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Apocalypse & Armageddon

The apocalypse is in doubt: the current climate change was milder than the previous

The apocalypse is in doubt: the current climate change was milder than the previous 86

In the last two millennia, there have been two periods of global cooling, which led to rapid fluctuations in sea level – up to 4.23 millimeters a year. This is noticeably stronger than today. It turns out that the current climate change is not unprecedented in the history of mankind. And past sea retreats could cause as many as two civilizational crises. Let’s try to understand why this is important for us now.

Volcanic eruptions, along with other factors, could cause a couple of severe cooling, during one of which the Roman Empire collapsed.  Traces of them were found on a distant Maldivian atoll / © Wikimedia Commons

Volcanic eruptions, along with other factors, could cause a couple of severe cooling, during one of which the Roman Empire collapsed. Traces of them were found on a distant Maldivian atoll / © Wikimedia Commons

Sea level: different everywhere, despite the law of communicating vessels

Usually we imagine the sea level as something unshakable and the same throughout the planet. This is not so: the sea level in Ireland is more than 150 meters higher than that of the Maldives, and even its current rise in some places is faster, but in some exactly the opposite: there the average sea level “sinks”.

The apocalypse is in doubt: the current climate change was milder than the previous 87
It can be clearly seen that in the region of New Guinea, the sea is more than 80 meters above the average planetary level, and in the Maldives – more than 100 meters lower / © Wikimedia Commons

At first it seems that this contradicts the law of communicating vessels: after all, the oceans are one, and water from a higher place should flow to a lower one, leveling the surface. In fact, there is no contradiction. Our planet is not a sphere, but a geoid, and those parts of it where the sphere is slightly “hewn” have a different surface shape. Limitations from gravity and the shape of the Earth create a huge, up to a couple of hundred meters, difference in sea level in different places.

The red places of the greatest convexity of the geoid, the blue - the places of its greatest concavity / © Wikimedia Commons
The red places of the greatest convexity of the geoid, the blue – the places of its greatest concavity / © Wikimedia Commons

In order not to get confused and understand what is happening on the planet as a whole, they use the concept of global sea level. All the irregularities of the geoid are averaged in it, which makes it possible to obtain a single measure of the change in the “average” sea level.

So, until the 1980s it grew by 1.8 millimeters a year, and since the 1980s – by 3.2 millimeters a year (now 3.3 millimeters). The value itself is small, but there are places where, due to the local specifics, the sea comes especially fast: say, in the Pacific Ocean.

Specifically, this has not affected badly on the islands of the Pacific Ocean: on the contrary, the area of ​​Tuvalu and Kiribati, recorded by satellite images, has grown. But, definitely, in the future somewhere on the Earth a situation may come when the rise of the sea will force the shore to be strengthened by pouring sand on it.

However, it should be remembered that the sea is able not only to advance, but also to retreat. And such processes can be even more dangerous.

Ancient Crisis: First Cooling

One of the most important properties of changes in sea level is that it clearly reflects what is happening with the climate. If it changes, the sea changes with it. Due to global warming, the sea has risen to 21 centimeters since 1900 . Mainly due to the expansion of sea water from heating. Additional factors were the melting of parts of the ice of Greenland and other areas. Sea level rise is one of the key evidence of global warming.

The question arises: did the sea level change before that? Previous measurements on the Atlantic Ocean gave different data: somewhere, changes over the past two thousand years were recorded, somewhere not, and it seemed that all these fluctuations in any direction did not exceed 0.25 meters. Not very much, but still more than the current rise of the sea due to global warming.

The problem with these numbers is that they were calculated according to the level of salt water in coastal swamps. This is not a direct measurement of sea level, and it may contain significant errors. The data on the Pacific Ocean are scattered, not always clearly dated, and therefore a number of researchers consider them to be speculative.

An international team of scientists recently published a work in Nature Geoscience , where they studied the coral atolls of the Maldives – islands in the Indian Ocean close to the equator. The advantages of this research point are that there is no noticeable tectonics; lowering and raising land for geological reasons are extremely slow. Coral atolls are rigidly connected to sea level: when it drops noticeably, corals at low tide are in the open air and die.

Maldives Atoll, on which samples of dated corals were collected / © Paul S. Kench et al.
Maldives Atoll, on which samples of dated corals were collected / © Paul S. Kench et al.

In addition, the authors used the exact uranium-thorium dating of ancient corals. It is based on the fact of the decay of uranium with the formation of thorium atoms: and, since the rate of such decay is known, it allows you to accurately calculate the chronological framework of sea level changes (more precisely than in most previous work on the topic).

