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Bizzare & Odd

Scientist discovers Jupiter could be dangerous to Earth

One astronomer believes that Jupiter, instead of protecting the earth from dangerous comets and asteroids, is actively launching objects toward the internal solar system. New research now demonstrates this complex process in action.

Jupiter may not act as a shield to the earth against comets and asteroids, but rather as a slingshot, sending these objects against us.

A popular theory suggests that Jupiter, with its tremendous mass, acts as a gigantic shield in space, sucking in or diverting dangerous debris left over from the formation of the solar system. But Jupiter’s Shield theory, as it is known, has been undermined for the past two decades.

A key critic of this theory, Kevin Grazier, a former member of the US West Point Military Academy and NASA, has been trying to debunk this idea for years. He has published several studies on the subject, including a 2008 article entitled “Jupiter as a Sniper Rather Than a Shield(Jupiter as a Sniper Instead of a Shield. ‘In fact, with each successive article, Grazier has increasingly demonstrated the ways in which Jupiter, instead of being our protector, is actually – albeit indirectly – a pernicious threat. .

Grazier’s last foray into the subject involves a couple of complementary articles, one published in Astronomical Journal in 2018 and another in Monthly Notices from Royal Astronomical Journal in 2019.

The first article looks at the complex ways in which objects in the outer solar system are affected by the Jovian planets, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus, while the second article looks at a specific family of frozen bodies and how they are transformed by Jupiter into potentially comets. mortal. Looking at the conclusions of both works, it seems that Jupiter’s Shield theory is at serious risk.

Grazier told the Gizmodo in an email:

Actually, I wouldn’t say you’re at risk – I’d say you were put to rest. Our simulations show that Jupiter is as likely to send comets on Earth as it is to deflect them, and we have seen it in the real solar system.

To be clear, this was a very good thing when the earth was young, as comets and asteroids provided the essential ingredients needed for life. Today, however, these impacts are certainly not good, as they could trigger mass extinctions similar to those that extinguished non-avian dinosaurs about 66 million years ago.

Jupiter’s Magnetosphere

Grazier’s work presents new models that demonstrate the complex astrophysical processes required to convert distant celestial bodies into local threats. Working with collaborators from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the University of Southern Queensland, Grazier showed how objects on the scattered disk, a ring within the Kuiper Belt that contains many planetsimates approaching Neptune, are influenced by the Jovian planets. . They also show how Centaurs, a group of frozen orbiting bodies beyond Jupiter and Neptune, are transformed by Jupiter into potentially threatening Earth comets, specifically a collection of objects known as the Jupiter Family Comets…

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Bizzare & Odd

The time when US wanted to detonate a nuclear bomb on the moon

In the United States during the Cold War, there was a plan to explode a nuclear bomb on the moon as a “demonstration of dominance” before the Soviet Union. New details of the secret mission are revealed in a recently published book.

Intimidate the Soviet Union: Americans wanted to detonate a nuclear bomb on the moonPhoto: nasa.gov

The secret mission, codenamed Project A119, was conceived at the dawn of the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the US Air Force Division, located at the Kirtland Air Base in New Mexico.

A report written in June 1959, entitled A Study of Lunar Research Flights, outlines plans for an atomic bomb exploded on the Moon’s “terminator,” the region between the Sun-lit portion of the surface and the darker portion of our planet’s natural satellite.

The explosion would probably be visible to the naked eye from the Earth, because the military planned to add sodium to the bomb, which was supposed to glow during the explosion.

A nuclear explosion on the lunar surface was certainly “one of the stupidest things the government could do,” says John Greenwald, Jr., author of Secrets from the Vault.

According to the Daily Mail, a recently published book details some of the most surrealistic offers in history.

John Greenwald has been interested in the secrets of the US government since he was 15 and has filed more than 3,000 requests for freedom of information. He oversees The Black Vault’s online repository, which has collected about 2.1 million pages of previously classified documents related to UFOs, mysterious murders and other mysterious phenomena.

According to Greenwald, the US Air Force was developing a lunar project to “show US dominance in space over the Soviet Union and, ultimately, over the whole world.”

The plan, of course, has never been implemented – perhaps because of a potential “unprecedented scientific disaster,” as one declassified document says.

The existence of this scheme was first discovered in 1999 in the biography of the world famous astronomer Carl Sagan, who died in 1996. Sagan was hired to work with him in Chicago by Dr. Leonard Raiffel, a physicist who was studying the possibility of creating a lunar nuclear bomb.

