It’s strange how some earthquakes, even though small in magnitude create rumbling sounds and booms!
via The Weather Network:
A 3.1 magnitude earthquake shook parts of western Nova Scotia on Saturday morning.
Earthquakes Canada reports that the quake occurred just off the coast in the area of Mavillette, N.S., near Meteghan, at 10:32 a.m.
Tina Helprin, who lives in Saulnierville Station, said she was sitting in her rocking chair in the kitchen when the quake happened.
“All of a sudden in the distance we heard like a rumble, like if it was going to be thunder and it rolled for like two or three seconds and then there was a loud boom and then it rolled again. It finished with another rumble of about two or three seconds,” she said.
Helprin said the entire house shook and her border collie, Cree, ran up to her, “petrified.”
“I just looked at my husband with big eyes and he looked at me right away…. I said, ‘That was not thunder.’ And he said, ‘Nope, it sure wasn’t,’” she said.
Felt From Digby To Yarmouth
Earthquakes Canada seismologist Michal Kolaj said the agency had received about 60 reports from residents between Digby and Yarmouth by Sunday morning.
“This earthquake isn’t terribly unusual for the region,” Kolaj said, adding that quakes are felt in the area every couple of years.
In 2015, a 3.6 magnitude tremor shook the area about 60 kilometres southwest of Digby on Canada Day. In 2016, a 3.0 magnitude quake was centred about 19 kilometres north of Yarmouth.
More recently, according to Earthquakes Canada, a 3.3 magnitude quake occurred 332 kilometres off Louisbourg on Sept. 16, and a 2.5 magnitude quake happened 17 kilometres west of Hammonds Plains on Sept. 5. Those two earthquakes were not felt by residents, the agency says.
Kolaj said there were no reports of damage from the quake on Saturday morning, and none would be expected, given the magnitude.
The seismologist encouraged residents to report their experience of the earthquake to help researchers understand how quakes of different magnitudes are felt.
How Los Angeles Is Helping Lead the Fight Against Climate Change
Los Angeles doesn’t have a great environmental reputation. It’s the car capital of the United States. It’s famous for its curtains of smog, and for stealing a bunch of water once.
But the city is in the midst of a metamorphosis. With fewer, yet stronger storms on the horizon, it’s begun an ambitious plan to cut its reliance on imported water in half by 2025. And it’s emerging as a leader in the frantic international quest to curb emissions—in 2016 alone, it slashed emissions by 11 percent, the equivalent of taking more than 700,000 cars off the road.
This week, Los Angeles mayor Eric Garcetti joined other leaders, along with activists and business leaders, at the Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco. The mission? Stop climate change before it destroys the planet, and our species along with it. Garcetti sat down with WIRED for two interviews, which we have combined and condensed, to talk about how to turn LA into a greentech testbed, why cities have to compete in order to save the world, and what the city can learn from its infamous water wars.
Matt Simon: In what way are cities uniquely positioned to be leaders on climate change?
Eric Garcetti: There’s never been more people living in cities, and many of them control directly the most important national assets, like ports and airports and utilities. We have a culture of trying new things, whereas in Washington and other national capitals it’s like, Oh make sure it’s perfect before it comes to us and then we’ll scale it up. Cities are those laboratories of democracy that states used to be. In a city like LA, we’re trying to get to this idea of a city as a platform.
MS: So what is LA doing about emissions? It’s known as a place of cars, of course, is that part of it? Is it renewable energy?
EG: In Los Angeles, we can’t afford not to do all of the above, from energy generation to our building codes to transportation including personal transportation, our mass transit, and our goods movement from the port and our logistical network. We’re the number one solar city in America—we’ve made a pledge to go to 100 percent renewable power, we’re reducing our water imports, which consumes a lot of energy. We’re cleaning up the port of LA, which is now the greenest port in the world, and made a pledge to go to zero emissions by 2035.
In 2016, the last year we measured, we were down 11 percent, which is the equivalent of 737,000 cars off the road. And by the way, that same year unemployment went down 14 percent. So this whole myth that you can’t do that and expand the economy, we’re laying to rest, I hope.
MS: People throw their arms up about that—you can’t do renewable energy, it’ll kill jobs.