One of the sampling points for coral samples at the measurement stage / © Paul S. Kench et al.
One of the sampling points for coral samples at the measurement stage / © Paul S. Kench et al.

It turned out that in 2000-100 BC, the sea level in the Maldives was 0.5 meters above the average in our era, which also means a fairly warm climate. In the years 234-605 AD, the level began to fall sharply, at a minimum it was 1.34 meters below the current average sea level. Two samples even indicated a level 1.45 meters lower than the current one.

The event lasted 371 years and can not be explained by anything other than a noticeable drop in temperature in the equatorial regions of the Indian Ocean. Equatorial waters are often more sensitive to warming, since the water in them rises faster, expanding and leading to the onset of the sea – but the same pattern works in the opposite direction.

It turns out that in the years 234-605 the planet could have been noticeably colder than today. Interestingly, this period coincides with the decline and collapse of the Roman Empire and the Great Migration of Peoples.

The decline of the Roman Empire is associated by historians with systematic crop failures, which often lasted several years in a row / © Wikimedia Commons
The decline of the Roman Empire is associated by historians with systematic crop failures, which often lasted several years in a row / © Wikimedia Commons

Previously, on the basis of narrow tree rings (the norm during cooling), other scientific groups have already put forward the hypothesis of the “Late Antique Small Ice Age”. However, then it was about the 500-600s, and there was no data for an earlier time. Now it becomes clear that the cooling could begin in the III century, coinciding in time with the crisis of ancient civilization.

The authors of the study note that it is on these 371 years that the 13 coldest decades of the last two thousand years are accounted for. Since colder periods normally coincide with a decrease in rainfall, they should have had catastrophic consequences for agriculture in the form of droughts and crop failures.

After the 7th century, corals in this zone do not grow until the 15th century: the authors believe that sea levels have risen at least to the present or even higher, not giving the local coral reefs enough light to grow.

New time: the second wave of cooling

In the years 1481-1807, the Maldives experienced a second period of low sea level: on average, at that time it was 0.71 meters lower than today. By 1807, the level reached a minimum – 0.89 meters below the modern average. It should be emphasized that the fall of the sea in the Maldives both in modern times and in antiquity is noticeably stronger than its rise during modern global warming.

Illustration of February from the French watch book of 1412-1416.  Light clothes, thin snow, and all this in the midst of winter.  In the illustrations of the remaining, less severe months, there is no snow at all.  It seems that as early as the beginning of the 15th century, the climate in Europe was quite warm / © Wikinedia Commons
Illustration of February from the French watch book of 1412-1416. Light clothes, thin snow, and all this in the midst of winter. In the illustrations of the remaining, less severe months, there is no snow at all. It seems that as early as the beginning of the 15th century, the climate in Europe was quite warm / © Wikinedia Commons

Only in 2017, the sea level in the Maldives rose by 0.89 meters, that is, it reached the present. Over 210 years of anthropogenic global warming, the sea has grown by the same amount by which it retreated for much shorter periods of time in the III-VII and XV-XIX centuries.

The peak sea retreat recorded in the work for the last two thousand years is 2.8 millimeters per year. The peak rate of sea level rise today is 3.4 millimeters per year (this is the limit, usually called 3.3 millimeters per year). From this it is clear that the current offensive of the sea in speed is comparable to its retreat in the last thousand years.

In addition, after the retreat of the sea in late Antiquity, its rapid offensive followed – and by the beginning of the 700s, according to work, the rate of offensive of the sea was 4.23 millimeters per year, that is, significantly more than today.

It is no less interesting that specifically in the case of the Maldives, the current sea level is still significantly below the level of the heyday of the ancient world – 2000-100 BC (a difference of half a meter).

Canals of Holland, XVII century.  Clothing is noticeably warmer than in the Middle Ages.  In Western Europe, the use of sleds has become normal / © Wikinedia Commons
Canals of Holland, XVII century. Clothing is noticeably warmer than in the Middle Ages. In Western Europe, the use of sleds has become normal / © Wikinedia Commons

The events of the New Age – this period is also called the “Little Ice Age” – included a series of wars and famine years. The most cruel of them belong to the first half of the 17th century, when a series of several hungry years led to the Time of Troubles in Russia, and the German population fell from 50 to 70% from a combination of wars and starvation.

Definitely, this is also very similar to the civilizational crisis. Key countries of 1481, such as Spain, Portugal, leading Italian republics such as Venice, Florence and Genoa, by 1807 became only a pale shadow of themselves, and China was so weak that it experienced the conquest of another wave of barbarians.

