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Stonehenge Revealed

Stonehenge Revealed 86

By Leonard Farra

The 5,000 year old Stonehenge monument, in Wiltshire, has fascinated scholars for centuries and tourists flock to see it from around the world. In its first phase Stonehenge consisted of a large earth circle enclosed within a 6ft high chalk wall and an outer ditch. Within the outer circle there were 56 circular holes known as the Aubrey Holes. Three hundred later 80 bluestones, each weighing up to four tonnes, were brought to the site from the Prescelly mountains in Wales and, in a central position ,at right angles to the avenue, they were arranged in the form of two large concentric U’s. Another change occurred around 2,100 b.c.e , when a circle of sarsen stones , a natural sandstone, with a continuous run of lintels, was constructed. Within this circle there were five pairs of sarsens in the form of a huge horseshoe, each pair supporting a lintel, and the bluestones were re-arranged in oval form in the new formation. At some stage, two concentric henges were created on raised banks around Stonehenge so it now consisted of a series of concentric circles around a central U shaped enclosure. Archaeologists have recently produced a map under the surface of Stonehenge, and the surrounding area, and although they know a lot more about this mysterious site, some people believe that they have not provided a satisfactory explanation of its purpose.


I read about Mollie Carey’s fascinating visions at the site many years ago ,(1) but it was only recently that I found her own account on the Internet. Mollie Carey claimed to have discovered some previously unknown carvings on the stones but her visions are far more sensational . She said that one night when she was visiting Stonehenge, the Heel Stone, outside the main circle, began to glow . It took the form of a snake and from its mouth emerged a man. Fires were burning outside the circle and highly civilised people, dressed in colourful clothes, were celebrating. Now, this is where the story gets really intriguing for says that she became aware of a catastrophe in which much the world’s population perished. The ‘sky-people, she felt,’ came down to help the survivors of a submerged continent some of whom reached the British Isles and the Americas. With regard to the snake, she knew it was a symbol associated with these sky-people.

Mollie Carey’s vision is fascinating but what has it got to do with Stonehenge ? The best way to answer this question is to see what the Ancients, themselves, said about their past . What their legends, especially the more informative ones, say is that Earth was once visited by human-like beings who appeared to man dressed in long white robes and whose symbol was the serpent. They say that the visitors helped civilise man but when some people misused the technology given to them and became evil, and ignored warnings about their behaviour, the ‘star-people’ destroyed them with a great flood.

Mollie Carey said that she was aware of a lost flooded continent. However, more than one land appears to have been destroyed ,by flood, over the years, Contrary to what the Establishment would have them believe, many Native Americans say that their ancestors came to their country, not across the Bering Straits from Asia ,as is presently taught, but from lost flooded lands in the east or west. There were many early legends about submerged lands . In Western Europe, in the Middle Ages, stories were told about a lost Atlantic land called Hy Brasil .India also has its deluge legends and there are remains of a thousands of year old city off the Gulf of Cambay. Then there is the controversial rock formation off the coast of Yonaguni in Japan, which some claim to be the remains of a lost civilisation, and let’s not forget Plato’s famous story of Atlantis ,whose location has been the subject of many theories over the years, and the story of the lost continent of Mu in the Pacific. There were flood legends in Inca Peru and evidence of an earlier civilisation has been found beneath Lake Titicaca in the Andes. There are also submerged towns under the Mediterranean. Were some of these worldwide cities, or civilisations, destroyed in the Great Flood?

Mollie Carey’s Stonehenge vision appears to have been the subject of most of the hundreds of ‘allegorical’ deluge stories around the world which many people have taken literally. A few contain obscure references to the ‘sky-gods’, which only initiates understood, (2 ) but most describe how only two people, and sometimes some animals, were saved and that from them are descended the entire human race. Often, a local hill, or mountain, is identified as the place where the vessel of the survivors came to rest.(3 ) The deluge legend of the North American Hopi( 4) and the claimed ‘place of origin’ of some of the Central American Native peoples are related and the latter was symbolised in stone in some of the latters’s cities. (5) That its location has confused scholars comes as no surprise as they fail to appreciate that numerous early sources ,such as symbolism, sacred architecture, rituals and legends, suggest that it appears to have represented the ‘craft of the sky-gods’ from which the people emerged ‘after the Flood’ (6)

