A newly deciphered Egyptian text, dating back almost 1,200 years, tells part of the crucifixion story of Jesus with apocryphal plot twists, some of which have never been seen before.
Written in the Coptic language, the ancient text tells of Pontius Pilate, the judge who authorized Jesus’ crucifixion, having dinner with Jesus before his crucifixion and offering to sacrifice his own son in the place of Jesus. It also explains why Judas used a kiss, specifically, to betray Jesus — because Jesus had the ability to change shape, according to the text — and it puts the day of the arrest of Jesus on Tuesday evening rather than Thursday evening, something that contravenes the Easter timeline.
The discovery of the text doesn’t mean these events happened, but rather that some people living at the time appear to have believed in them, said Roelof van den Broek, of Utrecht University in the Netherlands, who published the translation in the book “Pseudo-Cyril of Jerusalem on the Life and the Passion of Christ“(Brill, 2013).
Copies of the text are found in two manuscripts, one in the Morgan Library and Museum in New York City and the other at the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. Most of the translation comes from the New York text, because the relevant text in the Pennsylvania manuscript is mostly illegible.
Pontius Pilate has dinner with Jesus
While apocryphal stories about Pilate are known from ancient times, van den Broek wrote in an email to LiveScience that he has never seen this one before, with Pilate offering to sacrifice his own son in the place of Jesus.
A researcher has deciphered a 1,200-year-old Coptic text that tells part of the Passion (the Easter story) with apocryphal plot twists, some of which have never been seen before. Here, a cross decoration from the text, of which there are two copies, the best preserved in the Morgan Library and Museum in New York City. CREDIT: Image courtesy The Pierpont Morgan Library
“Without further ado, Pilate prepared a table and he ate with Jesus on the fifth day of the week. And Jesus blessed Pilate and his whole house,” reads part of the text in translation. Pilate later tells Jesus, “well then, behold, the night has come, rise and withdraw, and when the morning comes and they accuse me because of you, I shall give them the only son I have so that they can kill him in your place.”
In the text, Jesus comforts him, saying, “Oh Pilate, you have been deemed worthy of a great grace because you have shown a good disposition to me.” Jesus also showed Pilate that he can escape if he chose to. “Pilate, then, looked at Jesus and, behold, he became incorporeal: He did not see him for a long time …” the text read.
Pilate and his wife both have visions that night that show an eagle (representing Jesus) being killed.
In the Coptic and Ethiopian churches, Pilate is regarded as a saint, which explains the sympathetic portrayal in the text, van den Broek writes.
The reason for Judas using a kiss
In the canonical bible the apostle Judas betrays Jesus in exchange for money by using a kiss to identify him leading to Jesus’ arrest. This apocryphal tale explains that the reason Judas used a kiss, specifically, is because Jesus had the ability to change shape.
“Then the Jews said to Judas: How shall we arrest him [Jesus], for he does not have a single shape but his appearance changes. Sometimes he is ruddy, sometimes he is white, sometimes he is red, sometimes he is wheat coloured, sometimes he is pallid like ascetics, sometimes he is a youth, sometimes an old man …” This leads Judas to suggest using a kiss as a means to identify him. If Judas had given the arresters a description of Jesus he could have changed shape. By kissing Jesus Judas tells the people exactly who he is.
This understanding of Judas’ kiss goes way back. “This explanation of Judas’ kiss is first found in Origen [a theologian who lived A.D. 185-254],” van den Broek writes. In his work,Contra Celsum the ancient writerOrigen, stated that “to those who saw him [Jesus] he did not appear alike to all.”
St. Cyril impersonation
The text is written in the name of St. Cyril of Jerusalem who lived during the fourth century. In the story Cyril tells the Easter story as part of a homily (a type of sermon). A number of texts in ancient times claim to be homilies by St. Cyril and they were probably not given by the saint in real life, van den Broek explained in his book.
