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Planet Earth

The 50 Most Dangerous Cities In The World

Earlier, this year, a Mexican think tank — the Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice — released a study ranking the world’s most violent cities in 2011, and the results were astonishing.

The 20 most violent cities were all in Latin America.

The USA had some alarming scores too, led by New Orleans at 21.

Other dangerous cities were located in Africa. None of the top 50 was in Europe or Asia, despite great unrest in those regions.

The ranking is based on murder rate per capita in 2011.

50. Johannesburg, South Africa

50. Johannesburg, South Africa

AP Photo

Homicides: 1,186

Inhabitants: 3,888,180

Murder rate: 30.50

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

49. Durban, South Africa

Homicides: 1,186

Inhabitants: 3,888,180

Murder rate: 30.54

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

48. Baltimore, United States

Homicides: 195

Inhabitants: 620,961

Murder rate: 31.40

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

47. Cuernavaca (metropolitan area)

47. Cuernavaca (metropolitan area)

AP Photo/Antonio Sierra

Homicides: 198

Inhabitants: 630,174

Murder rate: 31.42

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

46. Panama, Panama

46. Panama, Panama

Police in Panama

Wikimedia Commons

Homicides: 543

Inhabitants: 1,713,070

Murder rate: 31.70

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

45. Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Homicides: 1,680

Inhabitants: 4,883,721

Murder rate: 34.40

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

44. Mosul, Iraq

43. St. Louis, United States

43. St. Louis, United States

Homicides: 113

Inhabitants: 319,294

Murder rate: 35.39

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

42. Barranquilla, Colombia

Homicides: 424

Inhabitants: 1,182,493

Murder rate: 35.86

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

 