There are many suggestions of early contact between the Old and New Worlds such as Egypt’s cocaine mummies and the sunken Roman vessel reportedly found in Brazil several years ago. However, there is much more to this story for there were numerous versions of the sky-god religion around the Early World, just as there are of Christianity today. For example, a deluge legend from Ancient India tells of the rescue of a highly regarded man, Manu, from a lost flooded land ( 7 ) and the indications are that the celestial beings who accompanied him were Creator Gods in some Central American religions . (8) And bearing this in mind, it shouldn’t come entirely as a surprise that the symbolic layout of the Central American ‘place of origin’ was reproduced in an underground complex in Giza, Egypt . (9) Sceptics might say this is just a coincidence. However, a related form of symbolism , used in Incan Peru (10) was associated with the Osiris linked Afterlife traditions in Egypt.(11) It was also alluded to in some Egyptian rituals ( 12) and in those of other Early World peoples.

With regard to Stonehenge, it was neither a residence, nor a fortified enclosure, and the cremated human bones found in the Aubrey Holes suggest that it wasn’t a healing sanctuary unless they were medical disasters. And if was a sacred place where the ancestors were worshipped, as some scholars suggest, how do they explain the site’s astronomical alignments and its symbolism? Apart from the lintels, the plan of each of Stonehenge’s later phases was not unique as U shapes and concentric circles feature in rock art and were created in stone in some Stone Age sites around the world such as at Tustrup in Denmark where a central standing stone , in a U shaped enclosure, was aligned to the midsummer sunrise and where fiery rituals were enacted . (13)

Some of the early stones at Stonehenge are missing but their known positions ,and number, suggest that they may have represented the star-people who were symbolised in the form of standing stones in some early cultures.( 14 ) With regard to the Heel Stone , which played a major role in Mollie Carey’s vision, it was originally one of a pair which may have represented a gateway between secular and sacred ground. After its companion was removed, it was given a new symbolic role (15) in which the sun rose over its summit on the summer solstice. Could it be that it represented the civilising god whom, in some cultures,‘ came to Earth from the sun’ ( a disc) and who was widely associated with a serpent ? And although this might be no more than a coincidence, it’s worth noting that Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec civilising god , whose temple was circular, was depicted looking out from the mouth of a snake. (16 ) Serpent linked traditions, customs, and snake dances were popular in many early cultures and in England they were suppressed by the Church around the 12th century. Did they date back,in Wiltshire, to the Stonehenge era?

According to the Mayan and Hindu calendars, the present age began, and the previous one ended, 5100 years ago. Around that time, there was climate change, and flooding, in many parts of the world. Several civilisations arose ‘fully developed ’and many tribes were on the move settling into new lands. This was also a pivotal time for the Ancient Brits (17) Major changes were made to the landscape and ‘the first phase of Stonehenge began’. The advanced Sumerians , who settled in Iraq among the less developed population at that time, stated that the Flood was caused by the Annunaki whose leaders appear to have been the entities who were revered as gods in numerous early cultures. That’s another fascinating story which I have covered in my three Pleiades Legacy books.

If we remove the stones from the plan of Stonehenge , we are left with a circular enclosure and a long path that’s now known as ‘The Avenue’. This form of symbolism appears in Stone Age rock art and in the layout of early Stone Age sites in the Middle East, Pakistan and India. (18 ) It was also the plan of a sacred site used in the rituals of a Stone Age cult, a 100 years ago ,in ceremonies relating to the Earth visit of a serpent ,and Pleiades, linked civilising god. (19 ). The Pleiades were featured in traditions throughout the Early World. They were associated with the Flood, agriculture, and the civilisers of man and they regulated many calendars such as those of the Babylonians and the Maya. Some tribes believe that their ancestors came from these stars and one tribe ,whose traditions are ‘sky-god’ linked, claims that their people return there when they die.(20)

Both of the two main Celtic festivals, Beltaine and Samhain, began with the rising of the Pleiades. Samhain, the origin of Halloween, which was held on the first of November, was a window into the Otherworld when the dead returned to Earth. The Festival of the Dead was celebrated by many early people at that time and it was Pleiades linked .Colonel. J, Garnier wrote that ‘In Mexico, the festival of the dead was held on the 17th November and was regulated by the Pleiades. It began at sunset and , at midnight, as that constellation approached the zenith, a human sacrifice, says Prescott, was offered up to avert the dread calamity which they believed impended over the human race. They had a tradition that the world had been previously destroyed and they dreaded that a similar catastrophe at the end of a cycle would annihilate the human race. Garnier adds that, according to Ellis, in the Society Islands the Pleiades linked festival of the dead ‘was viewed as a national acknowledgement to the gods’. (21 )