Leonard Raiffel (he died in 2017 at the age of 89) in an interview in 2000 claimed that the bomb would be as big as the bomb dropped on Hiroshima.

“It was clear that the main purpose of the proposed detonation was a PR act and a demonstration of sole domination,” the scientist told The Observer. – The Air Force wanted the mushroom cloud to be so large that it could be seen on Earth. The United States lagged behind in the space race.”

Photo: nasa.gov

In 1958, Raiffel was approached by senior US Air Force officers who asked him to “expedite” a project to study the visibility and consequences of a nuclear explosion on the moon.

According to the scientist, he made it clear that as a result, the pristine lunar environment will be destroyed, and this will be a huge damage, “but the US Air Force was mainly concerned about how a nuclear explosion would be perceived on Earth.”

“If the project were made public, there would be protests,” Raiffel said.

Greenwald’s book also explores the 1959 Army project on building a military base on the moon, code-named Project Horizon. The aim of the project was to create a permanent lunar colony for 10-20 people by the end of 1966. To get equipment there, it was projected to require an average of 5.3 Saturn rocket launches per month from August 1964 to November 1966.

In the entire history of the American space program, only 19 Saturns were launched.

“Military power based on the moon will be a strong deterrent to war because of the extreme difficulty, from the enemy’s point of view, of eliminating our ability to strike back,” the project suggested.

In a 1959 memorandum, US Army Research and Development Head Lieutenant Arthur Trudeau argued that if the United States created a permanent base on the moon, the prestige and psychological advantage for the American nation would be invaluable in confronting the Soviets.

The report indicated that creating an outpost of 12 people and maintaining it in working condition over the course of the year would cost more than $ 6 billion (which is equivalent to more than $ 53 billion in modern money).

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Bizzare & Odd

The most unusual rains in human history

Science for a long time did not pay attention to this anomalous phenomenon, suggesting that it was nothing more than legends and fabrications. But then an explanation was found.

Exactly 80 years ago, something strange happened near the village of Meschera in the Gorky Region, which shocked local residents. Ancient coins fell on their heads right from the sky

Ominous sign filed by seaweed

On June 17, 1940, the inhabitants of the village of Meshchera with amazement rushed to collect silver coins of the 16th – 17th centuries. that fell from the sky. An unusual find was then handed over to the state – in total, about a thousand coins were counted.

According to the most common version, the weather became the cause of the money rain: first, the rain washed out of the  ground the treasure buried in the time of Ivan the Terrible, and then the hurricane lifted it into the air and scattered it around the neighborhood.

In July 2001, red rain poured in the Indian state of Kerala. With interruptions, it continued until the end of September, and the population was pretty frightened: in precipitation, similar to blood, people saw an ominous sign. Later, scientists reassured them: the rain became colored due to  spores of local algae.

In 2005, frogs fell from the sky near the Serbian village of Kaja Janovik. Its inhabitants were at a loss. Experts suggested that the blame for everything is the tornado, which dragged amphibians into its funnel from a nearby body of water.

Similar “precipitation” from frogs and toads was observed at different times in other countries. For example, in 1953 in Massachusetts, USA. Or in 2007 in  El Rebolledo, Spain.

Dinner fallen from the sky

Rain from animals is undoubtedly a rare occurrence, but not just mentioned in written sources. Such evidence is found among the ancient Greeks and Romans. The message about squirrels falling from the sky is contained in the Ipatiev Chronicle And in the XIX century, the press began to publish them. 

For example, the 1877 Scientific American magazine described snake rain reaching 18 inches (about 45 centimeters) in length that fell in Memphis. In June 1880, quail rained over Spanish Valencia, and in February 1861, Singaporeans saw thousands of fish fall from the sky along with a shower.

Fish rain in Singapore as described by the indigenous people

There have been reports of unusual precipitation from animals both in the last century and in the present.

 In 1969, in the city of St. Mary (USA), rain fell from dead canaries. In 1978, in New South Wales (Australia) – from shrimp. 

In 2007, residents of the Argentinean province of Salta watched spiders pouring from the sky, in 2011, earthworms began to fall on the students of one of the schools in Scotland (they had a physical education lesson in the stadium). 

The teacher was forced to interrupt the lesson and take the children away, and then he went out with them and collected these worms for a long time to give them for examination. Scientists suggested that the wind brought them, but the weather that day was sunny and calm.

For the city of Yoro, in Honduras, fish rain (in Spanish – aguacero de pescado) has become so commonplace that the local department holds the annual Fish Rain Festival, which attracts tourists.