Nevertheless, a number of other states have noticeably strengthened their positions during this time. England, France and Russia by 1807 became significantly larger, had more population and opportunities. True, in all three cases, this coincided with the active territorial expansion of these states, which allowed them to obtain resources that were not there in 1481.

Why is it important

The sea cannot recede either by 89 centimeters (peak value from work), or by 0.7 meters (average value for two cold periods), if there is no cooling. Today, the Maldives atolls are the most accurate measured at sea level over the past thousand years.

And from measurements on local corals, it follows that during this time there were two rather strong cooling, in amplitude similar to the current warming. In terms of speed – judging by the record sharp retreat of the sea by 2.8 millimeters per year – these cooling could even come faster than the current warming.

Meanwhile, a work was published earlier in 2019 that generally denied the very reality of the small ice age of the New Time, as well as of the Late Antique small ice age. Its authors argued that the most reliable signs of cold weather in the small ice age for different regions occurred at different times, therefore, as a whole, the temperature on Earth as if did not change.

Fluctuations in sea level of up to 0.89 meters indicate the extreme doubtfulness of this conclusion, often made on the basis of historical records or indirect temperature indicators. Sea level is a more reliable measure of global temperatures than indirect evidence.

The authors of the new article note that their predecessors could not get accurate data on sea level changes in other places, mainly because coral reefs have been actively growing over the past 200 years after rising sea levels. In the process of secondary growth, they often destroyed or mixed strongly the materials of older reefs, which were preserved only in a limited number of places with exceptionally favorable conditions such as the Maldives. That is, the method used in their work allows a deeper and more realistic assessment of changes in the climate of past centuries.

Unprecedented climate change? Does not look like

Researchers conclude with the conclusion: “The magnitude and speed of sea level changes in the present Indian Ocean are not unprecedented over the past 2000 years.” These words look dry and mean – in fact, this is a scientific journal, what else can its text be in style?

But there is a lot to them. If the sea in the last 20 centuries receded at a speed of up to 2.8 millimeters per year, and came at a speed of 4.23 millimeters per year, then it turns out that its current growth of 3.3 millimeters per year is not only not unprecedented, but also quite moderate. The authors believe that the antique period of sea level for the Maldives (half a meter higher than the present) will be achieved only in the 21st century.

More importantly, temperature changes in the pre-anthropogenic era, when people could not influence the climate as they are today, are comparable in scale to the current ones. This is a very unpleasant sign. Accidental climate fluctuations such as the Late Antique or Small Ice Age can lead to alarming consequences in the form of high cold mortality (and it is much higher than mortality from heat), crop failures and droughts.

It would be nice to sort out and find out the exact culprit of the events of those years – in order to try to avoid repeating them. Or at least not to be taken by surprise.

Apocalypse & Armageddon

China has officially proposed a global “mark” with a barcode for the coronavirus!

China has officially proposed a global "mark" with a barcode for the coronavirus! 100

Are we seeing a global “mark” being unveiled in front of our eyes on the occasion of the coronavirus, the pandemic that threatens to change lives globally? One after another, the signs of the imposition of a global system of control of humanity are appearing.

China has officially proposed a global "mark" with a barcode for the coronavirus! 101

This time, not by “accident”, but by the Chinese President Xi Jinping himself (the country where the pandemic started) who clearly proposed the imposition of QR codes (of the well-known barcode) on the entire population so that, according to him to “improve trade and travel” affected by the coronavirus.

A “mark” to travel or make trade deals

Speaking during the G20 summit, the Chinese president said:

“As we try to control the virus, we need to restore the security and smooth running of global industry and the supply chain,” the Chinese president told a G20 teleconference on Saturday, referring to the need to “reduce tariffs and barriers.” “trade” and “liberalization” of trade in critical medical products to go on to say that to do so must create mechanisms that will simplify the flow of products and services at a time when it is being tested for coronavirus.

This can come in the form of QR codes that will contain information about each person’s health status, Xi said.

“China has proposed a global mechanism for a universally accepted health certification process based on nucleic acid testing and QR codes that will be universally accepted. We hope that more and more countries will accept this mechanism. “

In fact, supporters of the “new era” and the new “big restart” are no longer in hiding, but say so openly as the Chinese president, one of the main proponents of globalization:

A commonly agreed health certificate that will be valid in all countries of the world and that will be in the form of a barcode for everyone to carry it on, without which they will not be able to make trade agreements or, of course, travel.