Stonehenge was once a prominent feature in the landscape, among a complex of circles, burial mounds, and ceremonial paths, and ,bearing in mind that sky-god linked celebrations were taking place, when it was in use, throughout the world, it’s not unreasonable to suggest that it too was a sacred site dedicated to the worship of these serpent linked star people. (22) Mollie Carey suggested that ‘Tiahuanaco in Bolivia ties up with Stonehenge and Avebury’ which is twenty odd miles north of Stonehenge. Although there is no obvious connection between Tiahuanaco and Stonehenge, other than a probable ‘sky-god’ link, there was similar sky-god symbolism at Tiahuanaco and Avebury and also in, Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, parts of Asia, and Central America .(23 )

Based upon reports of surviving Stone Age cults, tribal customs, and various Early World religious traditions, we can surmise that the following ceremonies may have taken place at Stonehenge. Astronomer priests informed the people of the time to celebrate the peoples’ major religious festivals. These probably took place on the solstices and equinoxes, to which numerous ancient sites were aligned, and it’s likely that the rising of the Pleiades was an important feature in these events. At a prescribed time, the priests summoned the people to gather together, possibly by blowing trumpets. The congregation, led by richly garmented priests and dignitaries, proceeded along The Avenue towards the Stonehenge circle and they stopped to pay homage to the god represented by the Heel Stone. Only those permitted were allowed to enter the sacred circle. Women and children had to stay at a distance and were not allowed to take part in many of the rituals which may have included animal ,or human, sacrifice. Fires were lit around Stonehenge and there may have been serpent dances to celebrate the dawn of a new era and the return of the ‘star gods’. Stonehenge appears to have been the equivalent of a cathedral and similar ceremonies may have taken place in hundreds of other stone circles in Britain and in many other countries around the world.

The Bimini Road is a controversial underwater rock formation near North Bimini in the Bahamas.


The Bimini Road, sometimes called the Bimini Wall, is an underwater rock formation near North Bimini island in the Bahamas. The Road consists of a 0.8 km (0.50 mi)-long northeast-southwest linear feature composed of roughly rectangular to subrectangular limestoneblocks. Various claims have been made for this feature being either a wall, road, pier, breakwater, or other man-made structure.

Some alternative scholars claim that it’s man-made whilst sceptics insist that it’s only natural. Starting from 1974, Dr. David Zink began a series of underwater expeditions to research this controversial site and medium Carol Huffstickler , who accompanied him, had the impression that there was an Earth visit from the Pleiades around 30,000 years ago. She said of the visitors that ‘they must surely have seemed as gods to the earthlings they visited.(24} There is no evidence, at present, to confirm that this visit took place but ,if it did, then could it be that advanced beings from the Pleiades came to our planet on at least two occasions, the last one being around 5,000 years ago and which was commemorated by many early people including those at Stonehenge?


(1) Peter Kolosimo. Not of this World. (p185)
(2) Edmond Sollberger. The Babylonian Legend of the Flood. (p25)British Museum Publications Ltd.1977
(3) George Catlin. Letters and Notes on the Manners and Customs of North American Indians. ( p178) Dover Publications. 1973
(4) Frank Waters.Book of the Hopi (p90) Penguin Books. 1977
(5) Linda Schelle and David Friedel , A Forest of Kings. (p502) William Morrow. 1990
(6) Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy (The New World) (p23) Blurb.2010
(7) Donald.A.Mackenzie. Indian Myth and Legend. (p141) Gresham Publishing Company
(8) Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy (The Old World) and The Pleiades Legacy (The New World) Blurb. 2010
(9) Leonard Farra . The Pleiades Legacy (The Old World) (p161-) Blurb. 2010
(10)Siegfried Huber. The Realm of the Incas (p175) Robert Hale Ltd. 1959
(11)Wm.R.Fix. Star Maps. (p77) Octopus.1979
(12) Normandi Ellis. Feasts of Light. (p107)Quest Books.1999
(13)Leonard Farra (The Pleiades Legacy (The Stone Age) (p133).Blurb. 2010
(14) Ibid .(p97, 186,209)
(15) Ibid. (p73)
(16)Jacques Soustelle .Daily Life of the Aztecs. ( p21) Phoenix Press.1961
(17) Rodney Castleden, Britain 3000 B.C. (p81) Sutton Publishing. 2003
(18)Edward Bacon. Archaeological Discoveries of the 1960’s ( p217) Cassell.1971
(19) J.G.Steele. Aboriginal Pathways (p43) University of Queensland Press. 1984
(20) Ronald Eyre on The Long Search. (p187) Collins. 1979
(21)Col. J.Garnier,The Worship of the Dead. (p5-) Chapman and Hall. 1904
(22)Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy (The Stone Age) (p68-) Blurb. 2010
(23) “ “ “ “ “ (The New World) (p167) “ “
(24)Dr .David Zink.The Stones of Atlantis. ( p115/116) W.H.Allen. 1978

