Leonardo da Vinci is the embodiment of the concept of creative genius during the reign of the Renaissance.
The master’s full name is Leonardo di Ser Piero da, Vinci.
This was the son of a rich notary, Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, and Caterina, a peasant who is believed to be working on his father’s estate.
“Da Vinci” means from Vinci, so it is advisable, when its name is shortened, to use Leonardo.
Leonardo da Vinci has a special sleep program that ensures maximum efficiency at work.
With a fragmented sleep, summing up daily only an hour and a half, the genius has practically extended its existence by about 30 years.
Researcher Claudio Stampi wrote in the book “Why We Nap” that the famous inventor Leonardo da Vinci had a unique way of rest. He slept for 15 minutes every four hours.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci 15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519
It seems that one of Leonardo da Vinci’s secrets was a special sleeping formula: he slept 15 minutes from 4 in 4 hours, which is one and a half hours daily instead of eight (with a 75 percent time savings ).
The time he was wasting for sleep could now spend on creativity. The artist has used the polyphase sleep for many years in his life without experiencing fatigue.
All his notes are written in reverse. He seems to have done so to keep his ideas from being stolen.
He developed this technique so well that he no longer needed a mirror to write that way.
He was dyslexic, but this did not prevent him from becoming a universal, and ambidextrous genius, being able to write with one hand and draw with the other in different ways at the same time.
Although something unusual for his time, Leonardo da Vinci was a vegetarian. He had chosen this way of life for humanitarian reasons.
He also used to buy birds in cages from various merchants and release them.
He was fascinated by the human body and finding that place in the body in which the soul dwells.
He dissected many corpses, and these experiments resulted in one of his most famous drawings, Vitruvian Man.
Apart from the fact that the drawing reveals observations related to the symmetry of the human body, it represents the balance between materiality and spirituality, which is found in man.
The figure with four arms and four legs highlights the union between the man and his subtle, spiritual or profound nature, in an active, action-driven manner.
Historians have discovered that many paintings made by Leonardo da Vinci contain hidden codes that can not be seen with the naked eye.
Part of these codes would be written in the eyes of the famous Mona Lisa, according to the latest findings, informs Daily Mail.
Silvano Vinceti, president of the National Cultural Heritage Committee in Italy, who deals with the case, says everything has gone from a discovery in an old book.
In this volume, reference is made to a series of symbols that would be found in the eyes of Mona Lisa.
Research done so far has revealed several letters and figures, which can only be seen on a microscope.
According to Vincenti, in the right eye of Gioconda, the LV letters appear to be painted, which could very easily represent the initials of Leonardo da Vinci.
In the left eye, there are also some symbols, but they are not as clear.
These appear to be letters of the EC or letter B. It seems that these symbols were painted intentionally by Leonardo.
Cipher and Encryption
It is certain that Leonardo da Vinci was not alien to the use of codes and encryption. He wrote his notes in reverse, using mirror writing.
So far, it is not clear why Leonardo did so.
It has been suggested that he would have feared that some of his inventions, with military applications, would be too destructive if he fell into the wrong hands.
Therefore, they would have protected their notes by using this reverse-writing method.
Other scholars point out that this type of encryption is quite easy to decipher. Just keep the paper in front of the mirror so you can read it.
If Leonardo da Vinci used this method for security reasons, he probably wished to hide his writings only by the less educated.
Other historians have suggested that he used this reverse writing method because it seemed easier.
Leonardo da Vinci was a lefty, and writing was easier for him than for a right-hander, they speculate.
The Mystery of Mona Lisa
Mona Lisa is perhaps the most controversial painting made by Leonardo.
There have been theories that there are even two paintings on it. The painting is displayed today at the Louvre Museum in Paris.
There are many speculations about the identity of the character represented in the painting, but most historians believe that the woman would be Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo, a merchant in Florence.
It has been said that she is the ideal woman or a man disguised as a woman, the self-portrait of the artist or even her lover, Gian Giacomo de Caprotti.
There were also theories that the portrait would be that of an androgynous, half woman, half man, or even the face of the artist’s mother.
In Leonardo’s time, “Gioconda” means happiness, so in the mind of the artist the mark of the family, the defining element for it becomes happiness.