41. Port Elizabeth, South Africa

41. Port Elizabeth, South Africa

Google Maps

Homicides: 381

Inhabitants: 1,050,930

Murder rate: 36.25

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

40. Goiânia, Brazil

39. Curitiba, Brazil

39. Curitiba, Brazil

AP Photo/Tereza Costa

Homicides: 720

Inhabitants: 1,890,272

Murder rate: 38.09

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

38. Monterrey, Mexico

Homicides: 1,680

Inhabitants: 4,160,339

Murder rate: 40.38

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

37. Fortaleza, Brazil

Homicides: 1,514

Inhabitants: 3,529,138

Murder rate: 42.90

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

36. Macapá, Brazil

Homicides: 225

Inhabitants: 499,116

Murder rate: 45.08

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

35. Pereira, Colombia

35. Pereira, Colombia

AP Photo/Scott Dalton

Homicides: 177

Inhabitants: 383,623

Murder rate: 46.14

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

34. Cape Town, South Africa

Homicides: 1,614

Inhabitants: 3,497,097

Murder rate: 46.15

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

33. Kingston (metropolitan area), Jamaica

Homicides: 550

Inhabitants: 1,169,808

Murder rate: 47.02

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

32. Recife, Brazil

Homicides: 1,793

Inhabitants: 3,717,640

Murder rate: 48.23

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

31. Cuiabá, Brazil

Homicides: 1,793

Inhabitants: 3,717,640

Murder rate: 48.32

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

30. Detroit, United States

Homicides: 346

Inhabitants: 713,777

Murder rate: 48.47

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

29. João Pessoa, Brazil

Homicides: 583

Inhabitants: 1,198,675

Murder rate: 48.64

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

28. Nuevo Laredo, Mexico

28. Nuevo Laredo, Mexico

AP Photo/Gregory Bull

Homicides: 191

Inhabitants: 389,674

Murder rate: 49.02

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

27. São Luís, Brazil

26. Manaus, Brazil

26. Manaus, Brazil

AP Photo/Raphael Alves-A Critica, File

Homicides: 1,079

Inhabitants: 2,106,866

Murder rate: 51.21

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

25. San Juan, Puerto Rico

25. San Juan, Puerto Rico

The National Guard in San Juan

The National Guard via flickr Creative Commons

Homicides: 225

Inhabitants: 427,789

Murder rate: 52.60

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

24. Barquisimeto, Venezuela

Homicides: 621

Inhabitants: 1,120,718

Murder rate: 55.41

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

23. Cúcuta, Colombia

23. Cúcuta, Colombia

AP Photo/Efrain Patino

Homicides: 335

Inhabitants: 597,385

Murder rate: 56.08

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

22. Salvador (and RMS), Brazil

Homicides: 2,037

Inhabitants: 3,574,804

Murder rate: 56.98

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

21. New Orleans, United States

Homicides: 199

Inhabitants: 343,829

Murder rate: 57.88

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

20. San Salvador, El Salvador

19. Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela

18. Veracruz, Mexico

Homicides: 418

Inhabitants: 697,414

Murder rate: 59.94

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

17. Vitoria, Brazil

Homicides: 1,143

Inhabitants: 1,685,384

Murder rate: 67.82

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

16. Tepic (metropolitan area), Mexico

16. Tepic (metropolitan area), Mexico

Google Maps

Homicides: 299

Inhabitants: 439,362

Murder rate: 68.05

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

15. Mazatlán, Mexico

Homicides: 307

Inhabitants: 445,343

Murder rate: 68.94

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

14. Medellín, Colombia

Homicides: 1,624

Inhabitants: 2,309,446

Murder rate: 70.32

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

13. Culiacán, Mexico

13. Culiacán, Mexico

AP Photo/Guillermo Arias

Homicides: 649

Inhabitants: 871,620

Murder rate: 74.46

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

12. Guatemala, Guatemala

12. Guatemala, Guatemala

A member of the Mara 18 gang in Guatemala

Getty Images

Homicides: 2,248

Inhabitants: 3,014,060

Murder rate: 74.58

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

11. Cali, Colombia

11. Cali, Colombia

AP Photo/Inaldo Perez

Homicides: 1,720

Inhabitants: 2,207,994

Murder rate: 77.90

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

10. Belém, Brazil

10. Belém, Brazil

AP Photo/Lucivaldo Sena

Homicides: 1,639

Inhabitants: 2,100,319

Murder rate: 78.04

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

9. Durango, Mexico

8. Chihuahua, Mexico

Homicides: 690

Inhabitants: 831,693

Murder rate: 82.96

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

7. Torreón (metropolitan area), Mexico

7. Torreón (metropolitan area), Mexico

AP Photo

Homicides: 990

Inhabitants: 1,128,152

Murder rate: 87.75

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

6. Caracas Venezuela

Homicides: 3,164

Inhabitants: 3,205,463

Murder rate: 98.71

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

5. Distrito Central, Honduras

Homicides: 1,123

Inhabitants: 1,126,534

Murder rate: 99.69

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

4. Acapulco, Mexico

4. Acapulco, Mexico

AP Photo/Bernandino Hernandez

Homicides: 1,029

Inhabitants: 804,412

Murder rate: 127.92

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

3. Maceió, Brazil

3. Maceió, Brazil

Google Maps

Homicides: 1,564

Inhabitants: 1,156,278

Murder rate: 135.26

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

2. Juárez, Mexico

Homicides: 1,974

Inhabitants: 1,335,890

Murder rate: 147.77

Source: The Citizens’ Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice

1. San Pedro Sula, Honduras

1. San Pedro Sula, Honduras

AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd

Homicides: 1,143

Inhabitants: 719,447

Murder rate: 158.87

Planet Earth

How to create a “heaven on earth” for all mankind?

We ask ourselves this question and tried to answer it. Of course, by “paradise” we do not mean “paradise booths” somewhere in the mythical nooks of the past, but a very real place – our home called planet Earth.

Moreover, this is our only home at the moment, since the prospects for the colonization of other planets of the solar system for us are still rather dreams, and very far from being realized.

Two main problems for humanity

Do you know what we like about people? The fact that even being in difficult living conditions, they do not limit their interests only to how to earn a living for themselves – no, they are interested in more global issues: political, social, philosophical or scientific in nature. But what worries them the most?

In our opinion, most people on our planet are preoccupied with two main problems:

1) Security (in every sense of the word, including economic)

2) Happiness (in the broadest sense of the word)

While these problems may seem very different at first glance, they actually boil down to caring for your own well-being.

In this context, it is quite easy to understand why humans do not live in paradise on Earth.

There are many problems that are prevalent all over the world today, such as wars and crime (with all the associated problems), as well as various health problems, both physical and mental.

It seems obvious that no one wants to live in a world where they are constantly under the threat of violent crimes, wars or other disasters, and it is also clear that many people want to find love and happiness not only, and not so much for themselves, but rather for those who are very dear to them.

Hence, the most obvious way to create a paradise on earth would be to increase safety for all people and increase the possibilities for human relationships.

