Scattered throughout Northern Japan around the Yamagata Prefecture are two dozen mummified Japanese monks known as Sokushinbutsu, who caused their own deaths in a way that resulted in their mummification. The practice was first pioneered by a priest named Kuukai over 1000 years ago at the temple complex of Mount Koya, in Wakayama prefecture. Estimates of the number of self-mummified priests in Japan range between sixteen and twenty-four priests. Impressive though this number is, many more have tried to self-mummify themselves; In fact, the practice of self-mummification — which is a form of suicide, after all — had to be outlawed towards the end of the 19th century to prevent Buddhist priests from offing themselves this way. and yet the grand majority of priests who have tried to do this have failed. The reasons will take some explaining — but first, some background on the whole practice and the reasons for it.
Sokushinbutsu refers to a practice of Buddhist monks observing austerity to the point of death and mummification. This process of self-mummification was mainly practised in Yamagata in Northern Japan between the 11th and 19th century, by members of the Japanese Vajrayana school of Buddhism called Shingon (“True Word”). The practitioners of sokushinbutsu did not view this practice as an act of suicide, but rather as a form of further enlightenment. Those who succeeded were revered, while those who failed were nevertheless respected for the effort.
It is believed that many hundreds of monks tried, but only 24 such mummifications have been discovered to date. There is a common suggestion that Shingon school founder Kukai brought this practice from Tang China as part of secret tantric practices he learned, and that were later lost in China. Today, the practice is not advocated or practiced by any Buddhist sect, and is banned in Japan. The practice was satirized in the story “The Destiny That Spanned Two Lifetimes” by Ueda Akinari, in which such a monk was found centuries later and resuscitated.
So truely devote Buddhist priests are not afraid of death; but they don’t normally seek it either, as this too would be an abnormal obsession with the physical world. The priests that chose to practice self-mummification were usually all older men, who knew they had limited time left to their lives anyway… and since the practice takes years to lead to a sucessful death and mummification, it cannot be characterized as an attempt to reach enlightenment quickly as a normal suicide might be. Rather, the intended purpose of this practice for these priests is to both push their ability to disregard their physical selves to the limit of their ability, and to try and leave an artifact of this struggle that will stand as a symbol of their beliefs to those that are priests after them.
The practice of self-mummification seems somewhat macabre to today’s civilized population. However, for some sects of Buddhist priests, it was a form of further enlightenment. Many of these priests voluntarily went through a ten-year gruesome process of self-mummifying, belie ving that extreme physical pain and denial created an opening to a higher spiritual level, the ultimate attainment of “passing into the state of nirvana.”
The practice of self-mummification in Japan has its roots in the esoteric school of Shingon Buddhism called the Shingon-Shu, established in the Heian Period (794-1185). The founder of this new Buddhist movement was a monk named Kobo Daishi, also recognized as Kukai. Kukai’s teachings reflect an influence derived from Tantric Buddhism, which comes from the Great Vehicle Sect, called the Mahayana School. Between the years 804 and 806, Kukai studied in the rural province of T’ang in China, where he worked on mastering esoteric practices. After having studied in China, Kukai returned to Japan bringing with him the three theological building blocks that were the basis of the Shingon School.
The first was the idea of the all-powerful syllable, the meaning of which can be found in the etiological root of the word “Shingon.” Shingon is taken from the Chinese word “Chin-yen” (true word). Chin-yen is a transliterated form of the Sanskrit word for “mantra” (sacred noise making up the universe, such as the syll able “om”). The next theological seed was the most important iconographical symbol in esoteric Buddhism, the two Mandal as denoting the impermanence of life and the inevitability of birth and rebirth in the ever-moving wheel of Samsara. The third and most influential to esoteric Buddhism’s dev elopment in the Japan came back with Kukai in the translated form of two Tantric Buddhist scriptures known as the Machav airocana sutra, describing the relationship between man and the cosmic Buddha, and the Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha sutra. These texts were especially helpful in giving Shingon the claws to dig into and plant the seeds of esoteric Buddhism’s fertility in Japanese religious history. Kukai transliterated these texts into the vernacular from Sanskrit. His transliterations played a pivotal role in the formation of the Shingon School. Long after Buddhists in the native country of India discarded the two sutras and the Chinese no longer practiced their rituals, the Japanese kept the practices alive.
These secret teachings spread to a variety of places.“Esoteric Buddhist history was practiced from India to Central Asia, Ceylon, China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Nepal, Indonesia, Southeast Asia, and Tibet.” By the seventh or eighth century, secret Buddhist rituals, like self-mummification, reached an apex and developed in regions of Japan.
