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Scientists Have Identified The Secret That Fuels Yellowstone’s Explosive Hellfire –

Scientists Have Identified The Secret That Fuels Yellowstone's Explosive Hellfire - 86

It’s the prettiest powder keg on the planet – the Yellowstone supervolcano, simmering under the mystique and grandeur of the national park that adorns the fearsome caldera. And scientists just got one step closer to understanding the hidden geology of this epic blowhole.

Using supercomputers to model the behaviour of two known magma chambers concealed below the surface of Yellowstone, scientists have identified a ‘transition zone’ where the magma bodies almost meet.

Here, they form a vast slab of solidified, pressure-trapping rock that could be what fuels the supervolcano’s hellish explosions.

“We think that this structure is what causes the rhyolite-basalt volcanism throughout the Yellowstone hotspot, including supervolcanic eruptions,” says geologist Ilya Bindeman from the University of Oregon.

“This is the nursery, a geological and petrological match with eruptive products.”

012 yellowstone supervolcano magma transition zone 1The mid-crustal sill that separates magma under Yellowstone (Dylan Colon)

Bindeman and his team detected this naturally occurring munitions dump underground by running simulations based on recent research from scientists at the University of Utah, who used seismic imaging to detect not just one but two gargantuan magma chambers buried within the crust of Yellowstone caldera.

To investigate how these dual chambers of molten rock came to be – and to try to understand the magma transfer relationship between them – Bindeman and colleagues ran computer simulations tracing Yellowstone’s hypothetical evolution over 7 million years, to see how these disparate chambers might form.

The numbers suggest the seismic readings aren’t wrong, with repeated simulations producing two magma chambers, separated by a transition zone made up of what’s called a mid-crustal sill composed of cooler magma, which is sandwiched between the hotter, more viscous reservoirs.

Per the modelling, this rock shelf is located about 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) below the surface of Yellowstone, and is between 10 to 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) thick.

The sill is composed of solidified gabbro, a rock formed from cooled magma, and the researchers say it’s possible the same phenomenon forms in other supervolcanoes around the world.

Due to the simulated basis of the study, we can only hypothesise about the mid-crustal sill’s existence for now, but given the data confirm seismic observations of the caldera, the team thinks their findings offer the first glimpse of how magma distributes itself inside the supervolcano.

While these insights don’t necessarily tell us any more about how or when Yellowstone might next erupt, it does bring us closer to that kind of understanding – and when we’re talking about an event that could choke the planet in a catastrophic volcanic winter, that’s some pretty important stuff to know.

The findings are reported in Geophysical Research Letters.

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Planet Earth

Polar vortex: “wild” winter is coming in the US, Northern Europe and East Asia after the 16th of January

Polar vortex: "wild" winter is coming in the US, Northern Europe and East Asia after the 16th of January 95

In the upper atmosphere above the North Pole, experts saw a rapidly swirling vortex of cold air that could bring severe frosts to the United States, Northern Europe and East Asia. Serious cold snap and snowy weather are expected after January the 16th.

Snowfalls and a cold snap hit South Korea since the start of 2021, hitting historic snow maximums and temperatures. In the country, for the first time since 1964, television and newer communications are sending people cold snap warnings:

The situation is similar in Japan, where a new snow storm hit historic highs:

On January 7, the thermometer In Beijing dropped to -20 degrees Celsius, breaking the 1966 record. In other regions of China, the temperature is also not sugar, and you can only move around in special uniforms:

The cold even reached Taiwan, where the temperature in some areas dropped below freezing point, snow poured down and people realized that rice terraces can be used as a ski jump:

Even more snow went to Spain, where on January 6, 2021, a temperature of -34.1 ° C was recorded – the lowest on record. After that, a snow storm hit the country, which has not been seen for 80 years:

The same thing happens in Canada and in the northern states of the United States:

It seems that after a stratospheric warming, the subpolar vortex began to split:

The vortex itself is a standard phenomenon. However, this time experts were surprised at his movement. It is possible that in the near future it will be divided into two parts. 

Scientists associate the strange behavior with the changed climate in the Arctic, which has become warmer. From September to December, the amount of ice cover decreased significantly.

The polar vortex is a low-pressure region located in the stratosphere and filled with cold air. When the jet stream of air that holds the vortex weakens, the low pressure area moves south. 

As the ice shrinks, more moisture will move inland. It will turn to snow, so snowfalls are expected. Snow, in turn, reflects heat, leading to a cold snap.

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Hospital in Naples was evacuated after a new, huge sinkhole appeared

Hospital in Naples was evacuated after a new, huge sinkhole appeared 96

Eyewitnesses said they heard a loud crash at dawn when a huge hole in the ground formed outside the Ponticelli Ospedale del Mare hospital in eastern Naples.

Early in the morning of January 8, 2021, a sinkhole occurred in the parking lot of a clinic in Naples. The depth of the formed cavity is about 20 meters, the total area of ​​the hole is about 2,000 square meters.

No casualties were found at the scene; firefighters say the sinkhole “affected an area of ​​about 500 square meters” and engulfed several cars parked near the hospital.

As the press writes and as a little can be seen from the videos, rescuers and firefighters were running around the pit together with the governor of the area.  But who should be there in the forefront are Italian geologists, since Naples stands in the very center of the volcanic system known as the Phlegrean Fields.

If the surface collapsed, moreover – the surface reinforced with concrete and reinforced from below with some kind of communications, then we are talking about serious soil deformations caused by the activity of magma.

Italy has been in doubt since the summer of 2020, because swarms were observed there in very atypical places in May, and according to the forecasts of old Italian seismologists, who had witnessed many strong earthquakes, it should have boomed in the August region.

Fortunately, nothing bad happened to Italy and there was no big earthquake. But, since there are swarms, it means that something is being prepared, the magma is gathering strength. 

Following this particular sinkhole event – an obvious sign that a major earthquake in Italy is already very close.

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A new great pandemic cycle has begun (again) in China

A new great pandemic cycle has begun (again) in China 97

In the first months of 2020, the whole world with a certain fright followed the events unfolding in China, where people fell on the streets during the day and astronauts wandered, and in the evening crematoria began to smoke. And now, with the onset of December, the cycle seems to be repeating itself.

Shunyi area in Beijing, where the authorities announced “wartime status” the day before. As you can see in the videos, thousands of people are lined up in the queue for mandatory testing:

Dalian city, where “wartime” is also declared. Neighborhoods are blockaded, people are walled up in entrances, familiar characters of George Lucas roam the streets:

Chinese ‘rescuers’, before performing a combat mission:

Chengdu City:

Daluo Port, Yunnan – tourists came for adventure and they received the ‘time of their life’ after leaving the ramp:

If something happens in Beijing, it does not mean that tomorrow the same will happen everywhere. However, the trend towards such dynamics is observed and, as the practice of the first wave of the pandemic has shown, all countries and people, to one degree or another, have taken into account the ‘Chinese experience’. 

Therefore, one must think that everything will now be in peace, as in spring – a new global round of the fight against the Covid has begun in China, a new great pandemic cycle!

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