Copyright 2014 by Leonard Farra

About the author

Leonard Farra – is the author of the books The Pleiades Legacy and The Pleiades Legacy (The Stone Age) – The Return of the Gods and The Pleiades Legacy ( The New World). All his books can be purchased Online from Blurb.Com. His E-books can be viewed on Apple Ipad, Iphone and Ipad touch.

Leonard Farra has researched the Ancient Astronaut theory for 35 years and written four books on the subject.


Could the age of the “Cheops pyramid” be 237 thousand years old?

Could the age of the "Cheops pyramid" be 237 thousand years old? 99

Many of you have probably read the version that in the sizes and proportions of the Cheops pyramid, certain parameters of the Earth and secret knowledge of ancient civilizations are “encrypted”. Two or three centuries ago (including, for example, Isaac Newton), and many scientists of the XIX and XX centuries, still tried to decipher all these secrets. 

In particular, many have tried to determine the length, etc. “Sacred cubit” (“pyramidal cubit”) – measures of the length of the architects and builders of the pyramid, which supposedly was also the key to many of its secrets.

So, on the Internet you can find publications of modern popularizers, which assert, in particular, that the number obtained from dividing the length of the base of the Cheops pyramid by the length of this “pyramidal cubit” is very close to the average duration of the modern tropical year.

An interesting way of dating the age of the pyramid

The essence of this method is as follows: if the architects of the pyramid really encrypted in its proportions the duration of their year, then, given the slowing down of the Earth’s rotation, the age of the pyramid can be calculated. For example, if the length of the year at the time of the construction of the pyramid was 0.01 days less than in our time, then, knowing the rate of deceleration of the Earth’s rotation (1.8 milliseconds per 100 years), you can calculate when it was.

But don’t rush to the calculations! There are “pitfalls” (which, by the way, were not taken into account in this theory). 

The Earth not only slows down its rotation, but also increases in size

“Over time, the radius of the globe, surface area, and mass increase. And the larger the Earth becomes, the faster it grows. Empirically, according to various sources, an exponential law of the increase in the radius of the globe with time has been established. Currently, the Earth’s growth rate is at its maximum, and the Earth’s radius is increasing by at least 2 centimeters per year.”

VF Blinov – The Growing Earth: from planets to stars
Planet Earth is growing (picture from the above article)
Planet Earth is growing

It is also possible that tens or hundreds of thousands of years ago, the Earth’s radius increased faster than in our time (and could change even faster during the years of planetary catastrophes (like about 10 800 years ago BC).

Riddles of the “pyramidal elbow”: Isaac Newton and Khesi-Ra

But this means that the mysterious “pyramidal elbow” during the construction of the pyramid, if it was one ten-millionth part of the Earth’s radius (as many of its researchers believed), it was not from the current radius, but from the one that was many millennia (or even tens millennia), – during the construction of the pyramid. Some scientists understood this even in the 19th century. Thus, the well-known historian and educator James Bonwick (1811-1906) wrote in 1877 in his book:

“Isaac Newton wrote a work in Latin entitled” The sacred elbow of the Jews and the elbows of some peoples in which, according to the measurements of the greatest Egyptian pyramid, made by Mr. John Greaves, the ancient elbow of Memphis is established “, where, in particular, he noted that in the Ancient Egypt before the elbow length of 0.5 m, apparently, was preceded by another, longer length, which could be about 63.5 cm. “