And of course, because nothing is accidental, the first mention of a global marking system for our health always fell elsewhere, but at the World Economic Forum (WEF) where the so-called ‘CovidPass’ was proposed to restore tourism and travel which affected by the pandemic.

The book “Covid-19: The Great Reset” also sprang from the World Economic Forum. Everything is interconnected but the worst thing is that no one is hiding “anymore but they say it clearly:

Imposition of a global control system for our good and our health.

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Apocalypse & Armageddon

Axis of disasters in November 2020: The Unknown is approaching at the end of November

Axis of disasters in November 2020: The Unknown is approaching at the end of November 102

2020 has been a difficult year for many people. We have already managed to wait out several negative periods, but in November the last one will begin – the axis of disasters.

The time has come to shed some light on what awaits us in late autumn and early winter.

What is the axis of disasters

There are two very important stars in the sky, symbolizing the beginning and end of any business and process – Aldebaran and Antares, respectively. They are located almost directly opposite each other and the imaginary line between them symbolizes this very axis of catastrophes. When some planets fall on this axis, various problems, disasters, man-made disasters begin to occur in the world.

The axis of catastrophes is often associated, for example, with the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the Tianshan earthquake, the earthquake in China in 1556, and the September 11 terrorist attack in the United States. The astrologer notes that this axis is associated precisely with global problems that have arisen due to human activities, our imprudence. Sometimes the axes of catastrophes are associated with diseases, tornadoes, earthquakes and tsunamis.

Axis of disasters in November 2020

In 2020, the last period in which the planets will begin to actively interact with the axis of catastrophes will begin on November 30 and end on December 4. It will be a very dangerous time.

No one can predict exactly what problems, disasters and aggravation of troubles can await us. It is logical to assume that this could be new political unrest, clashes of interests of various segments of the population.

Try to visit mass events and public places as little as possible. No one is canceling the increased caution regime for coronavirus either. Most likely, these days the number of cases may increase. Take care of yourself, your loved ones and do not risk your health. Make informed decisions and don’t blindly follow other people. Look at everything from your own experience and remain calm: if increased anxiety interferes with making informed decisions, it is better to limit the flow of news.

An extended Astrological view

November 20 stands out, when there will be a new moon, and Jupiter will enter Capricorn and launch some kind of global transformation cycle that will last right up to April 5. The astrologer does not specify what kind of transformation it will be, but in the end all this will lead to the cancellation of the struggle against COVID. That is, either the virus will die by April 5, or the main fighters against it will depart. 

But before this glorious moment, there will be a lunar eclipse on November 30, after which there will be a kind of eclipse corridor until December 14, which in itself is not healthy from the point of view of astrology. Another problem is that at this moment the star Antares will enter the sign of Scorpio, which is practically a guarantee of some major war. 

The astrologer mentioned China especially, because there will be some kind of drama – either the yuan will collapse, or everything will collapse. It will be somehow unexpected for everyone. 

Also, December 14th will go down in world history with some kind of global disclosure – people will receive an answer to a question that has been asked for decades. But what kind of question the astrologer again does not specify and only makes the assumption that either the government will merge something about the aliens, or the aliens will land themselves. It is also possible with the disclosure of some kind of world conspiracy, about which everyone seems to guess, then mostly in the kitchen and unofficially. And then, as it were, everything secret will become apparent. 

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Apocalypse & Armageddon

Secrets of symbolism of Dürer’s apocalyptic engraving “Four Horsemen”: What the genius wanted to tell

Secrets of symbolism of Dürer's apocalyptic engraving "Four Horsemen": What the genius wanted to tell 103
Illustration source / photo: Depositphotos

Albrecht Dürer is a painter and printmaker who is generally considered the greatest German Renaissance painter. His work is rich in religious works, numerous portraits and self-portraits, and, of course, engravings on copper and wood. An interesting engraving “The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse”, in which among the depicted chaos and horror of the end of the world, there is the author’s glimmer of hope.

Dürer was a German Renaissance master, the man declared by the Venetian Renaissance painters the best painter of the kingdom in 1506.

He was born the second son of the Hungarian jeweler Albrecht Dürer the Elder, who settled in Nuremberg in 1455, and Barbara Holper. Dürer began his training as a draftsman in his father’s jewelry workshop. His precocious abilities and exceptional talent are proved by the magnificent self-portrait painted at the age of 13, as well as “Madonna Crowned by Two Angels” (made at the age of 14). 

In 1486, Dürer’s father organized the practice of his son with the woodcut painter Michael Wolgemuth, whose portrait Dürer would paint in 1516. In 1490, Dürer completed his earliest known painting, a portrait of his father, which marks the familiar characteristic style of the mature master.