Perhaps that is why, as some researchers have argued in a 2005 study, Mona Lisa’s face expresses 83% happiness, 9% contempt, 6% fear and 2% anger, less than 1% neutrality and no trace of surprise.
Many are convinced that Leonardo painted symbols or secret messages in his works.
People have analyzed his most famous painting, Mona Lisa, and have discovered various techniques and meanings hidden in the painting.
Da Vinci used his best arts tricks to create this painting.
Many say the smile of the character in the picture haunts them.
Viewers often say that Mona Lisa’s smile seems to change, although the paint with which she is painted is obviously still.
Professor Margaret Livingstone, from Harvard University, has an explanation for this unusual effect.
She says that Leonardo da Vinci painted the corners of her mouth so that they emerge from the focus area.
Thus, the corners of the mouth are better seen with the peripheral look than if we look straight at them.
That’s why some people say the portrait looks smile even when I do not look directly at it.
A team of UK researchers who, analyzing another painting by Leonardo da Vinci, came to the conclusion that the Renaissance Master used an optical illusion to defeat the viewer’s peripheral vision.
Mona Lisa’s mysterious expression captivates the world for centuries, but it is not the only enigmatic smile created by Leonardo da Vinci, says an article published in dailymail.co.uk.
British researchers at Sheffield Hallam University and Sunderland University have examined an older painting of the Italian master and say they have discovered his secret to make a “smile that cannot be deciphered” on the canvas.
Their study revealed how the La Bella Principessa, painted by Leonardo da Vinci before the Italian master completes Mona Lisa at the end of the fifteenth century, uses a clever trick to deceive the viewer’s attention.
British scholars have discovered that, in a specific way of combining colors, made to mislead the peripheral vision, the shape of the woman’s mouth appears to be altered according to the angle in which it is viewed.
When viewed directly, the woman’s mouth line in the painting is pointing down.
But as the eyes of the viewer go straight ahead in other directions to examine other features of the portrait, the corners of her mouth seem to follow an ascending line, creating a smile that can only be observed indirectly from the side, as in the case of Mona Lisa.
The technique is called “sfumato” and can be seen both in the portrait “Mona Lisa” and “La Bella Principessa”.
Although the technique has been used by other Renaissance artists, none have attained Leonardo da Vinci’s level of craftsmanship, according to the authors of the study, published in Vision Research.
Numerous figures, letters, and other symbols have recently been discovered by Italian researchers in Mona Lisei pupils, the mysterious woman who appears in the famous painting of Leonardo da Vinci, informs dailymail.co.uk.
The discovery was made recently when the prominent Italian experts wished to reconsider the mysterious masterpiece of the Italian Renaissance.
Hidden in the dark layer of paint in Mona Lisa’s pupils, Leonardo Da Vinci painted a few letters, figures and symbols, all of which were made on a very small scale. Symbols can be seen using the microscope.
Experts say these symbols are a true “code” of Leonardo Da Vinci.
The discovery of the Italian historians seems to be detached from the pageant of the Da Vinci Code, a bestseller written by American Dan Brown, in which the writer claimed that the famous painting contained the inscriptions on the Holy Grail.
Silvano Vinceti, president of the National Cultural Heritage Committee in Italy, who discovered the symbols, said:
“SYMBOLS ARE NOT VISIBLE TO THE NAKED EYE, BUT WITH A MAGNIFYING GLASS OR A MICROSCOPE CAN BE SEEN AS CLEARLY AS POSSIBLE.”
“In the right eye appear letters L and V, which might be the initials of his name – Leonardo Da Vinci – and other symbols appear in the left eye, but they are not the same.
They appear to be letters C and E or only letter B. In the background can be seen the number 72 or maybe the letter Lurmata of figure 2.
We must remember that this painting for almost 500 years and is no longer as clear as when it was painted.
As a result of the preliminary investigations, we are positive that this is not a mistake, and these symbols have been drawn there even by the artist, “said the Expert.
The research was initiated after another Italian expert discovered in an old-fashioned antique store that talks about the Da Vinci hidden symbols in the Mona Lisa pupils.
Silvano Vinceti said: “Da Vinci attaches great importance to the painting” Mona Lisa “and we know that in his last years he used to take paint with him all over the place.
