields in at least these two strands provides important new information. “It caused quite a bit of activity,” Van Faith said, “because now we know that magnetic fields are relatively strong.”
Light through the Void
If these magnetic fields arose in the infant Universe, the question arises: how? “People have been thinking about this issue for a long time,” said Tanmai Wachaspati of Arizona State University.
In 1991, Vachaspati suggested that magnetic fields could arise during an electroweak phase transition – a moment, a split second after the Big Bang, when electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces became distinguishable. Others have suggested that magnetism materialized microseconds later when protons formed. Or soon after: the late astrophysicist Ted Harrison claimed in the earliest original theory of magnetogenesis in 1973 that turbulent plasma of protons and electrons may have caused the appearance of the first magnetic fields. Nevertheless, others suggested that this space became magnetized even before all this, during space inflation – the explosive expansion of space that supposedly jumped up and launched the Big Bang itself. It is also possible that this did not happen before the growth of structures a billion years later.
A way to test theories of magnetogenesis is to study the structure of magnetic fields in the most pristine parts of the intergalactic space, such as the calm parts of filaments and even more empty voids. Some details — for example, whether the field lines are smooth, spiral, or “curved in all directions, like a ball of yarn or something else” (according to Vachaspati), and how the picture changes in different places and at different scales — carry rich information that can be compared with the theory and modeling, for example, if the magnetic field occurred during the electroweak phase transition, as suggested by Vacaspati, the resulting power lines should be spiral, “like a corkscrew,” -. he said.
The catch is that it is difficult to detect the force fields, who have nothing to press on.
One of the methods, first proposed by the English scientist Michael Faraday back in 1845, detects a magnetic field by the way it rotates the direction of polarization of the light passing through it. The magnitude of the “Faraday rotation” depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the frequency of light. Thus, by measuring the polarization at different frequencies, you can conclude about the strength of magnetism along the line of sight. “If you do it from different places, you can make a 3D map,” Enslin said.
Researchers have begun making rough measurements of Faraday rotation using LOFAR, but the telescope has problems emitting an extremely weak signal. Valentina Wakka, an astronomer and colleague of Govoni from the National Institute of Astrophysics, developed an algorithm several years ago for the statistical processing of thin Faraday rotation signals, adding together many dimensions of empty spaces. “In principle, it can be used for voids,” said Wakka.
But the Faraday method will really take off when the next generation radio telescope, a gigantic international project called “an array of square kilometers”, is launched. “SKA should create a fantastic Faraday grid,” said Enslin.
At the moment, the only evidence of magnetism in voids is that observers do not see when they look at objects called blazars located behind voids.
Blazars are bright beams of gamma rays and other energy sources of light and matter, fed by supermassive black holes. When gamma rays travel through space, they sometimes collide with ancient microwaves, turning into electron and positron as a result. These particles then hiss and turn into low-energy gamma rays.
But if blazar light passes through a magnetized void, then low-energy gamma rays will appear absent, argued Andrei Neronov and Evgeny Vovk from the Geneva Observatory in 2010. The magnetic field will deflect electrons and positrons from the line of sight. When they decay into low-energy gamma rays, these gamma rays will not be directed at us. Indeed, when Nero and Vovk analyzed the data from a suitably located blazar, they saw its high-energy gamma rays, but not its low-energy gamma signal. “This is the lack of a signal, which is the signal,” said Vachaspati.
The absence of a signal is hardly a smoking weapon, and alternative explanations have been proposed for missing gamma rays. However, subsequent observations increasingly point to the hypothesis of Neronov and Vovkov that the voids are magnetized. “This is a majority opinion,” said Dürer. Most convincingly, in 2015, one team superimposed many dimensions of blazars behind voids and managed to tease the faint halo of low-energy gamma rays around blazars. The effect is exactly what one would expect if the particles were scattered by weak magnetic fields – measuring only about one millionth of a trillion as strong as a refrigerator magnet.
The biggest mystery of cosmology
It is amazing that just this amount of primary magnetism can be exactly what is needed to resolve the Hubble stress – the problem of the surprisingly fast expansion of the Universe.