How to be a self-made mummy
Scientific study of the mummies and the process that created them only began in the early 1960’s. It was generally expected that the mummies studied would show signs of having been mummified after death by other priests, in much the way Egyptian mummies — and almost all other mummies on Earth — have been created. The first step in that process is the removal of the internal organs, because the bacteria in these begin the process of decomposition within hours of death; with these removed, it is relatively easy to prepare, dry, and preserve the remainder of the body. But x-rays discounted this expectation… the internal organs were intact, which meant that mummification had been accomplished in some new way that scientists had not yet encountered. So the process itself was next investigated.
The actual practice was first pioneered by a priest named Kuukai over 1000 years ago at the temple complex of Mount Kooya, in Wakayama prefecture. Kuukai was founder of the Shingon sect of Buddhism, which is the sect that came up with the idea of enlightenment through physical punishment. There were three steps in the process of self-mummification that Kuukai proposed, and the full process took upwards of ten years to lead to a successful mummification.
The first step is a change of diet. The priest was only allowed to eat nuts and seeds that could be found in the forests surrounding his temple; this diet had to be stuck to for a 1000 day period, a little under three years. During this time, the priest was to continue to subject himself to all sorts of physical hardship in his daily training. The results were that the body fat of the priest was reduced to nearly nothing, thus removing a section of the body that easily decomposes after death.
In the second stage, the diet became more restrictive. The priest was now only allowed to eat a small amount of bark and roots from pine trees (mokujiki). This had to be endured for another 1000 day period, by the end of which the priest looked like a living skeleton. This also decreased the overall moisture contained in the body; and the less fluid left in the body, the easier to preserve it.
Towards the end of this 1000 day period, the priest also had to start to drink a special tea made from the sap of the urushi tree. This sap is used to make laquer for bowls and furniture; but it is also very poisonous for most people. Drinking this tea induced vomenting, sweating, and urination, further reducing the fluid content of the priest’s body. But even more importantly, the build up of the poison in the priest’s body would kill any maggots or insects that tried to eat the priest’s remains after death, thus protecting it from yet another source of decay.
The third and last step of the process was to be entombed alive in a stone room just big enough for a man to sit lotus style in for a final 1000 day period. As long as the priest could ring a bell each day a tube remained in place to supply air; but when the bell finally stopped, the tube was removed and the tomb was sealed.
When the tomb was finally opened, the results would be known. Some few would be fully mummified, and immediately be raised to the rank of Buddha; but most just rotted and, while respected for their incredible endurance, were not considered to be Buddhas. These were simply sealed back into their tombs. But why did some mummify and some not? This is the tricky part of the whole process.
It is not clear if this is part of the process as set down by Kuukai, but in Yamagata is a sacred spring. This spring is on a mountain called Yudono, which is in fact the third sacred mountain of the three I visited in 1998. Many of the priests in the area considered both the water and the mineral deposits from this spring to have medicinal value, and may have injested one or both previous to their entombment. An analysis of the spring water and deposits revealed that they contain enough arsenic to kill a human being! Arsenic does not get eliminated from the body, so it remains after death… and it is toxic to bacteria and other micro-organisms, so it eliminated the bacteria that started the decompostion of the body.
The importance of such psychoanalysis can be observed in Richard Payne’s discussion of Shingon’s four ritual stages of self-transformation of the mind called Shindo Kegyo. In his discussion, he us psychology as a tool for analyzing this four-pronged ritual transformation. “Clearly, ritual must be more than a mechanical technique (such as simple breathing exercises might be).” The practitioners of such rituals report elated feelings of connection to generations of previous worshipers.
The process of self-mummification is broken down into three 1,000-day periods. Each period is characterized by physical and mental changes caused by phase-specific austerities and excruciating pain. The process is not some mystic secret, but rather a calculated scient ific means for ridding the body of material that cannot cross over into nirvana. In the first phase the priest is restricted to a diet of only nuts and grains surrounding the temple complex.During this time the practitioner endures extreme hardships, such as meditating under icy cold mountain streams for hours on end. “Japan is a mountainous country.” Therefore, most of the Shingon temple complexes are in the proximity of large sacred mountains.During the second phase of the process, the fat matter that causes the body to decompose is greatly reduced. Upon entering the second one thousand-day period, the priest’s body fat is near zero. In this stage, the diet is restricted even fu rther to only miniscule amounts of pine bark and roots from pine trees.