When it comes to security, there are a number of obvious things that can be done. For example, many people are concerned about pollution and environmental degradation, as well as related issues such as global warming and overpopulation.

There is an obvious solution to this in the form of cleaner energy sources (such as solar energy) and more efficient modes of transportation (including space travel). This would help reduce fears about climate change at least partially.

Another issue that is widely discussed is the possibility of a nuclear war between large countries. This could potentially lead to the extinction of all of humanity, if it happened at the moment, given the advances in technology and weapons compared to previous generations.

In addition to these issues, there are a number of other issues that seem to be at least somewhat predominant, such as privacy, economic insecurity and social inequality.

What we can do?

If we digress from philosophical reasoning and look at the real situation that has developed in the world over the past ten years, we can see that the world has ceased to live by the rules.

If earlier, there were official and unofficial rules of “behavior of states in international relations”, now these “gentlemen’s agreements” are completely ignored.

One possible solution to this could be the creation of a “world government” that would control all aspects of human life (including economy and technology). However, this will almost certainly have some negative consequences.

World government: pros and cons

Pros : One government of all human civilization, by definition, will save us from wars, economic inequality, social inequality and the likelihood of global destruction in the event of a nuclear war. In fact, on planet Earth, there will be one huge country in which the entire population of the planet will live.

Cons : There is a risk that people will come to power who will turn the good goal of “heaven on earth” into the possibility of establishing a dictatorship in which all the disadvantages of the previous type of government will remain, when “everyone was for himself”, but already without the opportunity to defend their interests as it was when there was a system of scattered but sovereign states.

How, then, to create a paradise on earth for everyone?

1) Develop future technologies that will help us save the planet and stop global climate change.

2) To develop medicine in the direction of increasing the life expectancy of a person, which will entail an increase in the quality of life, and an increase in “happiness” for each individual citizen.

3) To achieve maximum protection of people from any threats . The safety of citizens in all spheres of life should become a priority for the state.

4) Revive the system of “international rules”, which must be observed by all countries, without exception.

5) Limit the proliferation of nuclear weapons in order to increase the overall level of the sense of security of all mankind, and save it even from hypothetically possible mutual destruction in the event of a conflict with the use of nuclear weapons.

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Planet Earth

Ways to have fun celebrating Halloween in the pandemic

Roughly 74% of American millennials and young parents think Halloween is more important this year than ever. They gather in online groups where they exchange tips and suggestions on the safest way to have fun on All Saints’ Day in a pandemic.

7 ways to have fun celebrating Halloween in a pandemic

The Los Angeles Times selected seven of the most successful ideas, and shared them with readers.

This year, when most of the candy lovers are staying at home, decorating their home is more important than ever. The more tinsel, the better. You can hang out flashlights, buy a fog machine, or make a stuffed animal out of old clothes. Carve some pumpkins and have an online contest among family members, asking them to vote for the best neighborhood crafts.

Of course, the bravest children will come under your door shouting “wallet or life”, but it is impossible to communicate directly with little ghouls who are always short on candy. It is better to arrange sweets in bags in advance and put them outside the door. You can wave your hand at them from the balcony or out the window if you want to see how happy they will be with the treat.

The candies can be hung from strings on a fence or from trees. Children will quickly figure out how to rip them off.

If your child really wants to go outside, and the level of infection in the region does not allow this, you can distract him by looking for sweets at home. Turn off the lights, take flashlights, and run with him in search of candy. For teenagers, you can do a whole quest with tips and tasks.

Plastic eggs, which many use for Easter gifts, can be pasted over with glowing scary faces and muzzles. Then fill them with candy and hide them inside or outside the house. You can decorate them with stickers glowing in the dark, then it will be more interesting to look for surprises in the dark.

It’s not recommended to have ghosts in the house, of course, but you can watch movies about them on Halloween. An impromptu cinema can be arranged both in the house and in the yard. Then the neighbors can join the session. To keep your distance, you should buy hula hoops. Then everyone will be accommodated on the same lawn in front of the house, but the risk of infection will be avoided.

The most important thing is to get a good mood on Halloween. Therefore, without further ado, you can put vacuum-packed sweets under the door of your neighbor, call and run away with all your blades. This will amuse you and your neighbors, who will spend half the night wondering whether to eat the offering or throw a potentially infectious bag in the trash.