Here, part of the text from the manuscript holding the newly deciphered Passion story of Jesus. Found in Egypt in 1910 it was purchased, along with other manuscripts, by J.P. Morgan in 1911 and was later donated to the public. CREDIT: Image courtesy The Pierpont Morgan Library
Near the beginning of the text, Cyril, or the person writing in his name, claims that a book has been found in Jerusalem showing the writings of the apostles on the life and crucifixion of Jesus. “Listen to me, oh my honored children, and let me tell you something of what we found written in the house of Mary …” reads part of the text.
Again, it’s unlikely that such a book was found in real life. Van den Broek said that a claim like this would have been used by the writer “to enhance the credibility of the peculiar views and uncanonical facts he is about to present by ascribing them to an apostolic source,” adding that examples of this plot device can be found “frequently” in Coptic literature.
Arrest on Tuesday
Van den Broek says that he is surprised that the writer of the text moved the date of Jesus’ Last Supper, with the apostles, and arrest to Tuesday. In fact, in this text, Jesus’ actual Last Supper appears to be with Pontius Pilate. In between his arrest and supper with Pilate, he is brought before Caiaphas and Herod.
In the canonical texts, the last supper and arrest of Jesus happens on Thursday evening and present-day Christians mark this event with Maundy Thursday services. It “remains remarkable that Pseudo-Cyril relates the story of Jesus’ arrest on Tuesday evening as if the canonical story about his arrest on Thursday evening (which was commemorated each year in the services of Holy Week) did not exist!” writes van den Broek in the email.
A gift to a monastery … and then to New York
About 1,200 years ago the New York text was in the library of the Monastery of St. Michael in the Egyptian desert near present-day al-Hamuli in the western part of the Faiyum. The text says, in translation, that it was a gift from “archpriest Father Paul,” who, “has provided for this book by his own labors.”
The monastery appears to have ceased operations around the early 10th century, and the text was rediscovered in the spring of 1910. In December 1911, it was purchased, along with other texts, by American financier J.P. Morgan. His collections would later be given to the public and are part of the present-day Morgan Library and Museum in New York City. The manuscript is currently displayed as part of the museum’s exhibition “Treasures from the Vault” running through May 5.
Who believed it?
Van den Broek writes in the email that “in Egypt, the Bible had already become canonized in the fourth/fifth century, but apocryphal stories and books remained popular among the Egyptian Christians, especially among monks.”
Whereas the people of the monastery would have believed the newly translated text, “in particular the more simple monks,” he’s not convinced that the writer of the text believed everything he was writing down, van den Broek said.
“I find it difficult to believe that he really did, but some details, for instance the meal with Jesus, he may have believed to have really happened,” van den Broek writes. “The people of that time, even if they were well-educated, did not have a critical historical attitude. Miracles were quite possible, and why should an old story not be true?”
Copyright 2013 LiveScience, a TechMediaNetwork company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
Apollo Mission Ended Because Of Extraterrestrials?
The U.S. Navy planned to put 10,000 people on the Moon in the early 1970’s as part of a secret lunar bases program that was to be established through the NASA Apollo program.
According to William Tompkins, a top aerospace designer who worked for major NASA corporate contractors during the Apollo era, the covert Navy plan came to a crushing end during the Apollo 11 mission when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were met by a fleet of menacing extraterrestrial spacecraft.
Tompkins’ account of what really happened on the Moon is explained in his recently published autobiography, Selected by Extraterrestrials. At the time of the Moon landing, Tompkins worked for TRW, a leading aerospace corporation that built the first NASA satellite, Pioneer 1.
TRW was responsible for a range of critical components used in Apollo spacecraft, and its personnel were in the operations center for Apollo missions. Tompkins was a TRW employee from July 1967 to March 1971, and describes his role in helping design the Launch Operations Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida.
Earlier, during the final two years of his 12-year employment at the Douglas Aviation Company (1950-1963), Tompkins’ innovative designs for planned Apollo missions had greatly impressed Dr. Kurt H. Debus.
In July 1962, Debus had become the first Director of NASA’s Launch Operation Center (renamed the Kennedy Space Center after the JFK Assassination), a position he held until his retirement in November 1974.