This is precisely what Poghosyan understood when he saw the recent computer simulations of Carsten Jedamzik from the University of Montpellier in France and his colleagues. Researchers added weak magnetic fields to the simulated plasma-filled young Universe and found that protons and electrons in the plasma flew along the lines of the magnetic field and accumulated in areas of the weakest field strength. This coalescence effect caused protons and electrons to combine into hydrogen — an early phase change known as recombination — earlier than they might otherwise have.
Poghosyan, reading an article by Jedamzik, realized that this could relieve Hubble’s tension. Cosmologists calculate how fast space should expand today by observing the ancient light emitted during recombination. Light shows a young Universe dotted with blots that were formed from sound waves lapping around in the primary plasma. If recombination occurred earlier than anticipated due to the thickening effect of magnetic fields, then sound waves could not propagate so far forward, and the resulting drops would be smaller. This means that the spots that we see in the sky from the time of recombination should be closer to us than the researchers assumed. The light emanating from the clots had to travel a shorter distance to reach us, which means that the light had to pass through a faster expanding space. “It’s like trying to run on an expanding surface; you cover a smaller distance, ”said Poghosyan.
The result is that smaller droplets mean a higher expected speed of cosmic expansion, which greatly brings the estimated speed closer to measuring how fast supernovae and other astronomical objects actually seem to fly apart.
“I thought, wow,” said Poghosyan, “this may indicate to us the real presence of [magnetic fields]. Therefore, I immediately wrote to Karsten.” The two met in Montpellier in February, just before the prison closed, and their calculations showed that, indeed, the amount of primary magnetism needed to solve the Hubble tension problem is also consistent with the blazar observations and the estimated size of the initial fields needed for the growth of huge magnetic fields , covering clusters of galaxies and filaments. “So, it all somehow converges,” said Poghosyan, “if that turns out to be true.”
References: Quanta Magazine
The Montana base incident: UFO disconnects 16 nuclear missiles
In central Montana, on Thursday morning, March 16, 1967, an E-Flight nuclear missile crew was located underground at the Echo-Flight Mission Control Center (LCC) in a fortified bunker.
During the early morning, there were several reports from security patrols that they had seen a UFO. A UFO was spotted directly above one of the E-Flight (LF) launchers above the mine. It turned out that at least one security officer was so scared by this meeting that he never returned to the Security Service.
After a while, the deputy calculation commander (DMCCC), 1st lieutenant, informed the calculation commander (MCCC), the captain, about the condition of the missiles in the mines when an alarm sounded. Over the next 30 seconds, all ten of their missiles issued a No-Go status report. One by one, each rocket became inoperative, From that moment, as his former rocket launcher describes:
“All hell broke loose! Among the many calls to the electronic switch. The matter was compounded by the fact that the same event happened on another launcher on the same morning (6 rockets disconnected)”.
In this case, we have a strategic nuclear missile stop coinciding with the sighting of a UFO over a missile shaft! These were missiles lost by the American nuclear deterrence forces. According to Robert Salas, who was counting that morning:
“As far as I remember, while on duty as deputy commander of a missile combat crew underground in the LSS, in the morning hours of March 16, 1967, I received a call from the sergeant responsible for the security of the facility Launch control center”.
He said that he and other guards observed unidentified flying objects in the immediate vicinity, which several times flew over the mines in which the rockets were. At that time, he could only describe them as “lights.” I did not take this message seriously and told him to continue observing and reporting if something more significant happened. I believed that this first call was a joke.
A few minutes later, the security sergeant called again. Now he was thrilled and upset, saying that the UFO hovered right behind the front gate. I ordered him to guard the fenced area. While we were talking, he had to leave, because one of the guards approached the UFO and was injured. I immediately woke up my commander, who was just resting and began reporting on telephone conversations. Immediately, our missiles began to quickly move from an “alarm” state to a “no launch” state. Some kind of signal was sent to the missiles, which made them emerge from a state of alert.
Having reported this incident to the command post, I called my guard. He said that the man who approached the UFO was not seriously injured, but was evacuated by helicopter to the base. Once at the top, I spoke directly with the guard about the UFO. He added that the UFO has a red glow and saucer shape. He repeated that it was right behind the gate and soared silently.
