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Scientists decoded the giant squid genome and saw that this creature has a very developed brain

Giant squids of the genus Architeutis are one of the largest invertebrate creatures, which, according to official data, can reach about 8-10 meters in length, and twice as much according to unofficial ones.

Pictures of live squids were first obtained by Japanese researchers in 2004, before that scientists had ideas about giant squids only from their remains found in the stomachs of sperm whales or washed ashore.

Until now, not a single giant squid fell into the hands of scientists, which is associated not only with the fact that these creatures live mainly at great depths, but that that they rarely swim to the surface, as they sperm whale’s favorite treat.

A relatively small giant squid of the Architeuthis dux species, reaching a length of “only” 4 meters

The genome of giant squid was analyzed by a team of researchers from the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), as well as researchers from the Marine Biological Laboratory of the State of Massachusetts under the leadership of Caroline Albertin. In total, this group sorted the genomes of several cephalopods at once, including octopus, cuttlefish and nautilus mollusk.

DNA samples of a giant squid were taken from a frozen piece of flesh of this creature, found many years ago on the ocean and preserved in one of the laboratories.

Researchers first found that the size of the giant squid genome is not that far behind the human genome. The giant squid had about 2.7 billion complementary pairs of DNA, which is about 90% of the human genome.

Although the size of the genome is not necessarily related to the creature’s complexity and intellectual development, more than a hundred giant squid genes have been linked to a family of specific protocadherin proteins that are responsible for complex brain structure.

The remains of a giant squid at the Smithsonian Museum.

According to Caroline Albertin, as a rule, these proteins are found in very little (or not at all) in invertebrates, and the presence of more than 100 protocadherins in the giant squid genome can be compared to the finding of a “smoking gun”, because this directly indicates that these creatures are very smart.

By the way, in the octopus genome in 2015, the same proteins were also found in approximately the same amount.

Other unusual finds include a unique set of genes responsible for the growth and development of giant squid, which were not in the genome of octopus, cuttlefish and nautilus. This probably explains why giant squids grow so huge.

The results of this curious study were published in the scientific journal GigaScience.

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Science & Technology

Why Hide Ether From Mendeleev’s Periodic Table?

There are few who know that D. I. Mendeleev was one of the last world-famous Russian scientists of the late 19th century, who defended the idea of ​​ether as a global substantial entity in world science, who gave it fundamental scientific and applied significance in revealing the secrets of the Creation and to improve the people’s economic life.

The table of chemical elements officially taught at schools and universities is a Mendeleev-forged version. Mendeleev, in a work entitled “An Attempt at a Chemical Conception of Universal Ether“, provided a slightly different table (Polytechnic Museum, Moscow).

The last time, in an undistorted form, the real Mendeleev Table was published in 1906 in St. Petersburg (textbook “Fundamentals of Chemistry”, VIII edition). The differences are visible: the zero group is moved to the 8th, and the element is lighter than hydrogen, with which the table should begin and which is conventionally called Newtonium (ether), is generally excluded.

An Attempt at a Chemical Conception of Universal Ether ” (Polytechnical Museum, Moscow)

Mendeleev was the organizer and the permanent leader (1869-1905) of a Russian public scientific association called the Russian Chemical Society (since 1872 – the Russian Physical and Chemical Society), which published throughout its existence the world-famous journal of the RFLF, until the liquidation by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1930 – of both the Society and its journal.

But few know that Mendeleev was one of the last world-famous Russian scientists of the late 19th century who defended the idea of ​​ether as a global substantial entity in world science, who gave it fundamental scientific and applied importance in revealing the secrets of Being and for improving the people’s economic life.

Even fewer are those who know that after the sudden (!!?) death of Mendeleev (01/27/1907), he was then recognized as an outstanding scientist by all scientific communities around the world except the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. His main discovery – the “Periodic Law” – was deliberately and universally falsified by the world academic science.

There are also very few who know that all of the above is tied together by the thread of sacrificial service of the best representatives and bearers of the immortal Russian Physical Thought for the benefit of people, public good, in spite of the growing wave of irresponsibility in the upper layers of society of that time.

The great alchemist, Mendeleev, revealed in his table the secret of the Creation of the physical world from … ether.

At First it was Ether. It is from ether that the substance of the material world appears, which is divided into four elements (fire, air, earth, water) – and again through radioactive substances at the end of the table they turn back into ether … All this can be traced in Mendeleev’s table.

The gravity problem and the tasks of the entire energy sector cannot be imagined to be really solved without a real understanding of the ether as a global medium that transfers energy over distances . A real understanding of the ether cannot be achieved by ignoring its chemistry and not considering it an elementary substance” 

Modern material science has limited itself to the framework of the matter, and therefore is not capable of explaining what goes beyond this framework. The end of the 19th century was the dawn of a “different” science, but the puppeteers led mankind to a materialistic impasse and the discoveries of Mendeleev, Tesla and other ascetics were nothing to them.

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The witcher’s potion. What is known about the mutagenicity of ‘healing’ herbs

In the popular witcher saga, boys go through trials, gaining inhuman strength, magical abilities, and longevity. A major role in this is played by herbs, supposedly changing the metabolism and basic systems of the body.

From a scientific point of view, phytotherapy does not cause such radical mutations, but to get poisoning and even a tumor is quite real.
Herbal medicine has been known since time immemorial, when classical medicine was in its infancy. And now many are convinced that the infusions of herbs, different types of tea, plant extracts benefit more than tablets, because it contains only natural ingredients. It is widely believed that herbs are environmentally friendly raw materials, they have a mild effect and are safe for the body. However, we are dealing with a myth that has no scientific evidence.