In 1963, Debus appointed Tompkins to a Working Group for the future Launch Operations Center.
The two held many confidential meetings over the future of the Apollo program, and discussed its real mission as part of an ambitious Navy space program called “NOVA” for secretly establishing military garrisons on the Moon, Mars and nearby star systems.
The Apollo Moon landings were only the first stage of an ambitious four stage plan for NOVA.
Stage 2 of NOVA was to put 10,000 people on the Moon.
Stage 3 was to place bases on Mars and other planetary bodies in the Solar System.
Finally, Stage 4 was to place manned Navy bases in 12 adjoining star systems.
To support his radical claims, Tompkins provided several documents in his autobiography.
The first is a 1963 Douglas Aviation Company study of the launch vehicles to be used in the covert NOVA program.
The second is an April 15, 1963 Memorandum from the Douglas Aviation Company.
It confirms Tompkins’ appointment by Dr. Debus to the Launch Operations Center and the designs he was working on for NASA.
Tompkins describes what he designed for the Apollo Missions and NOVA:
As Engineering Section Chief, I conceived dozens of missions and spaceships designed for exploratory operations to the planets that orbit our nearest stars.
I designed a station to be built on Mars, massive NOVA vehicles and equatorial launching facilities. I also designed multiple 2,000-man military bases for our Moon…
I designed the checkout and launch-test systems for the Apollo Moon Saturn V, SIV-1B and reassembly with the command control Moon vehicle, a near complete redesign of the major facilities operations for the entire Launch Control Center.
During the Apollo 11 Moon landing in July 1969, Tompkins says he was in the NASA Launch Operations Center at Cape Canaveral as part of a large TRW contingent.
He states that television cameras from the Apollo Lander provided a live feed of what was being witnessed by Armstrong and Aldrin.
Tompkins explains how Armstrong and Aldrin were met by a fleet of extraterrestrial spaceships that were ominously close to the Apollo Lunar Lander:
The Landing Module (LEM) actually impacted the Moon surface in the Sea of Tranquility Crater, which had tremendous size vehicles parked around part of its rim.
When astronaut Neil Armstrong made that First Step for Man on the Moon he looked up to the edge of the crater and said to mission control:
“There are other ships here, they are enormous. The public did not hear that statement or see the massive alien starships.
Armstrong panned his camera in a 360 degree motional all around the crater and the CIA then classified the information as way above top secret. ”
(Selected by Extraterrestrials, p. 418)
Tompkins drew a picture of what he witnessed on the Apollo live feed camera along with other TRW and NASA personnel.
How this extraterrestrial action effectively put an end to the covert Navy plan, thereby endings its support for the Apollo program, is described by Tompkins:
The Extraterrestrials put up their “NO TRESPASSING” sign but allowed us to make several other additional Apollo landings to pick up a few rocks and play in the sand.
The action of the extraterrestrials stopped our plans to build our manned Naval Base on the Moon.
(Selected by Extraterrestrials, p. 428)
What Tompkins claims he saw happen via the NASA live feed of the Moon landing is consistent with HAM radio intercepts of the live feed, and the claims of former NASA employee Otto Bender.
According to Bender, the Apollo 11 astronauts transmitted that they were being watched by large alien vehicles.
Bender confirmed that HAM radio operators had indeed intercepted VHF signals transmitted from Apollo 11 to NASA’s Houston headquarters with the following message, which NASA screened from the public:
Mission Control: What’s there? Mission Control calling Apollo 11.
Apollo 11: These babies are huge, sir… enormous… Oh, God, you wouldn’t believe it! I’m telling you there are other space craft out there… lined up on the far side of the crater edge… they’re on the moon watching us.
In an August 27, 2012 blog post, Dr. Stephen Greer revealed that he spoke with close relatives of both Armstrong and Aldrin who had been told the truth about what the astronauts had seen on the moon:
Close friends and very close family members of both Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin have separately told me that indeed there were numerous, large UFOs around the crater where the Lunar Module landed and that these were seen by both Armstrong and Aldrin.
I have also spoken to military officers that have seen the footage of this event – but it has never been made public.
