Connect with us

Metaphysics & Psychology

Scientists Discover that Everything — from Rocks to Molecules — Is Conscious

Consciousness permeates reality. Rather than being just a unique feature of human subjective experience, it’s the foundation of the universe, present in every particle and all physical matter.

This sounds like easily-dismissible bunkum, but as traditional attempts to explain consciousness continue to fail, the “panpsychist” view is increasingly being taken seriously by credible philosophers, neuroscientists, and physicists, including figures such as neuroscientist Christof Koch and physicist Roger Penrose.

“Why should we think common sense is a good guide to what the universe is like?” says Philip Goff, a philosophy professor at Central European University in Budapest, Hungary. “Einstein tells us weird things about the nature of time that counters common sense; quantum mechanics runs counter to common sense. Our intuitive reaction isn’t necessarily a good guide to the nature of reality.”

David Chalmers, a philosophy of mind professor at New York University, laid out the “hard problem of consciousness” in 1995, demonstrating that there was still no answer to the question of what causes consciousness. Traditionally, two dominant perspectives, materialism and dualism, have provided a framework for solving this problem. Both lead to seemingly intractable complications.

“Physics is just structure. It can explain biology, but there’s a gap: Consciousness.”

The materialist viewpoint states that consciousness is derived entirely from physical matter. It’s unclear, though, exactly how this could work. “It’s very hard to get consciousness out of non-consciousness,” says Chalmers. “Physics is just structure. It can explain biology, but there’s a gap: Consciousness.” Dualism holds that consciousness is separate and distinct from physical matter—but that then raises the question of how consciousness interacts and has an effect on the physical world.

Panpsychism offers an attractive alternative solution: Consciousness is a fundamental feature of physical matter; every single particle in existence has an “unimaginably simple” form of consciousness, says Goff. These particles then come together to form more complex forms of consciousness, such as humans’ subjective experiences. This isn’t meant to imply that particles have a coherent worldview or actively think, merely that there’s some inherent subjective experience of consciousness in even the tiniest particle.

Panpsychism doesn’t necessarily imply that every inanimate object is conscious. “Panpsychists usually don’t take tables and other artifacts to be conscious as a whole,” writes Hedda Hassel Mørch, a philosophy researcher at New York University’s Center for Mind, Brain, and Consciousness, in an email. “Rather, the table could be understood as a collection of particles that each have their own very simple form of consciousness.”

But, then again, panpsychism could very well imply that conscious tables exist: One interpretation of the theory holds that “any system is conscious,” says Chalmers. “Rocks will be conscious, spoons will be conscious, the Earth will be conscious. Any kind of aggregation gives you consciousness.”



Interest in panpsychism has grown in part thanks to the increased academic focus on consciousness itself following on from Chalmers’ “hard problem” paper. Philosophers at NYU, home to one of the leading philosophy-of-mind departments, have made panpsychism a feature of serious study. There have been several credible academic books on the subject in recent years, and popular articles taking panpsychism seriously.

One of the most popular and credible contemporary neuroscience theories on consciousness, Giulio Tononi’s Integrated Information Theory, further lends credence to panpsychism. Tononi argues that something will have a form of “consciousness” if the information contained within the structure is sufficiently “integrated,” or unified, and so the whole is more than the sum of its parts. Because it applies to all structures—not just the human brain—Integrated Information Theory shares the panpsychist view that physical matter has innate conscious experience.

Goff, who has written an academic book on consciousness and is working on another that approaches the subject from a more popular-science perspective, notes that there were credible theories on the subject dating back to the 1920s. Thinkers including philosopher Bertrand Russell and physicist Arthur Eddington made a serious case for panpsychism, but the field lost momentum after World War II, when philosophy became largely focused on analytic philosophical questions of language and logic. Interest picked up again in the 2000s, thanks both to recognition of the “hard problem” and to increased adoption of the structural-realist approach in physics, explains Chalmers. This approach views physics as describing structure, and not the underlying nonstructural elements.

“Physical science tells us a lot less about the nature of matter than we tend to assume,” says Goff. “Eddington”—the English scientist who experimentally confirmed Einstein’s theory of general relativity in the early 20th century—“argued there’s a gap in our picture of the universe. We know what matter does but not what it is. We can put consciousness into this gap.”

“What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?”

In Eddington’s view, Goff writes in an email, it’s “”silly” to suppose that that underlying nature has nothing to do with consciousness and then to wonder where consciousness comes from.” Stephen Hawking has previously asked: “What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?” Goff adds: “The Russell-Eddington proposal is that it is consciousness that breathes fire into the equations.”