We also know that Da Vinci was passionate about esotericism, and often used symbols in his works to transmit certain messages. ”
Silvano Vinceti is part of a cultural association that has asked the Italian authorities for the permission to exhume the parental remains of Leonard DaVinci, who was buried in France at Amboise Castle in the Loire Valley.
Italian specialists want to analyze the skull of the artist to recreate the face of the Renaissance master with the aid of three-dimensional graphics, and to convince them if Mona Lisa – a painting owned by the French world and exhibited at the Louvre Museum in Paris – is, in fact, a self-portrait of Da Vinci, as many historians think.
Another theory is proposed by Christopher Tyler and Leonid Kontsevich, from the San Francisco Oval Research Institute.
What two say the smile seems to change because of the varying level of random noise produced by the visual system.
If you close your eyes in a dark room, you will notice that not everything is black. The cells in your eyes generate a low level of background noise (small lights and dark dots).
Your brain usually filters these things, but Tyler and Kontsevich say that when you look at Mona Lisa, these little points can change the shape of the smile.
As evidence in support of their theory, the two put multiple sets of black dots over an image of Mona Lisa and showed it to the public.
Some sets made the expression look smile, others made it look sad. Tyler and Kontsevich claim that the inherent noise in the human visual system has the same effect.
When someone looks at the picture, the noise of his visual system adds some elements of the image and changes it. That’s why the smile seems to change.
The mystery of the famous painting “The Last Supper”.
The painting began to be painted in 1495 at the command of Prince Milan, Ludovic Sforza.
Although the prince had a very disorganized life, he had a very good and godly wife named Beatrice, whom he loved and loved very much.
But unfortunately, his love for her has only truly become apparent when she suddenly died.
The prince was so broken by pain when he lost his wife that he had not left his bedroom for 15 days.
When he left, the first thing he did was to order a painting that his wife wanted very much when he was alive. He then ended the depraved way of life.
Work on the painting was finished only three years later, in 1498. During the work, Leonardo da Vinci used organic-based colors, for which the painting began to destroy very quickly.
The fresco was placed in the trapeze of a church in Milan.
The frescoes are exactly the same as those used in the church at that time.
Using the given method, the painter wanted to show that Jesus and Judas (good and evil) are closer to us than we think.
- The person of the apostles in the painting is very controversial. It is, however, considered that the apostles are in the following order (from left to right): Bartholomew, Jacob the Little, Judas, Peter, John, Thomas, James the Great, Philip, Matthew, Tadeu and Simion Zealot.
- Many specialists say that the painting illustrates the Last Supper because Jesus shows his hands for bread and wine. But there are also alternative versions.
- For a time, Leonardo da Vinci could not find prototypes for Jesus and Judas. Being in search of inspiration, he once noticed in the church choir a young man with a very bright and clean appearance. That would be Jesus. The problem with Judah remained.After three years of searches, a prototype was finally found for Judas. As he strolled through the market, the painter noticed a dragon in a drainage channel. “Here is Judah,” da Vinci said in his mind. Soon the drunk was brought to the palace at the workplace of the painter.After Judas’s face was finished, the drunk approached the picture and said he had seen this painting sometime. Da Vinci was confused and then realized that this drunk was actually the young man whom he had painted three years ago in the image of Jesus …
- Many believe that on the right hand of Jesus is not an apostle, but Mary Magdalene.If things were so, then the author wanted to say that this was Jesus’ wife.The faces of the two form the letter “M”, which some interpret as the beginning of the word “Matrimonio”, meaning marriage. Who knows what the author really meant …
- Some say that the place of the apostles at the table is not accidental. They say the disciples are in the order of the zodiac. Thus, Jesus is Capricorn and Mary – Virgo
- During the Second World War, the church where the fresco was found was almost completely destroyed following a bombing. Just survived the wall with this fresco …
- The symbolism of cutlery is the same. Thus, before Judas stands an empty plate!
- Other art specialists assert that the image of the apostle who is facing Jesus, that is, Tadeu, is actually the self-portrait of da Vinci. Considering that the painter had atheistic visions, this hypothesis is very plausible.
The leader of a secret group?
It is supposed that Leonardo da Vinci was the leader of a secret group called the Prior of Zion.
According to the da Vinci Code, the Priority’s mission was to keep the secret of Mary Magdalene and her marriage to Jesus alive.
Although the da Vinci Code is a work of fiction, it is based on the theories of a controversial non-fiction book, titled Holy Blood, Holy Grail.