Greer’s testimony is significant since it supports Tompkins’ claim that there was a live video feed recording what Armstrong and Aldrin were seeing.
So why did NASA eventually terminate the Apollo missions if extraterrestrial visitors were there and watching the Earth?
The answer according to Armstrong, as relayed by an unnamed Professor at a NASA symposium, is as follows:
Professor: What really happened out there with Apollo 11?
Armstrong: It was incredible… of course, we had always known there was a possibility… the fact is, we were warned off. There were never any questions then of a space station or a moon city.
Professor: How do you mean “warned off”?
Armstrong: I can’t go into details, except to say that their ships were far superior to ours both in size and technology – Boy, where they big! … and menacing… No, there is no question of a space station.
Professor: But NASA had other missions after Apollo 11?
Armstrong: Naturally – NASA was committed at that time, and couldn’t risk a panic on earth… But it really was a quick scoop and back again
The unnamed Professor was first quoted by Timothy Good in his ground breaking book, Above Top Secret (p. 186 – 1987), and he corroborates Tompkins’ claim that NASA was warned off the moon, and that there were plans to build a “moon city.”
The city was in fact planned to be a U.S. Navy base that was part of the NOVA program.
The extraterrestrial occupants of the large star ships intimidating the Apollo 11 mission did not want the U.S. Navy establishing a beachhead for future military bases on the Moon.
By preventing the U.S. Navy in moving forward with its plan to put 10,000 people on the Moon using a number of NOVA rocket launchers throughout the 1970’s, the NOVA program effectively came to a crushing end in July 1969.
It would take the U.S. Navy more than a decade before it could complete the construction of its first antigravity space vehicles as part of its Solar Warden program.
According to Tompkins and other whistle-blowers, the first U.S. Navy space battle groups were deployed in the early 1980’s during the Reagan Administration, thereby establishing a U.S. Navy presence in deep space for the first time.
The Conspiracy Theorists Who Believe Nazis, Vikings and the Lost Tribes of Israel All Live Inside Our Hollow Earth
By Ruth Kenny
Spearheading the modern Hollow Earth movement is Rodney Cluff, author of a book called World Top Secret: Our Earth IS Hollow. In 2007 Cluff organized a voyage to the core, with plans to sail from Russia on an icebreaker ship seeking the supposed opening at the North Pole. He had to cancel the £15,000-per-head expedition, but he claims that this hasn’t dampened his enthusiasm for the theory, and told The Sun Online that the movement is only growing in popularity.
“More and more people are coming to terms with the fact that the Earth is hollow. I get emails from people learning about it every day,” Cluff said. “It’s definitely growing in popularity – certainly not in the millions but maybe in the thousands.”
So how does the theory hold up against modern science? Right now, the scientific consensus is that the Earth is made up of a series of unbroken layers and crusts surrounding a solid ball composed mainly of an iron-nickel alloy. Surrounding that solid core is a layer of liquid that is about 2,260 kilometers thick. Danish seismologist Inge Lehmann deduced the presence of the core in 1936 while studying seismograms from earthquakes in New Zealand. Her findings have been backed up many times in the decades since.
Photo: YouTube screengrab
These mainstream theories are considered part of the conspiracy to cover up the truth, by Hollow Earth believers, who subscribe instead to the 17th century “science.” Edmund Halley, of Halley’s Comet fame, first proposed the theory of a hollow Earth in 1692 as a way of explaining unusual compass readings. Halley’s theory suggested that the planet is a series of spherical shells stacked like a Russian nesting doll, all spinning in different directions around a central core. This model could account for the inaccuracies in his compass readings. He postulated that the space between each shell might contain a luminous atmosphere capable of supporting life.
Halley’s bizarre theory was expanded upon over the centuries by various proponents, and in 1818, John Cleves Symmes, Jr. published his Circular No. 1, stating to the world that the Earth is hollow. He posited that unlike Halley’s multi-layered model, the planet was a giant cavern that housed a miniature sun. Symmes also claimed that there were massive holes at the North and South poles allowing for access to the world inside. This aspect of his theory became known as “Symmes Holes.”