The biggest problem caused by panpsychism is known as the “combination problem”: Precisely how do small particles of consciousness collectively form more complex consciousness? Consciousness may exist in all particles, but that doesn’t answer the question of how these tiny fragments of physical consciousness come together to create the more complex experience of human consciousness.

Any theory that attempts to answer that question, would effectively determine which complex systems—from inanimate objects to plants to ants—count as conscious.

An alternative panpsychist perspective holds that, rather than individual particles holding consciousness and coming together, the universe as a whole is conscious. This, says Goff, isn’t the same as believing the universe is a unified divine being; it’s more like seeing it as a “cosmic mess.” Nevertheless, it does reflect a perspective that the world is a top-down creation, where every individual thing is derived from the universe, rather than a bottom-up version where objects are built from the smallest particles. Goff believes quantum entanglement—the finding that certain particles behave as a single unified system even when they’re separated by such immense distances there can’t be a causal signal between them—suggests the universe functions as a fundamental whole rather than a collection of discrete parts.

Such theories sound incredible, and perhaps they are. But then again, so is every other possible theory that explains consciousness. “The more I think about [any theory], the less plausible it becomes,” says Chalmers. “One starts as a materialist, then turns into a dualist, then a panpsychist, then an idealist,” he adds, echoing his paper on the subject. Idealism holds that conscious experience is the only thing that truly exists. From that perspective, panpsychism is quite moderate.

Chalmers quotes his colleague, the philosopher John Perry, who says: “If you think about consciousness long enough, you either become a panpsychist or you go into administration.” 

Source link

Advertisement
Comments

Metaphysics & Psychology

Genius boy will graduate in Electronic Engineering at age 9 and wants to seek “immortality”

Credit: Instagram

Laurent Simons will not only graduate from an electronic engineer in a short time, he also wants to seek immortality through technology.

It is a prodigy child or a genius child from Belgium and is on its way to obtain an engineering degree at the young age of 9.

Laurent Simons is studying electrical engineering in the Eindhoven University of Technology (TUE), a difficult course even for students of an average postgraduate age.

The most surprising thing is that Laurent will graduate from college at the age of nine.

Ambitious goals

The child prodigy has ambitious scientific goals: after obtaining a PhD in engineering and a medical degree, Simons’ parents told CNN he wants to develop a way to create artificial organs.

To achieve his goal, Laurent plans to embark on a doctorate program in electrical engineering while studying for a medical degree.

Laurent’s father told CNN:

The absorption of information is not a problem for Laurent. I think the focus will be on research and the application of knowledge to discover new things. ”

Laurent Simons, the genius boy who will graduate as an electronic engineer at age 9
Laurent Simons, the genius boy who will graduate as an electronic engineer at age 9.

Mysteriously intelligent

The TUE, where Simons is on his way to graduate next month, told CNN that offering accelerated programs for students who can handle them is normal, but that they have never had such a young student.

Sjoerd Hulshof, director of education for the university’s electrical engineering program, said in a statement:

Special students who have good reasons for doing so can organize a tight schedule. Laurent is the fastest student we’ve had here. He is not only hyperintelligent, but also a very understanding child. ”

While Laurent comes from a family of doctors, his parents have so far not received any explanation as to why their prodigy son is able to learn so quickly.

But Lydia, his mother, has her own theory: “I ate a lot of fish during pregnancy,” he joked.

His progress has not gone unnoticed and is already being sought by prestigious universities around the world.

While Laurent is obviously able to learn faster than most, his parents are careful to let him have fun too.

His parents said:

We don’t want him to get too serious. He does what he likes. We need to find a balance between being a child and his talents. ”

However, unlike most 9-year-olds, he has already solved what he wants to do with his life: develop artificial organs.

A genius boy who shows great signs that in the near future he will achieve great things that could change the world for the better. Let’s hope so!

Source: CNN

Continue Reading

Metaphysics & Psychology

Jacques Vallée talks about UFOs and consciousness

The UFO contact documentary, “Witness of Another World(Otherworldly Witness) is receiving great reviews from many quarters, and many viewers enjoyed seeing the legendary UFO and consciousness researcher Jacques Vallée in the movie.

Jacques Vallée talks about UFOs and consciousness
Jacques Vallée

Jacques Vallée is known as one of the deepest thinkers on the topics of UFO / Awareness and Awareness, so it’s great to see that the film’s creators have also uploaded a video of him to YouTube discussing UFOs and Awareness, after being asked if he thinks the UFOs are capable of altering our reality (full video embedded below):

I don’t know if (the UFO phenomenon) is capable of altering our reality, because I’m not sure we know what our reality is anymore. There are many things that are changing our reality – we can change reality in many ways: through drugs, through impressions of consciousness, through belief systems, and of course through physiological means.