Self-portrait and Madonna Durer
Self-portrait and Madonna – Albrecht Dürer

Dürer’s talent, ambition, sharp and broad intellect won him the attention and friendship of the most prominent figures of German society. He became the official court painter of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and his successor Charles V, for whom Dürer developed a number of artistic projects. In particular, for the Nuremberg town hall, the artist painted two panels depicting the four apostles with texts by Martin Luther that pay tribute to Lutheranism.

As an admirer of his compatriot Martin Schongauer, Durer revolutionized engraving, elevating it to the level of an independent art form. He expanded her tonal and dramatic range and gave the images a new conceptual basis. By the age of 30, Dürer had completed three of his most famous series of engravings on religious themes: Apocalypse, Great Passions, and The Life of the Virgin.

Dürer engravings
Dürer engravings

The impressive results in engraving led to the fact that Maximilian himself appointed Dürer a life pension – 100 guilders a year – paid from the sums annually contributed by Nuremberg to the imperial treasury.

The art of engraving reveals the talented soul of Durer, rich in images and secret accumulated treasures of the heart. Durer is the most profound and greatest poet-artist that art history could only know.

“Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse”

There is a fantastic series of woodcuts in 1498 in Dürer’s work. Dürer’s Apocalypse was published as a book with 15 full-page illustrations, each directed to a page of text. The third print from the Apocalypse, entitled The Four Horsemen, is a dramatically revised version of a passage from the book of Revelation (6: 1–8). a part of which is the iconic work – “The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse”. 

The approaching end of the 15th century gave rise to rumors about the approaching end of the world. Therefore, all natural and climatic phenomena in the form of comets, eclipses, floods and epidemics were certainly associated in the minds of the people with the end of the world. The scenes of the Apocalypse in The Four Horsemen only reinforced the prevailing eschatological mood.

Albrecht Durer Apocalypse
Albrecht Dürer – Apocalypse

Symbolism

A powerful engraving by Albrecht Durer from the late 15th century depicts the four horsemen of the apocalypse (death, famine, war and plague). The concept of the apocalypse runs through the writings of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. 

In this scene, the main message is traced – the punishment of God for the sins of mankind. Many, on the eve of the 15th century, lived under the impression that this sentence had come into force. That is why, taking advantage of the mood in society, Dürer in the period from 1496 to 1498 created 15 “apocalyptic” engravings, which were very popular. The engraving shows:

1. The first – the archer is the winner. His victory is symbolized by the white color of the horse. However, conquest brings not peace, but the tyranny of humanity. The dire consequences of this sin have prevailed in every generation since the Garden of Eden and can be seen in all walks of life (from government to family).

2. A rider holding a sword over his head symbolizes War. Scripture tells us that the second horse is bright red. This is the color of bloodshed. The rider wields a mighty sword. The tyranny seen in the first horseman leads to a large-scale lust for domination that brings the evil of war. Interestingly, Dürer represents the first two horsemen in Turkish hats, since the Turks were dangerous enemy invaders at the time.

3. Their third companion, Hunger, holds the scales. Dürer places the third rider and his black horse in the center of the engraving. He waves a scale to measure the volume of food as if it were a weapon. The engraving also shows the economic imbalance caused by human greed.

4. The fourth horseman is Death. The fourth rider is exhausted. He rakes his prey with a pitchfork. The horse here has a pale, terrible color. “His rider was called Death.” (v.8)

5. The monster crawling after them personifies hell, where all sinners will suffer after death.

In the Bible, these horsemen appear in turn. Therefore, the artists who illustrated it before always depicted them separately. Dürer first combined them in one composition

Not a very pleasant plot. But Durer gives people hope! The whole sky shines with the Gospel! There is a sign of the presence of God on the engraving. The rays from His halo can be seen in the upper left corner. 

The Angel of the Lord hovers over the entire stage. The left hand practically touches the sword – and this is a symbol of the fact that although the destruction is great and sweeping, God sees everything. The angel’s hand blesses. The evil of sin will continue to the end of the ages, but God will not leave His children.

Looking at the work “The Four Horsemen” it is not difficult to imagine the furor and horror that the engraving caused among Durer’s contemporaries. In 1500, everyone lived in anticipation of the end of the world. The “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” amaze even now the imagination. 

It seems that the horsemen are about to descend from the engraving into the real world and begin to wreak havoc, destruction and death. But the main thing is a symbol of Dürer’s hope.

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