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The best planets for aliens have been identified by astronomers

In their tireless search for signs of extraterrestrial life, astronomers have coined the intriguing term “Goldilocks Zone” when referring to the habitable zone of a star body: the distance from a star where liquid water can be present on the surface of a planet is not too hot, not too cold, but fair.

New research by astronomers based on decades of data has identified new criteria that can help assess the potential habitability of a planet.

The study, called the “Goldilocks Project”, presented by a team of astronomers from the University of Villanova at the 235th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Hawaii, has identified what has been coined as “Goldilocks stars,” star systems where they hope to find the best planets for possible extraterrestrial life.

Many are already familiar with the concept of the habitable zone, the distance from a star in which liquid water can be present on the surface of a planet, not hot enough to vaporize it, not so cold that everything would be frozen.

That explains the reference to the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears, where a blond girl enters an empty cabin in the forest, tries three bowls of porridge and discovers that one is “fair, neither too hot nor too cold! ”

The Goldilocks area around a star is like that. However, although we definitely consider liquid water as a vital ingredient for life, it is not the only criterion in our search for potentially habitable planets.

According to astronomers at the University of Villanova, the best stars for life are one step along the Hertzsprung-Russell star type table, that is, K-type stars. These are orange stars that are a bit colder than the sun, and a little warmer than a red dwarf.

“The K dwarf stars are in the” sweet spot “, with intermediate properties between the rarer, brighter but shorter-lived solar stars (G stars) and the more numerous red dwarf stars (M stars),” Villanova astronomer and astrophysicist Edward Guinan explained, who presented the new study with a colleague, astronomer Scott Engle.

“K stars, especially the warmest ones, have the best of all worlds. If you are looking for planets with habitability, the abundance of K stars increases your chances of finding life. ”

Guinan, Engle and their students have been monitoring a series of F and G stars in ultraviolet and X-rays for the past 30 years as part of their Sun in Time program, and red M-type dwarfs for 10 years as part of the program Live with a red dwarf.

Both programs have been helping to assess the impact of X-rays and ultraviolet radiation from the stars in question on the possible habitability of their planets.

The study has also been measuring age, rotation rate and X-rays and far ultraviolet radiation in a sample of mostly cold G and K stars.

In their investigation, they used the NASA Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton satellite of the European Space Agency for their observations. Hubble’s sensitive ultraviolet light observations of hydrogen radiation were used to evaluate the radiation of a sample of approximately 20 orange dwarfs.

“Hubble is the only telescope that can do this kind of observation,” Guinan said.

Guinan and Engle discovered that the radiation levels around the K stars were much more benign for the accompanying planets than those found around the red dwarfs.

K stars also have a longer lifespan and, therefore, the migration of the habitable zone occurs more slowly, pointing to the suggestion that K dwarfs could present the ideal place to look for signs of extraterrestrial life.

Guinan and Engle also observed some of the most interesting K stars that host planets, including Kepler-442, Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani.

“Kepler-442 is notable because this star houses what is considered one of the best Goldilocks planets, Kepler-442b, a rocky planet that is a little more than double the Earth’s mass. Therefore, the Kepler-442 system is a Goldilocks planet housed by a Goldilocks star! “Guinan said.

In another fact that inspires optimism, there are three times more K dwarfs in our galaxy than stars like our Sun.

Approximately 1,000 K stars are within 100 light years of our Sun, which makes them the best candidates for exploration.

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Space

Unknown carbon form found in Chelyabinsk meteorite

Scientists have discovered an unknown form of carbon on Earth in fragments of a meteorite that fell in the Chelyabinsk region in 2013, said Sergei Zamozdra, assistant professor of theoretical physics at the Chelyabinsk State University.

He said that the dean of the Faculty of Physics Sergey Taskaev (now the rector of the university. – Ed.), while studying samples of meteorite dust, noticed something amazing.

“At first he thought it was a diamond, because there were six faces. Later in Germany, this crystal was pulled out using micro-tweezers and when X-rayed – it turned out to be not a diamond, but a carbon crystal. We measured the position of atoms, the planes of interatomic, then Korean specialists on a computer calculated that, indeed, such an arrangement of atoms is possible, “he explained.

According to the scientist, carbon can have many modifications. However, such carbon has not yet been found on Earth, and experts will have to figure out how it came about, calculating different options.

“One option is that it arose in space conditions, because we are talking about a process of billions of years. Another is directly during a flight in the Earth’s atmosphere,” the scientist believes.

According to the press service of Chelyabinsk State University, the study of meteorite fragments was carried out by Sergey Taskaev together with colleagues from the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and the National University of Kengpuk (Republic of Korea).

In the Chelyabinsk region on February 15, 2013, thousands of people watched a very bright object in the sky. In the first minutes, the expansion and twisting of its smoky plume was visible, followed by an air wave strike, similar to the sound of a strong explosion.