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Planet Earth

The activation of volcanoes in Iceland and Russia concern scientists: “This is an anomaly”

Almost all volcanic eruptions of the past, leading to a cooling of the climate, coincide in time with low solar activity. 

Alarmingly, the Sun is currently passing through its deepest solar minimum in 100+ years and looking into the future, NASA found that the next cycle (25) could be “the weakest in the last 200 years” – a return to minimum conditions Dalton. 

The Dalton Minimum (1790-1830) was a period of historically low solar activity that also included the famine-inducing eruption of Mt. Tambor, in 1815.

The eruption of Tambora was one of the most powerful on Earth in the last 2000 years, and it exacerbated the cooling of the Earth, already occurring due to low solar activity. This unfortunate combination led to one of the harshest climates of the modern era – 1816 is also known as the “year without summer”.

ICELAND

Of today’s waking volcanoes, those in Iceland are perhaps the most worrying. It is this highly volcanic region that is likely to be home to the next “big” (repeat of the 536 AD eruption that destroyed the Roman Republic), which will plunge the Earth into a new volcanic winter.

The high frequency of volcanic eruptions allows scientists to detect patterns (precursors). And if these patterns are repeated every time a volcano erupts, then scientists can be more confident in their predictions.

Grimsvötn is Iceland’s most frequently erupting volcano, with approximately 65 known eruptions over the past 800 years. Icelandic scientists are closely following Grimsvotn after its 2011 eruption 

Recently, researchers have seen various signals indicating that the volcano is preparing to erupt again, and have raised the threat level.

The volcano swells as new magma moves into the channel system below it. The increase in thermal activity has led to the melting of more ice, and earthquakes have also become more frequent in recent years.

The time intervals between the eruptions of Grimsvotn are different, writes Dave McGarvey, a volcanologist at Lancaster University. For example, before the larger eruption of 2011, there were smaller eruptions in 2004, 1998, and 1983. Intermittently from four to 15 years. It is important to note that given the next eruption, Grimsvotn appears to have a pattern of infrequent large eruptions that occur every 150-200 years (e.g. 2011, 1873, 1619), with smaller and more frequent eruptions occurring approximately every ten years in between. 

If the previous model of Grimsvotn, consisting of occasional large eruptions with more numerous smaller eruptions occurring in between, continues in the future, then the next eruption should be small (considering that there was a large eruption in 2011). 

Nevertheless, the word “must” is important here, McGarvey stresses, – Iceland’s volcanoes are complex natural systems, and their patterns do not always correspond exactly to reality.

Katla is another Icelandic volcano on the verge of erupting, according to the Icelandic Meteorological Bureau (IMO). Since January of this year, researchers have recorded an upturn in and around Katla, and in recent months have recorded an increase in sulfur dioxide levels close to the site of two previous eruptions.

The previous major eruption of Katla occurred in 1918. This year is within the Hundred Years Low, the previous multi-decade period of low solar activity.

Icelandic authorities are well aware of the dangers posed by the next Katla eruption, and a delegation of volcanologists meets regularly with the Icelandic parliament to discuss how to respond in the event of an eruption.

RUSSIA

Scientists are also concerned about the unusual behavior of Klyuchevskaya Sopka Volcano (also known as Klyuchevskaya Volcano) located on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia.

As a rule, a year passes between the eruptions of Klyuchevskoy volcano, but recently this period of calm has been reduced to two months – on October 5, 2020, night cameras recorded the outpouring of lava from the crater of the volcano’s summit.

According to Yuri Demyanchuk, head of the Klyuchevskoy volcanic station IViS, all of this indicates an impending new larger eruption. 

Klyuchevsky’s uncharacteristic behavior can lead to paroxysmal explosions (unpredictable, dangerous explosions).

“The last activation was in 2013, before that – in 1994. But so far we have not observed such an intensity of tremor to speak of an impending paroxysmal activity, ”the expert explains. – “This is an anomaly.”

Seismic and volcanic activity is associated with changes in the Sun.

Volcanic eruptions are one of the key factors pushing the Earth towards the next stage of global cooling. Volcanic ash (particulate matter) ejected more than 10 km away – and therefore into the stratosphere – obscures sunlight and lowers Earth’s temperature. Smaller particles of an eruption can linger in the upper atmosphere for years or even decades.

The recent outburst of volcanoes around the world is believed to be related to low solar activity, coronal holes, a waning magnetosphere, and an influx of cosmic rays penetrating silica-rich magma.

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