After this stage, the priest is like a “skin-covered skeleton.” The dehydration helps in preservation of the body. Towards the end of the second stage, “A special tea is made from the sap of the urushi tree.” This sap is used as a lacquer for furniture. The tea is a poisonous concoction that causes vomiting and sickness that further decrease the moisture in the body, but more importantly, its build up in the system prevents insects from speeding up the decomposition process. This, in turn, helps the self-mummification process by protecting the to-be mummified priest from natural elements. Upon entering the final stage, the priest is given a bell and then sealed in his tomb where a tube is inserted into a small opening in the top. Every day, he rings the bell.
Eventually, when the ringing stops, the tube is removed. At the end of the last 1000-day period, nearly ten years a fter starting, the tomb is opened and the results are seen. Out of the thousands who have tried to complete this decade long process, most are decomposed, and thus, have failed in their efforts. Only a select few actually achieve this fascinating but grisly transformation. The priests who triumphed in their endeavor are said to be one with the cosmic Buddha. While the people who tried and failed are praised for their fervor, they are not thought to be Buddha. Therefore, they enter back into the wheel of Samsara. One of the questions scientists pose is why some bodies decompose while others mummify. “In a place called Yamagata, there is a sacred spring on a mountain called Yudono.” In this area, there have been reported higher levels of mummification success. It was in the same area that Kukai first pioneered this practice in Japan. Many of the priests from this prefecture reported drinking water before entombment.
People love girl’s ‘iconic’ Christmas list including laundry detergent and $4,000
One dad may be regretting asking his daughter what she wants for Christmas this year after she returned with a 26 line wish list which may require a lottery win to fulfill.
People were loving both her bravery and the phonetic spelling of the items she’s hoping to find under the tree after her dad posted the list to Twitter with the caption: ‘My 10 year old daughter must be out of her mind with this Christmas list’.
Santa will need to work closely with Apple as she begins the list with an iPhone 11, AirPods and a new MacBook Air.
There were also the usual popular requests, such as clothes, make up, a real bunny – and clothes for the bunny.
But it was choices like ‘Chanel purs’, ‘purfum’, ‘julery’ and particularly ‘asenchal oil’ which really grabbed people’s attention.
One replied “Asenchal oil lmaooooo I love her” as another wrote “That baby sounded it OUT”.
Others were simply wondering what a 10-year-old was planning to do with $4,000, with one calling it a ‘rockstar move’.
“Right like oh yea lemme ask for 4K too,” said one reply. “Right by the bunny clothes.”
“I think she’s planning to move out,” said another.
The tweet has racked up more than 85,000 likes, 16,000 retweets and 3,600 replies. Here’s a few of the best:
We’ve got a feeling someone might be a little disappointed when they wake up on Christmas morning as others pointed out that it’s pretty likely she’ll only be unwrapping clothes and make up on December 25 – but were glad to see ‘mama has her priorities in check’.
The good news for parents is that although Christmas may be a time of goodwill to all men etc, it’s also a time of bargaining with your children to get them to behave.
Advice for parents
They know the only way to get these presents is to make it on to Santa’s good list and now there’s a new app where Father Christmas will personally call your child to give them a stern warning about misbehaving.
‘Message from Santa’ will give kids a personalised call, text message or voicemail – and you can add as many little ones as you wish.
It can, of course, also be used to endorse good behaviour, with St Nick dropping your kids a line to tell them to keep up their angelic behaviour.
The insane treatment in alternative medicine: gold needles under the skin
For thousands of years, humanity has invented new “methods” to deal with chronic pain.
Almost everything is used – from snake oil and bee stings to music therapy and meditation. But one of the weirdest and scariest remedies is putting gold needles under your skin.
A few centuries ago, in the Asian acupuncture, small needles (or rather thin short threads) made of gold were used. Now, this method is practiced in some places and remote areas of Korea, China and other countries.
These numerous small “white worms”, clearly visible in the X-ray images below, are in fact hundreds of gold needles embedded by the healer under the patient’s skin. This procedure is not cheap at all.
It is usually performed by a person without medical background who often does not even wash his hands before the procedure. A special acupuncture needle is used to insert the pieces of gold thread under the skin.
Gold sticks are inserted into the part of the body that is suffering from pain. If a toothache – the gold is inserted deep into the gums, if it is in the knee – under the skin of the knee, etc. Subsequently, because of body movement, the rods can go deeper into the flesh and even to the bone.