Therefore, the phenomenon can use all of this to express itself if it comes from outside. If it comes from within, it’s even more interesting, because it forces us to raise the question of what is reality in the first place – and physics is asking the same questions now. Many physicists are asking – mainly because of particle entanglement and atom entanglement experiments – how is reality really perceived by our consciousness and to what extent do we create our reality? Is there really something like space and time?

So these questions come from physics, not from ufo / ufology, but I think we can really learn from what physicists are doing now.

Some physicists are saying that time and space do not really exist as real entities, which are expressed, that emerge from consciousness, observing our own experiences. Now, if this is true, it certainly opens up many new ways to approach phenomena like UFOs and other phenomena.

(Source)

Continue Reading

Metaphysics & Psychology

Otherworldly essences of larva: what you need to know about them

Larvae are energy parasites or entities that can penetrate the human field. In the future, they accumulate heavy and disharmonious energy, as a result of which the psychological and physical state of health deteriorates significantly.

What are larvae

Many people know that there are otherworldly essences of larva, that you need to know this. It must be understood that every thought is material. It is for this reason that a person is surrounded by an energy shell that can live independently. Larva does not have its own consciousness, but it is an energy parasite. Larva can take energy and human health in order to continue to exist.

Larvae appear under the influence of human life, because actions and the energy world are closely connected with each other. Energy entities are present everywhere, and they can exist even for a long time. Larvae will exist for a long time if a person feeds them with their energy. As a result, a person becomes dependent on his desires, although he notes a rapid deterioration in health and even begins to fall into a depressed state.

Otherworldly essences of larva: what you need to know about them

Larvae according to their internal content are divided into 3 large groups:

1. Small. They are responsible for the immediate wishes of the people. It is easiest to deal with such larvae, since it is enough to satisfy a desire or endure and refuse to perform actions. Such larvae are emitted up to hundreds of times a day, and there is no particular harm to humans.
2. Medium. In this case, everyday habits appear, which can be guaranteed to be abandoned with a great desire. You need to understand that to combat negative character traits will require more time and effort. Success largely depends on the manifestation of your character. In order to notice obvious changes, you need to regularly overpower yourself.
3. Large. Habits become serious, and it is difficult to get rid of them on their own. Large larvae are also responsible for pronounced psychological complexes.

In any case, the otherworldly essences of the larva can cease to exist if a person tries to change his life.

Otherworldly essences of larva: what you need to know about them

What are the signs

Determining the presence of such entities is actually quite easy. If you have a bad habit, which is difficult to get rid of, you can suspect the presence of larvae. Key features:

– prostration;
– the appearance of aggression for no reason;
– increased emotionality;
– the desire to eat a lot and tasty.

Such manifestations are basic.

What are the dangers of larvae?

Astral beings are gradually gaining more and more power, so they are affecting more and more. Over time, the existing vital energy weakens, as a result of which a person cannot enjoy life, becomes apathetic and notes a breakdown.

There is also a deterioration in overall health. First of all, the organs of the gastrointestinal tract and the genitourinary system suffer. The deterioration of the organs occurs in the shortest possible time. If larvae continue to exist, health is rapidly deteriorating and there is even a risk of death.

If larvae appear

The main reasons for their appearance

Each person is influenced by the energy of the entire universe. It is for this reason that there are various reasons why larvae appear:

1. A negative manifestation due to a dysfunctional inheritance may be noted. If close relatives are distinguished by a weak spiritual world, entities can negatively affect children. This reason often becomes apparent if there is an energetic connection with relatives.

2. Each person through his actions lead to the fact that a negative energy essence is attached to him. Usually, the reason is attunement to life negative, so you need to fill yourself with positive.

3. Sometimes the appearance of larvae leads to communication with other people. The first signs will be irritability, nervousness, deterioration.

4. It is also dangerous to conduct rituals on your own if the ritual for calling the spirits went wrong.

If larvae appear, it is important to know what signs appear in a person, and a photo can help. Psychics are able to see larvae and understand that it is important to get rid of them.

Ways to get rid

It is recommended to strive for positive and fight bad thoughts, habits. If you strive to improve yourself and improve your health, get rid of habits, you can note the positive impact of actions on yourself.

It is undesirable to concentrate on the negative of life and the manifestation of bad habits. We must strive for creative activity. In this case, it will be easier to get rid of negative energy entities. It is also important to cultivate good habits and good emotions so that life is more productive and wholesome.

If larvae appear, signs in a person cannot go unnoticed.

Continue Reading

Recent Comments

Trending