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Scientists hope that mushrooms from Chernobyl will help protect people from radiation

Unusual mushrooms that grow inside the Chernobyl nuclear reactor and “feed” on radiation, converting it into energy, can become the basis for new drugs that protect people from dangerous doses of radiation. These studies have been carried out for many years, according to the Daily Mail. But the unique experiments on board the ISS, as scientists hope, will help them get closer to the answer.

In 1991, five years after the catastrophic accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, researchers discovered that mysterious black mushrooms were growing on the walls of an abandoned radioactive reactor. Scientists became interested in how these microorganisms manage to survive in such extreme conditions, and began to study them in more detail. It turned out that the mushrooms grow in the direction of the radiation source, as if radiation “attracts” them, writes the Daily Mail.

It also turned out that they contain a large amount of melanin – the pigment that makes the skin of a person dark. And this allows unusual fungi to absorb radiation without harm to themselves and convert it into chemical energy, just as ordinary plants convert carbon dioxide and chlorophyll into oxygen and glucose through photosynthesis, the article says.

This unusual process, called “radio synthesis,” has attracted the attention of scientists who hope to discover new methods of protection against deadly radiation through these studies, the Daily Mail explains. According to NASA researcher Kasturi Venkatesvaran, who leads a project to study unique fungi of the species Cryptococcus neoformans, thanks to these experiments, it will be possible to create a new medicine that can block and neutralize the effect of radiation on the human body.

If scientists can create a tool that will be able to absorb radiation like mushrooms, this will protect many people who are in one way or another exposed to hazardous radiation from the negative effects. In particular, this would help cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, as well as nuclear engineers, pilots, astronauts and many others, the article says.

It is also assumed that the ability of fungi to convert radiation into energy in the future can be used to fuel various electrical appliances. And this could be a “biological response” to existing solar panels, writes the Daily Mail. Such biotechnology can become quite promising, as it is non-toxic and biocompatible.

Studies on the possible use of mushrooms for medical purposes have been conducted for a long time. But in recent years, this has attracted more attention thanks to an experiment in which mushroom samples were sent to space. They were grown on the International Space Station, where radiation levels are higher than on Earth, and observed for possible mutations. When microorganisms enter a more stressful environment for them, they begin to secrete various molecules – and this helps scientists better understand what processes are taking place inside these microorganisms and how you can use them to develop drugs that block radiation, explained in the article.

The results of these experiments in space have not yet been published. Therefore, the world scientific community is looking forward to new information that can make a real breakthrough in the field of protecting the human body from radiation, concludes the Daily Mail.

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Science & Technology

Smartphones have two more years left to live: what will happen after?

Cristiano Amon, Qualcomm brand leader, predicted the imminent demise of smartphones. According to him, after 2 years they will slowly leave the market of mobile gadgets, and a new device will be available to users. The success of this evolution is directly dependent on the proliferation of 5G technology.

This is not an alternative, but evolution

In an interview with Business Insider, Mr. Amon said that top-end modern manufacturers are already developing a new device. In the near future, it will become as common as smartphones today. It is the appearance of these devices that will gradually negate the demand for phones.

According to the expert, now Microsoft, Facebook, Amazon and Apple have concentrated on the development of virtual and augmented reality (VR, AR) technology. As soon as commercial 5G networks start functioning in most countries of the world, the above brands will be the first to launch smart glasses on the market. They will have nothing to do with the modern prototype. These will not be bulky helmets, but the most ordinary, familiar-looking glasses.

Cristiano Amon notes: this will not be a replacement for the smartphone, but simply a device of a completely new type. But it will definitely be higher at the evolutionary technological level.

Smart glasses will be suitable for everyday use. They will provide the necessary communications, Internet access, the use of social networks – in general, all the functionality for which smartphones are now being bought. And that’s not it.

For example, smart glasses will simplify user identification. Retinal scanning is one of the most reliable authorization options. This will provide instant access to the necessary proprietary information. Voice calls with the display of the “hologram” of the interlocutor is also a completely feasible technology.

There will be 5G – there will be progress

Much depends on the development of 5G: it is the high speed and stability of the connection with a minimum of delays that will make it possible to implement all plans. Using a high-speed connection, you can transfer almost all communication processes to the cloud, which will make future gadgets easier and thinner.

Amon claims that all this is not his fantasies, but real forecasts. He personally saw prototypes that are already able to surprise. And it is true. For example, Apple is preparing a presentation of its own AR-headset by the year 2023. Amazon is already trying to release massive solutions (not very impressive yet). Microsoft is focusing on the business segment. Facebook collaborated with Ray-Ban. They intend to show the fruit of collaboration until 2025.

Of the current realities, the replacement of many phone functions with a fitness bracelet is most popular. The most popular, of course, Xiaomi Mi Band

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Natural born alpha males. How do leaders emerge?

Among those in leadership positions, there are many carriers of a particular variation of the CHRNB3 gene, British researchers found. Apparently, it is somehow connected with the innate leadership qualities. However, there are works showing that heredity is not the main thing and completely different factors contribute to the high social status.

In 2013, researchers from University College London (UK) reported that they discovered a DNA site responsible for human leadership qualities. It was a variant of the gene for the acetylcholine receptor CHRNB3.

This is a receptor for neurotransmitters – substances that transmit a nerve signal to the brain. One of the varieties of CHRNB – rs4950 – is more common in the DNA of people in leadership positions. Scientists came to such conclusions by analyzing the genetic data of four thousand volunteers and information about their professional and personal lives. However, scientists estimate the contribution of the rs4950 variant to the formation of leadership qualities at 24 percent probability. The rest depends on other factors.