And then James Bonwick writes about the book of the American scientific educator John Taylor “The Great Pyramid: Who Was It Built And For What Purpose?” (published in 1856), in particular:

“… Mr. Taylor confuses us with his assertion that the length of the (pyramidal) elbow before the Flood was 24.9 inches (63.25 cm), and after this catastrophe it began to be equal to 25 inches (63.5 cm .) and both the elbow, according to Mr. Taylor, were sent over … Mr. Taylor suggests that the Flood had on the world of such a devastating effect – although geologists and could not find at least one tangible evidence that a flood at all took place – that the diameter of the Earth has become smaller by almost 59.55 km in comparison with the antediluvian.”

Are there ancient Egyptian depictions of people with this mysterious “pyramidal elbow”? In addition to the chief priest of Heliopolis, the legendary Imhotep, another name is associated with the construction (or with the repair) of the pyramids under Cheops, perhaps less well-known, but no less great. 

Khesi-Ra, “the chief of doctors, the priest of Horus, the chief architect of the pharaoh, the Supreme chief of the ten of the South” – this is not a complete list of his regalia, known from the studies of his personal tomb, which has been preserved.

Khesi-Ra is considered by some, the main “designer” of the Great Pyramids (or, we add, the chief engineer for repair and restoration). Khesi-Ra knew the secrets of proportions, golden sections, according to which the pyramids were built.

The images on the panels-boards of Khesi-Ra (see figure below) represent a whole spectrum, a developed canon of golden sections – various measures that were used in the construction (or restoration) of the pyramids. These measures were associated not only with the golden sections, they also encrypted many of the knowledge of the priests of Upper and Lower Egypt.

The architect of the restoration of the pyramid under the Pharaoh Cheops Khesi-Ra with tools and a ruler - "elbow".  A cedar plaque depicting Hesi-Ra from his tomb (photo from the Wikipedia article "Hesyra", Author: Hesy-Ra_CG1426.jpg: User: GDK: James Edward Quibell († 5. Juni 1935) derivative work: JMCC1 (talk) - Hesy -Ra_CG1426.jpg, Public domain,
The architect of the restoration of the pyramid under the Pharaoh Cheops Khesi-Ra with tools and a ruler – “elbow”. A cedar plaque depicting Hesi-Ra from his tomb (photo from the Wikipedia article “Hesyra”, Author: Hesy-Ra_CG1426.jpg: User: GDK: James Edward Quibell († 5. Juni 1935) derivative work: JMCC1 (talk) – Hesy -Ra_CG1426.jpg, Public domain

But what was the length of the “pyramidal elbow” during the construction of the pyramids? So, a vicious circle? To calculate the length of the year of the construction time, encoded in the length of the pyramid base, you need to know the length of the “pyramidal cubit”, but this dina itself may depend on when the pyramid was erected!

Let’s take the bull by the horns!

And let’s proceed from the fact that the “pyramidal elbow” as a measure of length had to fit an integer number of times at least one (most likely in the “supporting”) base of the pyramid. In addition, most likely its length did not differ much from that which was accepted by many Egyptologists since the 19th century (and still) (in the book of James Bonwick, several more names are listed, except for Taylor). 

In general, the measure of length “cubit” in that century had not yet been forgotten in Europe: for example, in the physics textbook of 1831 (see the Wikipedia article “Elbow”), the lengths of the “cubit” are given in more than ten cities of Western Europe, and most of these ” cubits “has a length of 59 to 69 cm.

So, we are looking for a “pyramidal elbow” about 63 cm long, which fits an integer number of times into one of the four sides of the base of the pyramid. According to Wikipedia (article “Pyramid of Cheops”), their length is as follows: north – 230.253 m; south – 230.454 m; west – 230.357 m; east – 230.394 m. Note here also that the length of the lateral rib (initially): 230.33 m (according to calculations), according to the Wikipedia article “Pyramid of Cheops”.

It is logical to take the north side as the support one, and we will easily find that the 0.63083 m long “pyramidal elbow” fits along the length of the northern base … exactly 365 times! – A good start to storm this puzzle!