We sent a security patrol to check our ODS after a trip, and they reported that they saw another UFO during this patrol. They also lost radio contact with us immediately after reporting the UFO. Later that morning, we were replaced by our full-time shift crew. The missiles were still not put on alert by on-site maintenance teams.
Again, UFOs were spotted by security personnel during or around the time of the shutdown of Minuteman strategic missiles. An in-depth investigation of the incident was conducted. Full-scale field and laboratory tests were conducted at the Seattle-based Boeing plant.
Both the declassified documents of the strategic rocket wing and the interviews with Boeing engineers who tested after the investigation of the incident, confirm that no reason was found for shutting down the missiles. The most that could be done was to reproduce the effects by directly injecting a 10-volt pulse into the data line. One of the conclusions was that the only way to do this from outside the shielded system was through an electromagnetic pulse from an unknown source.
During the events of that morning in 1967, UFOs were spotted by members of the Security Service on the east side of the base and one on north. Other members of the Security Service witnessed UFO’s on the west side. These observations were reported by separate security teams at about the same time that Minuteman strategic missiles were stopped at both sites. The U.S. Air Force confirmed that all Echo flights shut off within a few seconds, one after the other, and that they did not find any reason for this.
Ship of death. What happened to the sailors of the mysterious vessel Ourang Medan?
“The ship of death” – that is what the American sailors boarded the ship in distress called the Ourang Medan. The entire crew of the ship was dead. Eyewitnesses assured that the faces of the crew were turned to the sky and distorted by torment.
Save our souls
In June 1947, British and Dutch radio stations received a very strange SOS signal, which someone transmitted in Morse code. The message transcript read:
“This is the Dutch ship, Ourang Medan. The captain and all the officers are dead in the cockpit and on the bridge. Perhaps the whole crew is dead.”
Then came an incomprehensible series of dots and dashes, but they still managed to decipher the end of the message. Somewhere in the expanses of the Indian Ocean, an unknown radio operator clearly tapped out:
“I am also dying.”
Despite the brevity of the message, a few distress ships managed to receive the distress signal not far from the Strait of Malacca, which separates the island of Sumatra from Malaysia. Among these ships, by a strange coincidence, there were two American ships that were the first to establish the approximate location of the ship in distress. One of them – Silver Star (“Silver Star”) – went to the rescue of “Medan”.
Despite the fact that the width of the Strait of Malacca is only 40 kilometers, the length of the strait is more than 800 kilometers, so the drift ship was not immediately found. Sailors with Silver Star immediately noticed something was wrong – no one answered the greeting signals, and even a soul was not visible on the deck. Therefore, the captain of Silver Star decided to send a boat with a reconnaissance detachment to Medan.
The Americans who got on board got a terrible picture: the deck and bridge of the ship were littered with corpses. Even the dog died – apparently, the favorite of one of the officers. The radio operator who transmitted the SOS was found in the radio room – he was also dead, and his hand still lay on the transmitter. What terrified the Americans most of all was the fact that most of the dead lay with wide eyes and contorted faces, which testified to unbearable torment at the time of death. The sailors wanted to go down into the hold to inspect the cargo, but quickly abandoned this idea – an incredible cold reigned inside the ship, in some places the corridors were covered with hoarfrost.
After consulting with the captain, the Silver Star sailors decided to take the Medan in tow and deliver it to the nearest port, where it would be possible to find out the cause of the death of the sailors. But as soon as the ship was towed, a trickle of smoke appeared over the deck of the ill-fated ship – a smoldering fire began to break out. This was a paradox – despite the polar cold, fire raged inside the ship.
Photo © Andrew H. Hochheimer
The members of the Silver Star team barely had time to cut off the towing ropes and escape from the ship, when in the hold of the Medan there was such a strong explosion that the ship lifted above the water, and then it quickly sank, forever depriving the Americans of the opportunity to find out what happened.
The Research Begins
60 years later, American researchers became interested in the story of Medan. But they were surprised to find that the only document confirming the authenticity of the story of the Medan crew was a brochure published by the US Coast Guard in 1952. The brochure published the testimonies of sailors boarding the “flying Dutchman.” This proved that the story really happened.