EG: We generated 30,000 new green jobs since I’ve been mayor, so in five years. To put that in perspective, there’s 50,000 coal jobs left in America. So this town that’s just 1 percent, roughly, of the US population has created the equivalent of 60 percent of the remaining coal jobs left in America. Appalachia should be doing that, areas that have been hard hit by a recession and not recovered. These are generally good middle class jobs too, not just minimum wage.
MS: There’s this interesting dynamic between cities working on this problem that is at once competitive, but also collaborative.
EG: When Shenzhen says, I’ve got 100 percent already of our bus fleet electrified and all of our taxis, that’s good competition for LA to try to catch. And it’s collaborative in the sense that when people back in LA say there’s no way we can electrify our buses by 2030, I can point to the fact that Shenzhen in China just did it and it took them two and a half, three years. It begins to change people’s attitudes.
MS: How much are you enlisting the populace in this? Is it about changing behavior on a wide scale?
EG: It’s everything from 25,000 car chargers by 2025, to the work that we’re doing to make sure people reduce their water consumption, because we have to use a lot of electricity to bring that water to them. Recycling is now 75 percent. The goal for all megacities is to get to 70 percent, we’re already at 75 percent. And that’s human behavior of sorting, recycling and demanding. So the most important work is actually in-house, in your own place of work, in your own habits. And then secondarily in what you demand from your elected representatives.
MS: You mentioned water, and I think this is a really key component, especially for LA.
EG: We need to build cities that can survive what is happening, and what will continue to happen even if we can reverse this. Which is there will still be decades of hotter days, extreme weather, and social and health disruptions.
William Mulholland, the great engineer who built out our water system, as told in Chinatown and other movies—I say this is kind of our second Mulholland moment to reengineer a system that instead of stealing other people’s water, we’ll recycle, reuse, reduce our water consumption. The fact that my residents stepped up and reduced, in a year, 20 percent of their water use shows we can absolutely do this without feeling it.
MS: Say a city is looking to get into this sort of thing, to clean themselves up, what one piece of advice would you give them?
EG: I’d say go big and be personal. Stretch farther than you think you can reach. And boil it down in human terms. Don’t talk about tons of carbon or millions of vehicles. Talk about people’s health and sickness and firefighters who are dying on the line with historic fires caused by drought. This isn’t about environmentalists who are hobbyists in a little peripheral policy area. This is about everybody’s health and their lives. People are dying and those who aren’t dying are all suffering under the weight of what’s happening.
A Group Of 500+ Scientists Publishes Why They Reject Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
Think about the theory of evolution. It’s widely accepted as fact among the scientific community and even the public. It is taught as so in schools all around the world. However, over 500 scientists have stated that they completely reject the theory of evolution altogether.
Professor Colin Reeves is one of these scientists, who says:
“Darwinism was an interesting idea in the 19th century, when hand-waving explanations gave a plausible, if not properly scientific, framework into which we could fit biological facts. However, what we have learned science the days of Darwin throws doubt on natural selection’s ability to create complex biological systems – and we still have little more than hand-waving as an argument in its favour.”
These scientists all came together for a few years to create an “A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism.” A website dedicated to talking about the flaws of Darwinism.
Multiple Theories Should Be Discussed
This battle, so to speak, is still ongoing today, with new information emerging all the time. The topic of Darwinism is very controversial. This group won’t be the first scientists to go against the theory, and many before have been ousted for doing so.
The theory of evolution is something that is pushed extremely hard on the population and in the scientific world, which may be one of the reasons why this group of scientists is voicing their concerns. There are multiple theories that have substance and should be discussed just as much.
Complex Building Blocks More Than Just Coincidence
One such example comes from Francis Nick, who is a Nobel prize winner who was the co-discoverer of the DNA Double Helix. Crick believes that such complex building blocks to life, such as DNA, has to be more than just coincidence and random mutations. Crick is one of many scientists who believed that there was something more going on, possibly a superior intelligent being or beings.
The Origin Of Life
On top of all this, it is very unhealthy for any community to have people scared to question things, which is also the very nature of being a scientist after all. It seems as though human intuition is leading more and more towards something more, and many of the greatest scientific minds agree.
There are many questions to be had, and maybe one day we will discover the origin of life. Until then, we can just hope that scientists can be allowed to question current theories and formulate new ones without ridiculous consequences.
What is Darwin’s Theory of Evolution?