The volume was written by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln in the early 1980s.
Holy Grail, Holy Grail speaks of the evidence that Leonardo da Vinci was a member of the Zion Priory. The evidence is several documents deposited at the National Library of Paris.
Priory of Sion
The Priory of Zion, also known as the Order of Zion or the Order of the Madonna of Zion, was and is (apparently) an extremely secret society over time, being founded in 1099 during the first crusade.
That foundation was nothing more than the formalization of a much older group, preserving an extremely dangerous secret for mankind.
The Priory of Zion was at the base of the Knights Templar Order, those Medieval warriors with a sinister reputation.
The Priory and the Templars became one and the same organization, led by the same Grand Master, until the schism of 1188, when each one took its own course.
The Priory of Sion has been convinced to be led by a host of great masters, sounds of history like Isaac Newton, Botticelli, or the famous Leonardo da Vinci, which is said to have ruled Priory in its last 9 years of life.
Her recent figures include writer Victor Hugo and filmmaker Jean Cocteau.
Ordinary figures such as Ioana d’Arc, Nostradamus, and Pope John XXIII were also among the ordinary members.
The stated purpose of this organization is to protect the descendants of the ancient dynasty of the Merovingian kings of the Frankish state, who reigned from the 5th century to the 7th century (the latter being Dagobert II).
The Priory of Zion, a hoax?
There is some evidence that there was a monastic order with this name in 1116 BC, but there is no evidence that this order would have anything to do with the Priory of Zion in the twentieth century.
Documents in the National Library that support the theory of the existence of Priory of Zion are real. But they seem to be part of a scam set by a man named Pierre Plantard in the 1950s.
Plantard and a group of friends who had anti-Semitic and extreme right inclinations set up the Priory of Zion.
By manufacturing and planting documents, including false genealogies, Plantard seems to have wanted to prove that he was a descendant of the Merovingians and heir to the throne of France.
The document that portrayed Leonardo (alongside other enlightened minds such as Botticelli and Isaac Newton) as a great master of the Priority was also a fake.
The fact that Leonardo da Vinci was not, in fact, the great master of a secret society should not diminish his admiration for him.
His works have inspired millions of people over the centuries and contain elements that experts are still trying to explain.
In addition, his experiments and inventions prove he is an advanced thinker, whose explorations have gone much further than his contemporaries.
The secret of Leonardo da Vinci is that he was a genius that few people of his century knew how to value him.
Starlite: a mysterious material whose recipe was taken to the grave
Enthusiasts continue to struggle with the riddle of the unique material, the creator of which died without revealing the secret recipe.
At the dawn of the 1990s, reports began to appear in the world media about the creation of a new plastic material that could withstand heating to incredible temperatures – up to those that develop during a fire or on the shell of a spacecraft when passing through the atmosphere. Such statements were very embarrassing for scientists also because the author of the find was a man without a diploma or any formal education at all – the British hairdresser Maurice Ward.
Starlite – this name was invented by the granddaughter of Maurice Ward – was repeatedly tested by NASA as a possible heat insulator, the military and large corporations looked closely at it. The author did not refuse to provide samples for research, but he kept the recipe in complete secret, not sharing it with anyone – until 2011, when Maurice died, taking this secret with him. Perhaps thanks to this twist, the plot did not disappear into oblivion along with Petrik filters and other “miracle inventions”, and the history of the mysterious Starlite continues to this day.
According to Ward himself (by the way, his personal blog and YouTube channel survived on the Internet), he was prompted to search for fire-resistant material by a television report, from which he learned that many victims of fires die from poisoning by the caustic smoke of burning plastic. Previously, the hairdresser dabbled in the search for his own shampoo recipes, but around 1986 he completely devoted himself to a new venture. Three years later, the composition was found – and, of course, it turned out to be incredibly simple and included the most common store ingredients.
It was not easy for the “genius upstart” to break through, and over the next few years he pounded the thresholds of laboratories and companies without any benefit. Fate smiled only in 1993, when a message about Starlite was published in the authoritative International Defense Review. It referred to “amazing results” from some of the independent experts who tested Starlite. According to some reports, the material did not burn at temperatures up to 10,000 ° C and was not supplied even by a high-power laser.