The next most important side of the pyramid is the eastern one. If only because the Sun and Sirius rise there (announcing the flood of the Nile). Then the average length of a year during the construction of the pyramid = 230.394 \ 0.63083 = 365.2235943.

What is the length of the tropical year in our century? In Wikipedia (in the article “Tropical Year”) we can see the following data (for 2000):

Between two March equinoxes: 365.242374 days

Between two June solstices: 365.241626 days

Between two September equinox% 365.242018 days

Between two December solstices: 365.242740 days

As you know, in Ancient Egypt, the New Year began in the summer (with the flooding of the Nile). Therefore, we must take the number in the second line (between the two June solstices), i.e. 365.241626 days.

The slowdown compared to the current average duration is 365.241626 minus 365.2235943 = 0.018031 days, or almost exactly 1558 seconds. Now remember that the rate of deceleration of the Earth’s rotation is 1.8 milliseconds per day every 100 years.

This means that every 100 years the duration of the tropical year increases by 0.0018 x 365.23 = 0.6574 seconds. Consequently, 1558 seconds run over 2369.94 centuries = 236,994 years … Well, by a round count, 237,000 years ago!

Conclusions and discussion of the result

So the Cheops pyramid was erected 237,000 years ago?

Note, however, that the accuracy of the proposed method depends very much on the accuracy of determining the initial lengths of the pyramid’s bases: with an average base length of about 230.36 meters, an error of 0.5 cm changes the result by about 100,000 years. In most sources, according to the sizes of the pyramids, they are indicated with an accuracy of a centimeter (in the Wikipedia article “Pyramid of Cheops” – up to a millimeter).

If we assume that the initial lengths are set with an accuracy of mm, then the error of our calculations would be about plus / minus 20,000 years, but rather we should focus on an error of 0.5 cm. So, with an accuracy of determining the initial base lengths of 0, 5 cm is more correct to say that the pyramid was erected within 137 – 337 thousand years ago. And this is provided that the deceleration of the Earth’s rotation throughout all these hundreds of thousands of years remained equal to about 1.8 ms / day per 100 years!

However, this is an interesting result. This period in the history of the Earth ( 137 – 337 thousand years ago ) is the emergence of the Cro-Magnons (and mitochondrial Eve) in South Africa, and then (about 100,000 years ago) their exit through the territory of present-day Egypt to Eurasia. In general, there is no doubt that the Cro-Magnons reached the territory of present-day Egypt from South Africa no later than the upper limit of the time of the pyramid erection, which we determined.

Pyramid of Cheops in the 19th century (photo from Wikipedia article "Pyramid of Cheops", Public domain,
Pyramid of Cheops in the 19th century (photo from Wikipedia article “Pyramid of Cheops”, Public domain

If we take into account our assumption that the Cro-Magnons were in fact the first Sumerians created by their masters (Anunnaki) to help in their work (mining in South Africa) – if we also take this into account, then we can put forward and version about the purpose of the creation of these pyramids, and that it was the Anunnaki who built them then.

But what can the western and southern bases of the pyramid show? I suppose that a calculation similar to the one carried out in the article on the western base will show the time of arrival of aliens on Earth (approximately 420,000 BC), and on the southern base (the longest, 230, 454 m), the calculation will show a certain boundary in the future, which the creators of the pyramid considered important for the Earth (for humanity, or for their stay here). 

Throughout its existence, the pyramid has probably been overhauled and restored several times (and maybe more often); last time in the third millennium BC, during the reign of Pharaoh Cheops.

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Archaeologists have discovered “unknown” constellations in an Egyptian temple

Archaeologists have discovered "unknown" constellations in an Egyptian temple 100
Previously unknown ancient Egyptian constellations found © Live Science

A team of scientists from Germany and Egypt, which carried out work in the ancient temple of Esna, found references to previously unknown ancient Egyptian constellations, but so far they cannot link them to existing ones.

In Egypt, archaeologists have discovered images of unknown constellations during the restoration of an ancient temple. This is reported by LiveScience.

Restoration work is being carried out in the 2,000-year-old temple by experts from Germany and Egypt. During the removal of soot and dust from the walls, drawings began to appear, with which the ancient Egyptians decorated the temple.

“The carvings and hieroglyphs look so vivid as if they were drawn yesterday. But we are not repainting anything, we are just removing the soot,” Christian Leitz says, professor of Egyptology at the University of Tübingen.