The Only Place On Earth Like Mars Habitat
Movile Cave Video
Being silent for many years, the accidental discovery of some Romanian specialists conducting geodesic studies in 1986 for the location of a thermal power station near the Black Sea at Mangalia, the Movile Cave was to be considered one of the greatest discoveries of the century that revolutionized the theories of life on earth.
The Earth has few places away from a possible nuclear attack, and one of them is in Romania. We talk about Movile cave in Dobrogea, completely isolated from the outside
The epochal discovery made by researcher Cristian Lascu was certified ten years later by NASA researchers who brought to Mangalia an ultra-sophisticated mobile laboratory and a team of scientists who launched a research project in collaboration with Romanian counterparts.
Unveiled in a mining pit, it is one of the world’s most famous caves, 240 meters long, with gorgeous and spectacular galleries. It is a relatively small cave, with narrow passages covered with clay. It has developed especially horizontally with a few cavities not exceeding 3 meters.
The Movile Cave, near Mangalia, would amaze the whole scientific world with the discovery of life in a unique chemoautotrophic ecosystem, totally isolated from the terrestrial atmosphere and perpetuated in a subterranean world hostile to humans, animals or plants living on the surface.
For the first time when life was discovered in the most obscure landforms, the underground life did not depend on the surface.
NASA’s Larry Lemke, who is working on a lifetime research mission on the Red Planet, has resembled the living conditions of the Movile cave with Mars and has suggested that there may have been life forms on this planet, 3.5 billion years ago, when Mars was warmer.
The case of the Movile cave brought back the hope of finding incipient life forms in the underground of the red planet, where there are hot water sources.
Movile’s inspiration also inspired the American scriptwriters who cast the movie “The cave,” in 2005, directed by Bruce Hunt.
But at Movile, biologists at the National Institute of Speleology have discovered a completely enclosed circle, a stable ecosystem made up of creatures and fungi, totally isolated and independent of the terrestrial surface, at only 20 feet deep based on chemosynthesis, and was completely separated from the outside environment for about 5.5 million years.
This has made one of the researchers who has discovered and studied the flora and fauna here to conclude that if, after a nuclear war, life on earth disappeared, this ecosystem would be a survivor.
The scientific exploration of Movile Cave, confesses Cristian Lascu, began only in 1990, during which time the cave was isolated.
“In total, there have been discovered 35 completely new species living in a very rich hydrogen sulphide environment with a very oxygen-rich atmosphere but rich in carbon dioxide and methane, somewhat resembling volcanic tailings Mars Planet, as NASA has later appreciated, “says Lascu.
The species found in this cave are most of the arthropods belonging to the Arachnida, Crustacea, Myriapoda and Insecta classes. Among the aquatic species, the specimens belong to Phyla Platyhelminthes (worms), Nematoda (worms), Rotifera, Annelida (segmented worms).
This cave is populated by raptors who take their nutrients from the few Nematoda species (worms) and Annelida (segmented worms), which, in turn, depend on chemically synthesizing organisms.
Also, new predatory species such as two pseudoscorpions, one myriapod, four spiders, and a water scorpion, the lizard living on the worms and a centipede about 5 centimeters long have been discovered. (A spider whose only nearby relative is found in the Canary Islands was discovered).
Movile Cave, one of the most unusual ecosystems, is populated with invertebrates that have adaptations due to underground life such as they have a depigmented body, regression, or total absence of the sense of vision, feed on bacteria and fungi that get energy from hot sulfur sulfurous springs under the cave.
From a geological point of view, the cave is situated in the Moesica platform and dates back to the Quaternary.
With a total length of 300 meters, it is considered relatively small, with narrow passages that make up a labyrinth of low, 1-2 meter galleries with a rounded profile, dug in oolitic limestone and Sarmatian limestone.
The underground environment is very rich in hydrogen sulfide (8-12 mg / l), the oxygen level is quite low (max 10%), the carbon dioxide level is high (2-3.5%), while the methane level is quite high (1-2%).
The water in the cave has a different chemical composition than the nearby fountains, and in the sediment of the cave, there were no radioactive isotopes common in the soil of Romania after the 1986 Chernobyl accident.
The entrance to the cave is made by an artificially dug, followed by about 200 m of labyrinthine dry galleries with a rounded profile (1-2 m in height) and flooded (the siphons are represented by three relatively small air bells).
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