 The action takes place in the time interval from May to July: a dark cloud appears in the sky, which is opened by a heavy rain, and after it hundreds of living fish remain on the ground. 

Both locals and visitors collect the prey and bring it to the kitchen, where they prepare a gala dinner. Fish rain is even mentioned in Honduran folklore.

Engraving depicting the “fish rain” (O. Magnus, 1555)

Can a frog spawn in the cloud?

Science for a long time did not pay attention to this anomalous phenomenon, suggesting that it was nothing more than a legend. 

Therefore, a version emerged that now looks like sheer absurdity. Namely: the creatures that fell from the sky themselves somehow originated in the clouds. In the 19th century, a near-scientific base was even brought up under this hypothesis: they say, along with water vapor, eggs of frogs rise into the atmosphere, where they grow and  live in clouds for some  time, and then fall to the ground with rain.

Nevertheless, the French physicist Andre Marie Ampère (the one whose name is used to name the unit of current strength) tried to explain the rains from frogs and toads with more rational arguments. Subsequently, they were accepted and developed by other scientists. 

Ampere suggested that strong winds are able to pick up large groups of toads, crawling out of the reservoirs on the grass, and carry them over distances of several kilometers. Actually, the scientific explanation of the phenomenon, which caused bewilderment and superstitious awe among our ancestors, boils down to abnormal weather phenomena – hurricanes and tornadoes.

Scientists have proven that they can raise fish and the same frogs from the surface of reservoirs, small animals from the ground, and intercept birds in flight. Unable to escape from the funnel of a tornado, animals soar higher and higher until the elements subside and its energy yields to Earth’s gravity.

There is another scientific explanation which denies the very existence of rains from animals. It is noticed that some species of fish are able to crawl along the grass, moving from one reservoir to another, like eels. 

If a person sees them immediately after the rain, he might think that they have fallen from a thundercloud. The same goes for frogs and toads. Even the ancient Greek philosopher Theofast suggested that amphibians do not fall from the sky with rain – this rain makes them crawl out of ponds and swamps into open areas.

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Bizzare & Odd

Shocking stories that happened in Hollywood, but it’s almost impossible to believe

Scene from the film "Eyes Wide Shut"

Hollywood is able to surprise viewers not only in cinemas. No less exciting events are happening on the set than on the screen. Here are just a few of the real stories BuzzFeed talks about.

The first Titanic crash film was released just 29 days after the crash. Actress Dorothy Gibson, who was among the surviving passengers, took part in the filming.

Images © Wikimedia Commons

When Paul Walker died during the shooting of “Fast and the Furious 7”, the filmmakers got out of the situation, using the services of his brothers, old shots and computer graphics.

Scene from the movie “Fast and the Furious 7”

The Trilogy of the 1980s Poltergeist gained a damned reputation: five of the actors who played in these films died under various circumstances during the filming of the franchise.

Scene from the film “Poltergeist”

In 1992, Paramount Pictures Studios paid $ 2.5 million for two pages of paper: it was a sketch of the story for the erotic thriller “Whore”, written by screenwriter “Basic Instinct” Joe Esterhaz.

Scene from the film “Whore”

In 1982, during the filming of the feature film “The Twilight Zone”, three actors were killed: starring singer Vick Morrow and two girls from Vietnam – a helicopter fell on them, the pilot of which turned out to be disoriented by pyrotechnics.

Scene from the movie “Twilight Zone”

Six weeks before the release of Ridley Scott’s “All the Money in the World,” starring Kevin Spacey was accused of sexual harassment. The scenes with his participation were hastily re-shot, while the release of the film had to be postponed for only three days.

Scene from the film “All the money of the world”

The last film of the legendary Stanley Kubrick, “Eyes Wide Shut,” got into the Guinness Book of Records due to the longest shooting period in the history of cinema, which took 400 days.

Scene from the film “Eyes Wide Shut”

At the end of her career, 32-year-old actress Kimberly Kramer changed her name to Riley Weston and began to tell everyone that she was 18. The girl began to write scripts that were successful, and gained fame as the “Hollywood geek.” Cheating revealed in the preparation of a talk show with her participation.

Photo © Wikimedia Commons

Glamorous movie star Dolores Hart, meeting in 1960 on the set of the movie “Francis of Assisi” by Pope John XXIII, four years later, left the cinema and became a nun.

Photo © Wikimedia Commons / Abbey of Regina Laudis

During the filming of Oliver Stone’s sports drama “Every Sunday”, actors Jamie Foxx and LL Cool J got into the role so much that they staged a real fight on the set.

Scene from the movie “Every Sunday”

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