Moreover, in the same 1993, the incredible thermal insulation properties of Starlite were demonstrated to the public. On the Air Force show Tomorrow’s World, a chicken egg coated with a thin layer of this material was sprayed with the heat of a gas burner for several minutes, after which it was shown that it remained raw inside. It would seem that the deed is done: it remains to find out which of the industrial giants will be interested in the invention and from whom Ward will be able to get legitimate millions, if not billions of dollars for the miracle recipe. The prospects for its use in engineering and construction were discussed. In 1994, the material was tested at Boeing as an alternative to space shuttle thermal insulation ceramics.
It is worth saying that Maurice Ward has always shown a certain paranoia about the security of his invention. As far as is known, he refused any projects in which he could not maintain a controlling 51 percent. The inventor personally monitored all samples that were submitted for testing, making sure that no one had the opportunity to reconstruct the Starlite composition. Ward also did not file a patent so as not to reveal the secret formula and repeatedly announced attempts to steal. The story that took place in the late 1990s is characteristic. It is known that at this time the inventor found partners from Canada and organized a startup Starlite Safety Solutions, which presented the results of material tests to investors. However, according to those same partners, Maurice Ward turned out to be completely incapable of negotiating – “the more he was offered, the more he asked for”
On the one hand, Ward is understandable. If the author’s statements are accurate, the find could be worth billions, which no corporation likes to share. On the other hand, Starlite could well change the modern world and save many lives, and perhaps doing so was not entirely ethical. Again, if all statements about the properties of this material are true. And this is its main mystery.
Indeed, despite all the doubts of many observers, there is enough authoritative evidence in favor of Starlite every now and then. Thus, Joe Kissell, who wrote about him in 2009, received a letter from Pamela Pohling-Brown, who authored the same article in the International Defense Review. She in every possible way confirmed the reliability of the results presented then and even named the expert who conducted the testing.
“I’m afraid the topic is somehow classified,” summed up Pauline-Brown. By the way, Ward’s former partners from Canada hinted at the same. It turns out that there is still something to hide?
Maurice Ward has repeatedly stated that, fearing theft, he never even wrote down the recipe on paper, and keeps it in his head – fortunately, it is quite simple. According to him, the secret has been entrusted to only a few closest family members – however, they have not shown much activity since the death of the inventor in 2011. In 2013, two of Ward’s daughters announced the sale of a “certain version” of Starlite to the American company Thermashield, but the third said that she had kept the “best” formula. And since then nothing has been heard about Thermashield, and the company’s website has not been revoked.
But there are plenty of hypotheses and speculations about the composition of Starlite. They find the main clues all in the same publication by Pamela Pauline-Brown, where the following was said.
“It consists of a set of organic polymers and copolymers with organic and inorganic additives, including borates, small amounts of ceramics and other barrier ingredients, for a total of 21. Perhaps uniquely, this thermally and explosion-proof material contains up to 90 percent organic matter.”
Armed with this data, yet another “genius self-taught” reproduced the recipe. Canadian Troy Hurtubise, known for developing the bear-repelling suit – and for testing inventions on himself – said he found the same or a similar recipe and demonstrated it under the name Firepaste. However, in 2014 he died in a car accident – as if the material really surrounds the halo of special operations.
It’s hard to believe, but in the 21st century there are blank spots on the maps. Or is it better to call them black?
The reasons for such prohibitions are different: in these places ancient secret books and sacred artifacts are kept, poisonous snakes live there, scientific laboratories and rock paintings are hidden there, which cannot be seen by anyone.
Snake Island – Captains Bypass
Just 35 kilometers off the coast of Brazil, there is a picturesque island called Queimada Grande. Tourists often ask to stop the ship in order to get off on this piece of land drowned in lush greenery, it beckons to itself.
But this never happens: the captains strictly observe the prohibitions. The fact is that this piece of paradise is teeming with poisonous snakes, and a few steps on land are enough to die from a fatal bite. The authorities banned visiting this island not only for the safety of people, but also for the safety of reptiles: many snakes are rare species.
Poveglia Island – Eerie Deaths and Restless Souls
Nobody wants to get to Poveglia Island, located in Italy: this is a very dark and mysterious place.
In the 18th century, Italy was literally mowed down by a terrible plague epidemic. In order to somehow protect people, all infected were taken to a reservation set up on Poveglia Island. More than 150 thousand patients died there.