Unlike drugs manufactured by industry, plants contain hundreds of chemicals, each of which may have a biologically active effect. Homemade herbal preparations or those purchased as dietary supplements are not standardized, not cleaned, often have not passed laboratory and clinical trials, and therefore it is not known how they act on the body, are combined with other medicines, do they give side effects, in which doses are safe, and in which are toxic.

Scientists from India in 2017 described such a case. A 73-year-old man came to one of the hospitals with complaints of pain in the lower abdomen and throughout the body, fatigue, vomiting, and constipation. Eight months earlier, he had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, and he was taking the herbal powder prescribed to him by an Ayurveda specialist, traditional Indian medicine.

Doctors examined the patient and prescribed conservative treatment, but vomiting did not pass. The next course also did not bring relief. Then they sent Ayurvedic powder for analysis and found there an increased content of lead – extremely toxic to humans. It was what caused the poisoning and inflammation of the intestines in the patient. It has been known for a long time that plants, especially roots, accumulate heavy metals and other toxic compounds well. Scientists use this feature to monitor soil pollution. The reverse side of plant susceptibility is the real risk of poisoning.

Weight Loss Risk

Since ancient times, plants of the genus Aristolochia have been used in obstetrics and treatment after snakebites. The acids of the same name contained in them have anti-inflammatory properties, and until recently, aristolochia extracts were part of the preparations for arthritis, rheumatism, gout, suppuration.

In the late 1980s, scientists discovered that aristolochic acids cause cancer in rodents. They are discontinued everywhere. However, in traditional medicine they are continued to be used.

In 1991, about one hundred cases of kidney damage due to prolonged use of Chinese traditional medicine for weight loss containing Aristolochia fangchi were revealed in Belgium. Several hundred people in different countries of Europe and Asia suffered from such “treatment”. It has now been proven in experiments on mammals that aristolochic acids cause mutations in genes, provoking the synthesis of abnormal proteins in cells. This phenomenon is called mutagenesis. In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer added these substances to the group of proven carcinogens, and in 2017, the Chinese authorities announced the names of 43 patented drugs and 24 plant species containing aristolochic acids.

Unexplored secrets of herbal medicine

According to rough estimates, about a third of people in the Western world use herbal and other folk remedies for colds, fever, inflammation, indigestion, constipation, cirrhosis of the liver, heart disease, diabetes, diseases of the central nervous system and even AIDS. In the United States, from 1993 to 2012, the number of herbal medicine products on the market increased tenfold. WHO recommends phytotherapy with proven efficacy in the medical insurance. All these trends, apparently, are associated with a strong belief in the healing properties of herbs that have been tested by folk medicine for thousands of years. At the same time, as American researchers note, the more widely the herbal medicine is used, the more cases of liver damage are associated with it. This is a slight increase in the level of liver enzymes and cirrhosis, and the accumulation of adipose tissue in the liver cells.

Now several natural components of herbs have been identified that have toxic and carcinogenic effects. For example, pyrrolisidine alkaloids are found in more than six thousand plants, including licorice, coltsfoot, and cucumber grass. In comfrey medicinal – 14 compounds of this type, considered genotoxic. The most famous are symphytin, 7-acetyllicopsin, 7-acetylintermedin and intermedin. These substances can cause mutations in genes, damage DNA, chromosomes, micronuclei. Many medicinal plants (Sassafras officinalis, Chinese cinnamon) and spices (nutmeg, cinnamon, anise) contain compounds of the phenylpropanoid group. For some, for example, carcinogenic effects has been proven.

Among the huge variety of potentially useful plants, the genotoxic properties of plant compounds and extracts have been studied in a very small part, the authors of the review note. To many experiments there are questions. Most were made on cell cultures, in rare cases on animals, the doses at which negative properties are manifested have not always been studied, and the results are often contradictory. Little is investigated about the manifested qualities of the compounds in complex mixtures, and this is how they are most often used in folk medicine. But the very fact that compounds dangerous for DNA are found in plants used by humans, requires studying this category of traditional medicine more carefully.

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US military study the brains of gamers to create combat robots

The fact that the military will use video games for their needs, even a dozen or two years ago, could only be imagined in science fiction books or films.

However, the future was closer than we thought, and now the “shooters” are really used to train soldiers and even get real punishment for war crimes in the game. In the United States, they decided to go even further and study the brain of gamers in order to create artificial intelligence for combat robots based on these data.

According to UB, in the United States the Institute of Artificial Intelligence received a grant of $ 316 thousand for such experiments. “The idea is to ultimately create up to 250 air and ground robots working in very difficult situations. For example, during a sudden loss of visibility due to smoke or during an emergency.“ Robots must be able to communicate effectively and adapt to such challenges,” said Souma Chowdhury, Principal Investigator, Grant Assistant Professor of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

To train combat vehicles, researchers intend to observe the activity of brain waves and the eye movement of gamers playing games in real time. For experiments, games such as StarCraft, Stellaris and Company of Heroes have been selected so far. In addition, a new strategy game was created specifically for the study, which become the main one in the experiment.

The developers will also observe how players make decisions about creating units and using resources to defeat the enemy.

“We don’t want the AI ​​system to simply mimic human behavior; we want the study to form a deeper understanding of what motivates a person to take certain actions. This is what will lead to a more advanced AI. ”

Studying the brain of gamers to create AI seems very plausible, although in the United States the military sometimes receive grants for completely insane for many but understandable research for us. Recently declassified documents showed that American intelligence agencies let millions go to study UFOs, parallel measurements and the possibility of teleportation. True, as a result of the experiments, it is not clear where only the money was teleported.

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