During the restoration, researchers cleaned up ancient carved scenes depicting constellations, including the Big Dipper and Orion. Scientists have also found previously unknown constellations, including a constellation called “Apedu n Ra” or “Geese of Ra”, which are the ancient Egyptian sun gods.

Archaeologists have discovered "unknown" constellations in an Egyptian temple 101

Mentioning these constellations, without depicting them, does not yet allow us to say which star clusters are in question.

The first modern description of a Greco-Roman temple in the city of Esna dates back to 1589, when it was visited by a Venetian merchant. The city of Esna, about 60 km south of the ancient capital of Luxor, used to have more temples. Two buildings were destroyed during the industrialization of Egypt, and the largest, the Temple of Esna, was used for storing cotton in the first half of the 19th century.

Archaeologists have discovered "unknown" constellations in an Egyptian temple 102

The sanctuary, which they decided to use as a warehouse, was prized for its location in the city center. Decades of desolation have left the temple dirty, covered in soot and bird droppings.

Archaeologists have discovered "unknown" constellations in an Egyptian temple 103

To date, only its vestibule remains from the temple. The large sandstone structure is supported by 24 columns, as well as 18 freestanding columns, decorated with paintings and carvings. It stretches 37 meters long, 20 meters wide and 15 meters high. But the remains of the temple are only a small fraction of its former size when it was built under the Roman emperor Claudius (reigned 41-54 AD). Scholars do not know what happened to the rest of the temple when a Venetian merchant visited it in the 16th century, little remained of the structure.

Archaeologists have discovered "unknown" constellations in an Egyptian temple 104

According to Leitz, the construction and decoration of the temple, including the astronomical drawings on the ceiling, could take about 200 years.

He notes that when the ancient Egyptians decorated the temple, they first drew with ink, creating sketches for carvers, and then colored the relief designs.

On the astronomical ceiling of the temple, many drawings have remained in ink, so they were found only during the restoration.

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A portrait of an alien? In Bulgaria, archaeologists have found a clay mask of an unusual shape

A portrait of an alien? In Bulgaria, archaeologists have found a clay mask of an unusual shape 105
Ancient mask resembles an alien (Photo: Bulgarian National Radio)

A prehistoric clay mask or figurine without a mouth dating back to the 5th millennium BC was found in the prehistoric settlement of Salt Pit in northeastern Bulgaria.

A whimsical mask or figurine without a mouth combines human and animal features and resembles an ” alien” from a science fiction movie, archaeologists are sure.

“ Many people compare him to … an alien in a space suit,” the Bulgarian National Radio said in a statement about the discovery.

A late Eneolithic mask was found on the Provadia-Solnitsata mound in northeastern Bulgaria, its shape is close to triangular. The front side protrudes forward and contains an image of a supposedly human face, while the back side is dented and rough in shape.

According to archaeologists, each of the two corners of the upper side of the prehistoric mask or figurine has a short protrusion, “probably stylized ears.” The figurine’s ears have small holes that were used to carry or hang the artifact.

“The artifact was most likely a status symbol hanging on a person’s chest. Interestingly, there is even a hint of mouth on the artifact. But the emphasis is on the eyes – their shape, size, and the vertical polished stripes underneath say much more,” the researchers said.

The head of the archaeological team, Professor Vasil Nikolov, told Bulgarian National Radio that there is no way to know for sure what exactly the 6,000-year-old clay mask or figurine might have been used for by prehistoric people.

Judging by the two holes in the stylized ears of the mouthless mask, it could be hanging on the wall or even being a potter’s vessel lid that could be raised or lowered with a string. According to him, the image on the mask of an ” alien” is a mixture of anthropomorphic and zoomorphic features and “is strongly associated with the masculine principle.”

Two furnaces from the Early Eneolithic ( Copper Age) were excavated at the mound of the Bazovets settlement in North-Eastern Bulgaria.

One of two prehistoric kilns dating back about 7,000 years, was first partially excavated in the 2019 archaeological season. However, during the last excavations of the Bazovets mound, it was completely exposed, and a second kiln from the same structure was discovered.

During the last excavations of the mound of the Bazovetsky settlement, 57 archaeological artifacts were discovered. These include items made of flint, animal bones, horns, and ceramics, including fragments of anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figurines.

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