And then, already in the twentieth century, a psychiatric hospital was built here. It was rumored that doctors carried out inhuman experiments on unhealthy people, and many Italians are convinced that the souls of thousands of those who died forever remained here, on a terrible island.
According to research results, the soil on Povelje is 50% human remains.
Lascaux cave – people are harmful to ancient rock paintings!
In 1940, archaeologists discovered a unique cave in France, the age of which was determined to be 17 thousand years. This is the oldest known caves on the planet, and inside it is decorated with numerous rock paintings.
Have you already wanted to go to France and see this miracle with your own eyes? Will not work. The cave was closed for visits and mothballed after it was discovered: under the influence of carbon dioxide, precious specimens of ancient rock art began to deteriorate quickly, they were destroyed by a fungus.
And to console the lovers of antiquities, an artificial copy was arranged nearby – Lasko-2, where exactly the same drawings flaunt on the walls.
The Vatican Library is a secret archive for a very narrow circle
In the secret library archives of the Vatican, about 45 thousand books and other documents are collected. What is not here – and letters sent to the Pope from Michelangelo, and Galileo’s manuscripts, and documents left by the ancient Order of the Templars …
No one will tell you the whole truth about the funds of this treasure. It is believed that ancient documents are hidden here, which contain information about the origin of Christianity on Earth. It is quite possible, because the first manuscripts that appeared at the disposal of the Vatican date back to the 4th century. They were collected in the archives, and centuries later, in 1475, the Vatican Apostolic Library was founded.
Who can get here? Very few people: the Pope himself and his entourage, as well as (with his written permission) some scientists and researchers.
Not far from the American city of Salt Lake City, Granite Mountain is located, in which a tunnel has been cut, extending almost 200 meters deep into the mountain. There, behind massive doors that weigh 15 tons, under round-the-clock armed protection, the most incredible documents are stored in a secret bunker: information about the family tree of Jesus Christ, allegedly information about his relatives and descendants … These data are very approximate, to say exactly which artifacts can be found in the Mormon vault, no one can. They say that, in addition to the secret storage, secret laboratories are equipped in the depths of the mountain.
Spy Museum – no move to anyone but the Chinese
The Spy Museum, located in northern China, is not a forbidden place: anyone can get into it. True, only if this person is Chinese. The exposition is not intended for foreigners. There is no need for them to see all those miniature cameras, microscopic pistols and unique caches! The Chinese carefully guard their secrets.
Gold Vault in London – one-fifth of the world’s gold reserves are collected here
The vault of the UK Central Bank does hold 20% of the world’s gold reserves. It is impossible to imagine this amount of gold: there are 5,134 tons of it! If you translate that into dollars, you get almost 250 billion.
Needless to say, the bank vault is carefully guarded. Only a few can get here – authorized bank employees.
Area 51 – aliens are investigated here
In the United States, 130 kilometers from the city of Las Vegas, a military base was once built. In addition to the usual functions, it also performs research. They say that it was in the local laboratories that aliens who crashed on their own plate in the 90s were studied. True, the US officials denied these rumors, but how could one expect confirmation?
The American government generally preferred not to mention Area 51 until recently. According to the official version, aircraft are tested here. But for some reason, access is prohibited here, and the airspace above the base and the surrounding area is closed.
Bohemian Grove – either a world conspiracy, or just a closed men’s club
This is the name of a nature reserve in a California paradise. A person “from the street” cannot get here. Bohemian Grove is a meeting place for the most influential people in the world. It periodically attracts politicians, businessmen, even some artists – from the “initiates”.
There is so much talk about this community! They talk about “world government”, about strange and terrible rituals, even about sacrifices.
And some of these legends have a foundation. There is a documentary film that was filmed by two American journalists: they managed to get into a protected grove and filmed one of the rituals during which the symbol of the club, the giant Owl, is worshiped and sacrifices are made to it. The journalists suggested that the members of the closed club belong to the Freemasons or Satanists.
However, most of their calculations are just speculation. Perhaps, in the Bohemian Grove, influential men, tired of bearing the burden of responsibility, are gathering, seeking to rest away from annoying problems?