Gold is believed to be “pure metal” and will not cause infections in the body. The brain will send pain impulses that will be transferred from the body to the gold needles and therefore, the patient will not have pain at this location.
No doctor or doctor has yet confirmed that such a procedure saves pain. But, doctors report people who have sought their help who already have very serious health problems as a result of the gold needles in their body.
Recently, in an American magazine New England Journal of Medicine an article by Seoul doctors about a similar procedure was published, with pictures of their patients.
In particular, there is the mention of a 39-year-old Korean woman who has been trying to cure her chronic headache with acupuncture with gold needles for many years. However, instead of relieving her suffering, inflammation was formed in places where the needles were under the skin.
Another issue besides inflammation is the aforementioned “migration” of the gold needles inside the patient’s body. When these filaments reach the nerves, they can cause even more pain.
On their way into the body, the needles break into smaller parts, which later makes it difficult to remove them with surgery.
The same medical journal mentions a 73-year-old patient who treated her headache with such needles and received convulsive twitches on her face instead of relief – gold needles damaged her facial nerves.
Most commonly, the mad gold thread treatment is used to treat arthritis, headache and back pain.
Is That Viral Catfish/Egg/Coke/Mentos Vid Real? An Investigation
What began as a day like any other ended with a haunting quest to source a viral video of a man apparently capturing catfish using Coca-Cola brand soda, Mentos, and an ordinary egg.
If all that left you feeling puzzled, you’re not alone. Originally posted to YouTube on November 1, the video in question shows an unidentified man adding Coke, Mentos, and an egg yolk to a muddy hole. The man then reaches into the hole and produces — presto! — not one, not two, but three catfish.
Clips of the video started circulating on both Twitter and Reddit this past Wednesday, spawning questions about where the fish came from and how or why the trick would ever work. The dominant theory, prematurely endorsed by some blogs, was that the hole must likely be connected to a larger body of water. The fish, according to the theory, was attracted by the egg, and swam into the hole before “suffocating” on the Coke and Mentos solution.
Far more likely, according to a detailed Futurism investigation, is that the video is at least partially a hoax.
Another possibility we considered was that the video was a bizarre viral marketing scheme, so Futurism reached out to both the Coke and Mentos brands to ask. A spokesperson for the Mentos brand denied involvement and added, “this is not a practice our company or our brands would condone,” while the Coca-Cola company has not responded at the time of publication.
The source of the video is a fledgling, vaguely surreal YouTube channel called “Technique Tools.” According to YouTube, it was created in 2015 and attracted modest attention until its most recent catfish post, which has accrued an impressive 1.8 million views at press time.
Technique Tools doesn’t list contact information, but its account offers other clues. One playlist of Technique Tools’ videos includes several in which Coke and Mentos are being poured on various animals, sometimes along with other substances such as toothpaste or eggs. The descriptions of some videos offer puzzling disclaimers.
“The crocodile is our pet. Coca Cola and mentos [sic] react nothing with the crocodile,” reads one. “Action in this video made b [sic] a professional. Do not repeat! It Can [sic] be dangerous,” reads another.
The most telling, though, comes from a video similar to the viral post, also uploaded this month. It claims the videos are planned, scripted, and made for fun, as well as disclaimer that the fish in this instance, “come out by pushing behind the video at the left side.”
On the reaction of catfish to eggs and Coca-Cola, the science is more exact.
Most catfish have a sharp sense of taste and some, including the Channel Catfish, which appears to be our viral star based on its four sets of whiskers, have taste receptors on their bodies.
Channel Catfish feed primarily on small fishes and aquatic insects but have been known to eat small birds, according to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The effectiveness of eggs as catfish bait isn’t something that appears to have been tested in the lab setting, however.
As for the Coke and Mentos, it’s much easier to explain why dumping soda on animals isn’t a nice idea.
In humans, our lungs work to exchange oxygen from the air to replenish our blood cells and exhale waste gasses. In fish, gills work similarly. When oxygenated water is passed over specialized tissues, oxygen from the water is exchanged into the fish’s bloodstream.
When there isn’t enough oxygen in the water fish can indeed suffocate, which is actually a big problem in the ecology of our modern oceans where shifting currents have created pockets of low-oxygen water. Diluting the oxygen concentration in water by adding carbon dioxide from soda makes extracting oxygen much more difficult, which can cause a fish to panic and try to escape.
As a science lesson, this video offers several insights into animal — and human — behavior. However, as a fishing tactic, this method probably isn’t likely to net you a whopping catfish. Still, we can always count on the depths of the internet to inspire the human imagination.
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