As it turned out, the US archives confirmed the existence of the Silver Star ship. According to the papers, it was sold in the same 1947 to Grace Line and received a new name – Santa Juana. But finding documentary evidence of the existence of the Dutch vessel Ourang Medan was not so simple. Neither in the International Register of Ships, nor in the Singapore Maritime Archive, nor in the archives of Amsterdam, a ship of that name has ever been.
But it turned out that the traces of the ship must be sought in … Germany. The scientist Theodor Sirsdorfer, who devoted 50 years to the study of Medan and managed to establish the names of American ships that received the SOS signal (the second was a vessel called City of Baltimore), found a brochure by another German author – Otto Milke; the brochure was called Das Totenschiff in der Südsee (“Death Ship in the South Sea”) and was published in 1953.
In it, the author spoke in detail about the Ourang Medan ship, indicated its technical characteristics and claimed that the ship really died with the crew in 1947. Moreover, Milke shed light on the causes of the death of the ship, hinting that the fourth compartment in the hold of the ship was indeed filled with dangerous cargo, which caused the death of the crew – potassium cyanide and nitroglycerin.
Photo © Andrew H. Hochheimer
Versions for the Crew Death
But there was an even more terrible version of the death of the Medan crew, and it led from Nazi Germany to another country with a militaristic regime – Japan.
Division 731, which the Japanese called the “division of Togo,” was founded in 1932 by the Japanese bacteriologist Shiro Ishii and gained such terrible fame that people did not call it “cannibal lair”. The task of the department was to develop the deadliest bacteriological weapons and the most terrible poisonous substances.
In Harbin’s laboratories, the Japanese tested these substances on prisoners of war – Chinese and Russians, as well as on the civilian population of China – on women and children. The Japanese doctors did not stop the suffering of people – they opened the victims alive to see the effects of poisonous gases on their internal organs, froze the still alive “patients” and infected them with various combinations of infections.
Despite the war crimes of scientists, the Americans granted them immunity in exchange for research results. For transportation of toxic substances of unit 731, Medan, a ship of Sumatran or Malaysian smugglers, not registered in any of the marine registers, whose task was to take out the deadly substances to the United States, could be chartered. In the hold of the Medan, containers were leaked, the crew died, and the gas managed to disappear by the time the Americans approached.
However, this is only one of many versions of the death of the team “Medan”. Some researchers suggested the impact on sailors of powerful ultrasound, which can occur in the ocean and kill people. Conspiracists believed that the team was killed by the undead or met with a UFO. Scentists spoke of a cloud of methane that rose from the depths of the Strait of Malacca, covered the ship, and the crew simply suffocated without oxygen.
Photo © Historic Mysteries
The version with the Nazis was continued – the researchers found a publication in the Indonesian newspaper Lokomotiv dated February 3, 1948. It said that after the explosion on Medan, a boat with a starving man was thrown ashore on one of the Marshall Islands. This man spoke German and told the translator that the Ourang Medan actually belonged to Germany and sank 400 miles southeast of the Marshall Islands. In 1945, it supposedly transported containers of nerve gas, but, learning about the surrender of Germany, it began to hide, moving from port to port and moving on to South America. The Germans’ journey was interrupted by an accident – one of the containers was depressurized, the team died.
But there is another plausible explanation for what happened on the ship. Perhaps the smugglers’ vessel was transporting such a seemingly ordinary cargo as ammonium nitrate. This is a fertilizer that is used in the manufacture of explosives. After getting into the hold of sea water, ammonium nitrate entered a chemical reaction with water and began to decompose, releasing laughing gas, which causes drug intoxication and dulls vigilance. At the same time, a decrease in temperature occurred, since the reaction proceeds with the absorption of heat, which could explain the severe cold in the hold. And the introduction of ammonium nitrate into the reaction with any alkali that came on board could lead to the formation of ammonia, the choking from which could explain the terrible torment of the crew. Heating the fertilizer near a steam or diesel engine could lead to heating of the cargo,
Most likely, the violation of safety rules during transportation of hazardous chemicals is to blame for the death of the crew. The smugglers simply pushed the containers into the cargo compartments of the ship and went to sea, hoping for good luck. But this time she turned away from them.
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