The 19th-century public and scientific community met Symmes’ theory with derision, but he continued giving lectures and publishing letters about the Hollow Earth. He aimed for an expedition to the North Pole, even getting Congress to vote in 1822 on funding it, but his vision never came to fruition. He never let up campaigning for the expedition until his death in 1849.
Symmes’ son and other loyal followers kept the Hollow Earth theory alive into the 20th century when it began to take on a more supernatural air. Works of fiction that used Halley and Symmes’ visions as starting points have profoundly influenced modern believers of the theory. Author Jules Verne published A Journey to the Centre of the Earth in 1864, which proposed a lush world inside the planet. The novel inspired an entire sub-genre of science fiction about prehistoric jungles and highly advanced and enlightened races of humans living beneath us.
Some modern hollow earthers believe Nazis who escaped from World War Two, as well as the lost Viking colonies of Greenland and the lost tribes of Israel all live in the center of the Earth. Others think that it is home to around 100 subterranean cities full of superior humans, known as the Agartha network.
“They have flying saucer technology. They live lives of perfect health for hundreds of years. Their science is much more advanced because they live much longer lives,” Rodney Cluff told Atlas Obscura. “It has a perfect temperature. God made the inner sun so that it provides heat, during the night, and a little bit less at night. Trees grow up to a thousand feet tall. Humans even grow up to 15 feet tall.”
Cluff claims that the only reason we on the surface haven’t had any verifiable contact with those in the core is that a vaguely defined international banking conspiracy has worked to cover up the Hollow Earth and hide any evidence of Symmes’ holes. He’s not the only one. YouTube conspiracy theorists secureteam10 told The Sun: “Every single satellite image that we have of the North Pole shows a massive hole or a blackout hole put there to hide whatever’s underneath.”
Researchers find the remains of a ‘Dinosaur’ with flesh still attached to its bones
But I thought Dinosaurs were extinct?An Indian electrician has apparently discovered the remains of a strange creature that resembles a Dinosaur.Images of the mystery creature quickly spread on YouTube and Twitter, which eventually resulted in thousands of Internet users formulating thousands of hypotheses to explain how something like this is possible.
As things seem now, the electrician may have found the very first partially preserved dinosaur.
If you look closely at the YouTube video you will notice that the body, which not only has bones but also tissues, looks like a small dinosaur.
But dinosaurs went extinct 65 million years ago… right?
“A dinosaur skeleton cannot be in such a good state of conservation after millions of years without fossilization. The only remotely possible way is that it has been chemically preserved for a museum. But if that is the case, how did it end up where it was found here?” wonders Aaryan Kumar, a Ph.D. student in Paleontology from Delhi University.
The alleged Dinosaur remains were found in Jaspur, a small town in Uttarakhand, India. The remains of the mystery creature were immediately sent to a lab for carbon dating in order to determine its age.
According to reports, the dinosaur was found by an electrician called Javad who was working in an old electric substation that had been closed for 35 years when he came across the remains of the dinosaurs.
While rummaging through the garbage, he discovered the strange corpse.
“I was stunned when I saw the skeleton. I’ve never seen anything like this before. I called some people to see if they knew what I had found, but everyone was equally surprised. We called the police,” he told media.
According to the authorities, the supposed dinosaur was 28 centimeters long. The creatures head was 9 centimeters long and its neck was 5 cm long.
“In 39 years of service I have seen many dead animals but I never found anything like this,” said forest guard Anil Chauhan.
If it is a real Dinosaur, then it most likely is a Theropod.
According to Aaryan Kumar, a paleontology student at Delhi University, the creature discovered in Jaspur resembles a theropod, a dinosaur suborder characterized by hollow bones and three-toed limbs.
“Non-avian dinosaurs have been extinct for the past 65 million years but it does resemble theropods, a suborder of dinosaurs which included bipedal carnivores,” explains Dr. Parag Madhukar Dhakate, a Conservator with the Indian Forest Service.
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