As suggested by Chinese neurophysiologists, there may be a special zone in the cerebral cortex, the stimulation of which can turn the most insecure person into a leader. So far, it has been found only in mice. Scientists pushed two adult males in a narrow aisle and watched their reaction. As a rule, such situations ended in conflict, and one animal replaced another. But it was not only his physical strength. Rodent behavior was influenced by past victories and defeats. So, the mice behaved more aggressively if they were lucky in the course of preliminary experiments, or they were overly cautious if they had previously lost in fights with alpha males.

The researchers hypothesized that information about these events is stored in the frontal cortex of animals. They infected mice with a retrovirus, which caused neurons to produce proteins, which, in turn, made nerve cells susceptible to light: when they were irradiated with a blue laser, they turned on or off. Modified in this way, the mice again began to push against each other. And it turned out that if you activate these neurons in the omega brain, then the animals begin to push even the strongest and obviously dangerous males for them. This increased the number of their victories and increased the social status of losers among the congeners.

But disabling a group of nerve cells in the prefrontal cortex of alpha males, on the contrary, made them too cautious. They retreated even in absolutely winning situations when rivals were much weaker. A similar area may be present in the human brain, the authors note. The study would help to better understand the causes of some mental illnesses. After all, it is known that men who consider themselves macho and often demonstrate their power over women are prone to mental disorders.

Unhappy alpha males

Health problems are common for alpha males in many animal populations. And it’s not just about the increased risk of injury. As Kenyan and American biologists have found, dominant males live in a state of constant intense stress. As a result, too many glucocorticoids accumulate in their blood – hormones that stimulate the body to work in minutes of danger. In a calm time, an increased concentration of these substances negatively affects the functioning of the immune system.

Scientists have observed for five years five flocks of baboons. They recorded the behavior of monkeys within communities and periodically measured the levels of testosterone and glucocorticoids in the excrement of males. It turned out that the concentration of stress hormones in the feces of leaders is on average several times higher than in the excrement of their deputies – the so-called beta males. These individuals support the leader and, as a result, enjoy the same benefits as he.

Moreover, the amount of glucocorticoids in the feces of the leaders was approximately the same as in the waste of the lowest-ranking males. It turned out that they experience the same level of stress, and in this sense, the position of the leader is not better than the status of “omega”. Earlier, it was shown that outsiders in primacy communities are weaker in immunity and more often suffer from heart problems and endocrine disruption. But with an increase in their position in the hierarchy, the monkeys begin to recover. As it turned out,  until they become leaders.

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Why Hide Ether From Mendeleev’s Periodic Table?

There are few who know that D. I. Mendeleev was one of the last world-famous Russian scientists of the late 19th century, who defended the idea of ​​ether as a global substantial entity in world science, who gave it fundamental scientific and applied significance in revealing the secrets of the Creation and to improve the people’s economic life.

The table of chemical elements officially taught at schools and universities is a Mendeleev-forged version. Mendeleev, in a work entitled “An Attempt at a Chemical Conception of Universal Ether“, provided a slightly different table (Polytechnic Museum, Moscow).

The last time, in an undistorted form, the real Mendeleev Table was published in 1906 in St. Petersburg (textbook “Fundamentals of Chemistry”, VIII edition). The differences are visible: the zero group is moved to the 8th, and the element is lighter than hydrogen, with which the table should begin and which is conventionally called Newtonium (ether), is generally excluded.

An Attempt at a Chemical Conception of Universal Ether ” (Polytechnical Museum, Moscow)

Mendeleev was the organizer and the permanent leader (1869-1905) of a Russian public scientific association called the Russian Chemical Society (since 1872 – the Russian Physical and Chemical Society), which published throughout its existence the world-famous journal of the RFLF, until the liquidation by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1930 – of both the Society and its journal.

But few know that Mendeleev was one of the last world-famous Russian scientists of the late 19th century who defended the idea of ​​ether as a global substantial entity in world science, who gave it fundamental scientific and applied importance in revealing the secrets of Being and for improving the people’s economic life.

Even fewer are those who know that after the sudden (!!?) death of Mendeleev (01/27/1907), he was then recognized as an outstanding scientist by all scientific communities around the world except the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. His main discovery – the “Periodic Law” – was deliberately and universally falsified by the world academic science.

There are also very few who know that all of the above is tied together by the thread of sacrificial service of the best representatives and bearers of the immortal Russian Physical Thought for the benefit of people, public good, in spite of the growing wave of irresponsibility in the upper layers of society of that time.

The great alchemist, Mendeleev, revealed in his table the secret of the Creation of the physical world from … ether.

At First it was Ether. It is from ether that the substance of the material world appears, which is divided into four elements (fire, air, earth, water) – and again through radioactive substances at the end of the table they turn back into ether … All this can be traced in Mendeleev’s table.

The gravity problem and the tasks of the entire energy sector cannot be imagined to be really solved without a real understanding of the ether as a global medium that transfers energy over distances . A real understanding of the ether cannot be achieved by ignoring its chemistry and not considering it an elementary substance” 

Modern material science has limited itself to the framework of the matter, and therefore is not capable of explaining what goes beyond this framework. The end of the 19th century was the dawn of a “different” science, but the puppeteers led mankind to a materialistic impasse and the discoveries of Mendeleev, Tesla and other ascetics were nothing to them.

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