Metro 2 is the secret underground for the government
Did you know that there is another “floor” under the Moscow metro? It is called “Metro 2”, and this line has remained a secret for a long time. Its existence first became known from the report of the US Department of Defense, which was published in 1991.
The information was later confirmed by Vladimir Shevchenko – “a person close to the emperor”: he was the head of the protocol service during the times of Gorbachev and Yeltsin.
This classified facility was built under Stalin’s personal supervision. Some government locations are connected via Metro 2 to Vnukovo Airport. It is clear that a branch begins under the Kremlin. According to some reports, Metro 2 has several levels and reaches a depth of 250 meters.
Ferry “Estonia” sank after collision with unknown object
For a long time, the ferry “Estonia” was considered sank due to a strong roll and overturning, which led to the death of more than 800 people. Now it turns out that all this is a lie and the ship was destroyed from a collision with a certain object that rammed the “Estonia”, which led to the end of the ferry.
New circumstances of the sinking of the ferry “Estonia”
The team that created a documentary film about the disaster of the ferry “Estonia” for the Discovery TV channel, while diving to the remains of the ship, found a four-meter hole in the hull, which was previously partially hidden by the seabed, Postimees writes.
“It cannot be ruled out that damage played a role in the sinking,” said Jorgen Amdahl, professor of marine technology at the Norwegian University of Engineering and Science, in the new documentary series “Estonia – a find that will change everything”, which aired today on the Discovery streaming platform. in the Nordic countries. The footage of the hole in the ship’s hull was taken by a robotic diver. The find may confirm the theory that the accident was provoked not only by the tearing off of the visor: there was a hole in the ship’s hull, which accelerated the sinking of the Estonian. The authorities of the countries involved in the investigation of the disaster have previously denied this, Aftonbladet reported.
The place where the wreckage of the “Estonia” lies is clayey, so over the years the vessel has shifted, as a result of which places that were not visible before became visible, where the film crew found a hole.
The film crew began their dives at the bow, going first along the backboard, where they discovered two holes that were cut in the hull by the Norwegian diving company Rockwater in December 1994.
When moving with the underwater robot towards the starboard side in the film, you can hear journalist and director Hendrik Evertsson saying that the ship’s roll there is 130 degrees.
The camera moves on and first rests on the sand and rocks that were installed around the wreck in 1996. Then a hole in the ship’s hull is opened in front of the film crew – under the last letter of the inscription “Estline”. The crew estimated the height of the hole at four meters, and the width at 1.2 meters at its widest point.
The damage to the hull of the ferry is in the place where the cabins were on the other side of the wall. Among other things, the footage shows a hand towel sticking out of the hole.
After discussing the causes of the hole with experts, the film crew came to the conclusion that the explosion could not cause such damage in the ship’s hull. Norwegian Navy Captain Frank Burrsen, who takes part in demining operations and teaches at a naval educational institution and has studied the effects of explosives on ships, told the film crew after reviewing footage of the Estonian wreck that an explosion was unlikely there.
“It is characteristic here that it is very elongated,” he said of the hole captured on the video, and based on the drawings made. – It is clearly visible that the side of the ship is pushed inward. If you compare with the pictures of explosions, you can see from them that the metal usually bends. “
According to him, the damage to the ship’s hull creates the impression that this hole was knocked out there: “I cannot rule out an explosion. But it seems unlikely that it was. “
Experts assumed that this was an external force: a large object that crashed into the hull of the “Estonia”, punctured it and damaged the metal structural gaskets inside the ship.
The visor could not have caused the hole
According to Professor Amdahl, who focuses on investigating collisions between ships and platforms, external damage appears to be a very logical explanation for the breach.
“It seems that the paint has been peeled off, or perhaps by a body impact of one kind or another. External influence. The question one might ask ourselves is how this could have happened. What was the reason? ” – he reasons.
Amdal believes that there are many versions of how the hole originated in the ship’s hull: “Maybe it got hit by something in the water. It could also be a visor. On the visor itself, I would guess marks if it hit the side. “
But after reviewing the footage taken around the raised visor, the professor noted that there was no damage to it, which would indicate a collision with the ship’s hull.
He said that it was possible to calculate very accurately what the force would have to be to cause such damage to the hull of the ship, and on the basis of this it was possible to assume what mass the object had collided with: “This needs to be studied more carefully.