Fragments of the meteorite were found in the vicinity of Chebarkul, but the largest – more than 600 kilograms – was raised from the lake of the same name. Now it is stored in Chelyabinsk in the South Ural State Historical Museum under a special dome in the exhibition hall, where everyone can see it.

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Space

Planets that are deliberately hidden from humans

It is hard to believe that during the 13 billion years of the existence of the Universe in space no intelligent civilization has developed. So why haven’t we met anyone yet?

Is humanity the only rational race – this is the question hundreds of scientists are asking. The answer to it was never received, although we put our own telescopes into orbit and looked into the most remote corners of the Universe. Are there really no aliens or do they just not want to be found?

Fermi paradox

There are trillions of stars in our galaxy. Studies show that many of them have planets, with 1-2 even in a potential habitat zone. Thus, in the course of simple calculations, astronomers determined that only in the Milky Way there are about 17 billion planets where life could have originated.

Based on all this, physicist Enrico Fermi formulated his paradox. The scientist said that in this situation, either our understanding of nature or the methods of observation are fundamentally wrong. Have all the time not even some traces of the vital activity of other races — radio waves or other radiation — have reached us?

Footage work of physicist Enrico Fermi at the university
Footage work of physicist Enrico Fermi at the university

It would be foolish to say that intelligent life really does not exist. Simple math says the opposite. Talking about underdeveloped observing systems is also inappropriate – we observe the cosmos at different periods of its life and literally study the history of the Galaxy . But even there is no sign of the existence of other civilizations. Are we under the dome of ignorance?

Are they hiding from us?

David Kipping of Harvard and Alex Tichy of Columbia University offer their explanation of the problem. According to a published article, alien civilizations are simply hiding from us. They have technologies that can literally “wipe” the emitted radiation in almost all spectra. And this is not to mention the concealment of life on the planets from prying eyes.

Another theory suggests that the Milky Way already has a highly developed cosmic community . It strictly controls any potentially inhabited planets with intelligent life and hides the real state of affairs from underdeveloped civilizations. Among them is humanity. This explains why all our searches are so unsuccessful.

The question remains open, why hide their existence from others? There are several options for this. Aliens can do this for their own safety. During its short history, mankind has managed to conduct hundreds of wars and the state of affairs does not change much, although the scale of conflicts has slightly decreased.

Now imagine wars on a cosmic scale . In such matters, hiding the location of one’s home planet or colonies is vital.

It is possible that they are hiding the truth from us for their own benefit. What will happen to society if reliable information appears about the existence of another highly developed race? Fear will envelop people, because we will face an adversary who can erase all of humanity with the click of a finger (or tentacle). Ignorance is calm.

In any case, it will not last forever. With the help of more powerful telescopes or space travel, humanity will answer the most important question – are we alone in the universe.

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Saturn’s moon may contain life, confirms new study

A new geochemical analysis reinforces the idea that, under the icy crust of Enceladus, Saturn’s moon, all the conditions necessary for life can occur.

Saturn's moon may contain life, confirms new study

Researchers from Southwest Research Institute, in the USA, has just launched a new geochemical model that reveals that the carbon dioxide (CO2) inside Enceladus, one of Saturn’s moons, which houses an ocean beneath its icy surface, can be controlled by chemical reactions at the bottom of the sea.

The study of geysers that emanate from the south of Enceladus and the frozen sea foam that is released through cracks in the ice that covers the surface of the alien moon, suggests that its interior is much more complex than previously thought. It is also much more favorable to life.

By understanding the composition of the geysers, we can discover what the ocean is like, how it emerged and provides environments where life as we know it could exist.

We created a new technique to analyze the composition of the vapor and gas column to estimate the concentration of dissolved CO2 in the ocean. This allowed the modeling to explore more complex internal processes.

The analysis of mass spectrometry data collected over the years by the Cassini mission from NASA indicates that the abundance of CO2 is best explained by the geochemical reactions between the rocky core of that moon and the liquid water of its underground ocean.

According to our findings, Enceladus appears to be the demonstration of a massive carbon sequestration experiment. On Earth, climate scientists are exploring whether a similar process can be used to mitigate industrial CO2 emissions.

Using two different data sets, we found CO2 concentration ranges intriguingly similar to those expected from the dissolution and formation of certain mixtures of minerals and carbon that contain silicon and carbon on the seabed.

According to the researchers, moreover, the more than likely presence of hydrothermal chimneys at the bottom of the global ocean of Enceladus only adds more complexity to the equation.

At the bottom of Earth’s ocean, these same types of hydrothermal vents emit hot, energy-rich fluids loaded with minerals, allowing unique ecosystems full of unusual creatures to thrive.

Hunter Waite, another of the article’s signatories said:

Therefore, the dynamic interface of a complex nucleus and seawater could have created energy sources capable of sustaining life.

And although we have yet to find traces of microbial life in the ocean of Enceladus, the growing evidence of chemical imbalance is a tempting suggestion that habitable conditions may exist under the icy crust of that moon.

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