According to Amdahl’s calculations, “Estonia” was hit with a force corresponding to a mass of 500-600 tons. For comparison, he gave an example of how such an impact would have been made, for example, by a fishing boat weighing 1,000 tons, moving at a speed of four knots, or a 5,000-ton vessel at a speed of 1.9 knots.
Since no ships of this size were seen on the night of September 28, 1994, according to the professor, the only possible vessel that Estonia could collide with was a submarine, some of which weigh less than a ton, and some weigh several tons.
“It is also possible that a rock or something from the seabed hit the vessel,” he added, but the clayey seabed in the area where the ferry was destroyed speaks against this.
To find out what Estonia is facing, according to Amdal, now it is necessary to thoroughly analyze the testimony of witnesses.
Explosions after midnight
In many documentaries, the survivors of the tragedy recall that before the sinking of the “Estonia” they felt as if the ship had collided with something. “A little after midnight, two very strong bangs were heard,” Anders Erisson described what was happening in the fifth part of the documentary.
According to the recollections of Karl Erik Reintamm, it was as if a ferry was making its way through the ice.
He was one of the first passengers to be evacuated from the Estonian: “When I got off the ship, I did not see a single person. There was no one where I stood. I was one of the first. I saw nothing strange in the water, except for something white, several meters long. It went to the left, and the waves covered it. “
He cannot explain what he saw:
“I have never served in the army, I have no idea what submarines look like in the water. It was dark. I have no idea if a submarine might look lighter than water. But the ferry clearly ran into something, otherwise how else can you explain the sound that the ship is driving on ice? “
This summer, footage from the wreckage of “Estonia” showed some of the survivors of the disaster, their relatives and people associated with the investigation of the disaster, among whom were the former Estonian leading public prosecutor and member of the investigation commission for the death of “Estonia” Margus Kurm and a former member of the investigation commission. mechanical scientist Jaan Metsaveer.
It needs to be investigated
“It is not known where this hole came from,” Metsaveer said after reviewing the footage. – It really is something that arose from the outside. And they did not know about this before, this is really a discovery. Why this was not discovered earlier, I cannot say. “
Kurm, after talking with the film crew, called the findings that change the whole thing:
“I believe that after that the Estonian government will not be able to do nothing. It’s just impossible.”
In August, the footage was viewed by adviser to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Mart Luik and adviser to the Minister of Justice Kalle Muuli.
In the documentary, Luik noted that what he saw requires an investigation of the issue, since it is difficult to say at once what exactly he saw and what to think about it. “The main problem, of course, is that the three countries have agreed that they will not dive and shoot,” he added, assuring that in cooperation with experts it will be decided what steps should be taken in the future. The Swedish media reported just today, citing Estonian newspapers, that the Estonian Prime Minister had discussed the ferry issue with his Swedish counterpart Stefan Löfmen last week.
Lars Engström, a former member of the Swedish parliament and member of the Defense Commission, has long advised the government to investigate the causes of Estonia’s disaster more deeply.
“This is new information that fully confirms the widespread criticism of the flooding explanations and investigation,” he told the TT news agency. “Now the materials show, and experts saw it, that something collided with the side of the ship with a force of several thousand tons, and in this case they are talking about another ship.”
The documentary series “Estonia – a find that will change everything” was produced by Monster Discovery for Norway. Director – Hendrik Evertsson, who is accused of violating the grave because of filming near the remains of the ferry.
The ferry “Estonia” left the port of Tallinn on the evening of September 27, 1994 and headed for Stockholm, where it was supposed to arrive in the morning of the next day. There were 803 passengers and 186 crew members on board.
When the ferry entered the open sea, it was overtaken by waves of many meters, and about half the way to Stockholm, next to the island of Utö, which belongs to Finland, the “Estonia” heeled and quickly sank.
Of all those on board, only 137 people were able to escape, 852 people were killed, most of whom were trapped and drowned along with the ferry. Among the dead were 501 Swedish citizens and 285 Estonian citizens. In total, there were citizens of 17 countries on board.
According to a final report by an investigation commission convened by Estonia, Finland and Sweden, the disaster was caused by bad weather, which tore off the vessel’s visor and associated ramp, causing water to fill the car deck.
The authors of the investigation cautiously hint that the governments of Estonia and Sweden may know the truth about the ferry disaster, but for some reason they hid it all these years.
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