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Does Recession Exist?

Cosmologists still have no idea what dark energy is.

In 1998, two astronomical research teams independently discovered what is now called “dark energy.” Saul Perlmutter of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Brian Schmidt from the Australian National University projects each led the two teams who discovered that the Hubble Constant, a uniform expansion rate imparted to the Universe from the Big Bang explosion, was accelerating.

Certain concepts, like redshift and gravity, are fundamental to the Big Bang hypothesis. According to theory, light shifts toward the red end of the spectrum because an object is moving away. Because objects interpreted to be at great distances move away faster than objects nearer to Earth, the Universe is expanding. The usual understanding is that galaxies are all moving away from each other because the Universe is growing larger.

Another important principle is that the Universe is gravity-driven. If gravity is the only controlling force, then the expansion set in motion by the Big Bang must be slowing down—an inescapable conclusion based on gravitational attraction.

However, Perlmutter and Schmidt realized from the study of Type 1a supernovae that the expansion of the Universe was not slowing down, instead it was accelerating. When the astronomers plotted redshifted “velocities of recession,” the figures suggested that the expansion rate of the Universe is greater today than in its early days.

In order to analyze the influx of computer data from telescopes around the world and out in space, the GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 2008 (GREAT08) PASCAL Challenge, a group of 38 scientists from 19 international institutions, was gathered in hopes of solving so-called “dark acceleration” in the Hubble Constant by April 30, 2009.

The computational requirements were distributed across a wide assortment of disciplines—some not necessarily in the astronomical realm. By making use of distributed processing, astronomers can unburden their own computer resources and use any number of voluntary subscribers for assistance.

Was all this effort even necessary? Even some NASA scientists are questioning the existence of dark energy. What is the more likely explanation for the supernovae anomalies that led to the dark energy theory? Cosmologists made their first mistake when they ignored electricity as a significant force in the cosmos. For example, Supernova 1987a, the closest supernova to Earth ever studied, exhibits unmistakable signs of electrical discharge.

Size, color, and luminosity reveal nothing about a star’s age. A red giant star is big because there is low electrical stress in the star’s connected circuit. A blue-white star, on the other hand, is under extreme electrical stress—so much so that it could explode due to a breakdown in its double-layer envelope or due to electrical fissioning. No assumption about a star’s age can help when trying to determine if it will explode. In fact, one aspect of high-energy plasma discharges is that they can produce redshifts that have no connection to recessional velocity.

The Supernova Legacy Survey discovered that the brighter supernovae were more common in the past and that they were about 12% brighter 8 billion years ago than they are now. No one knows why the early Universe had more of the Type 1a supernovae. One observation does show a compelling clue: the brighter starbursts are found more often where there is a high rate of star formation.

As the Electric Universe postulates, more stars are born where there are greater flows of electric charge. That current could also initiate a greater number of stellar explosions with anomalous luminosities and high redshifts. That would make highly charged, nearby objects undergoing electrical discharges look like remote, high redshift supernovae that are too bright for their distances. One can imagine the theoretical problems that would result from that misinterpretation.

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Astronauts may hibernate on trips to Mars

Sony Media

Astronauts traveling to Mars in the near future may have to hibernate, according to a European Space Agency (ESA) scientist.

Astronauts may hibernate on trips to Mars

In interview with The Telegraph, Professor Mark McCaughrean, senior science consultant to the ESA Board of Science, revealed that hibernation could reduce the need for large amounts of food during the seven-month trip to Mars.

He explained:

The idea is that you sleep while traveling and use much less consumables.

Sleep is not the same as hibernation, because if you hibernate, it lowers your body temperature and reduces everything else, oxygen, and so on.

Placing astronauts in this state can also prevent fights between astronauts during the tiring journey, according to Professor McCaughrean.

He added:

If you have 100 people within a few hundred cubic meters for seven, nine months, you will have 20 people at the end, because they will do the Hunger Games. They will kill themselves.

While the idea of ​​hibernating astronauts may seem absurd, ESA is already conducting experiments on animals.

Professor McCaughrean said:

We are now experimenting with artificial hibernation to numb someone for seven months and not worry about food. We are talking about how we would do that. You do this with animal testing and we have programs to analyze how it would happen.

However, there are several obstacles to be overcome before these tests can be performed on humans.

He even said:

We are nowhere near that, because there are all ethical questions about how you would do it.

(Source)

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NASA will search for fossils on Mars

The Mars 2020 spacecraft will investigate an intriguing type of mineral deposit known to produce fossils on Earth.

NASA will search for fossils on Mars
Parts of this image of the Jezero crater have been enhanced to highlight the presence of certain minerals. Green areas indicate carbonate deposits.

And when you think of fossils, you probably imagine T. rex skulls and sauropod femurs. NASA’s Mars 2020 spacecraft will be searching for fossils on Mars, but not those fossils.

NASA highlighted a new study in the magazine Icarus this week pointing out some fascinating formations around the inner edge of the Jezero Crater, the spacecraft’s planned landing site. The agency compares these concentrated carbonate mineral deposits to a tub ring around what was once a lake 3.5 billion years ago.

NASA informed:

On Earth, carbonates help form structures that are tough enough to survive in fossil form for billions of years, including seashells, corals, and some stromatolites – rocks formed on this planet by ancient microbial life along ancient shorelines, where sunlight and water were abundant.

NASA does not expect to find sea shells, but the spacecraft will closely examine the stromatolites. Scientists would be thrilled to discover signs of past microbial life on the currently inhospitable planet. The Jeep’s investigation of carbonate deposits may also tell us more about how Mars made the transition from an aqueous to an arid place.

The probe jeep Mars 2020 is developing at NASA with a planned release mid-next year. If it stays on schedule, the spacecraft will reach the crater in February 2021.

Scientists do not know whether carbonates formed in the ancient lake or could have been deposited previously. We will have to wait to find out more. It will be a milestone worth waiting for.

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Site of NASA’s Mars 2020 Mission Could Contain Fossilized Signs of Life

The landing site selected for NASA’s upcoming Mars 2020 rover could well be one of the best chances we have of discovering whether the Red Planet was once home to life and whether it could be again.

The 28-mile (45km) wide Jezero crater was selected as the landing site for the new rover in late 2018, and has been found to contain vast deposits of hydrated silica and minerals called carbonates, according to a newly published study.

Once the site of a lake more than 3.5 billion years ago, scientists now believe that Jezero, thanks to its carbonate supplies, will likely contain structures that can survive for billions of years, such as shells, coral and certain types of rock formed by microbial life.

Deltas here on Earth are known to be hubs for preserved biomarkers and signs of life, and the presence of the hydrated silica suggests Mars is likely to be even better in this regard.

“Using a technique we developed that helps us find rare, hard-to-detect mineral phases in data taken from orbiting spacecraft, we found two outcrops of hydrated silica within Jezero crater,” said the study’s lead author, Jesse Tarnas, a PhD student at Brown University in Rhode Island, US.

We know from Earth that this mineral phase is exceptional at preserving microfossils and other biosignatures, so that makes these outcrops exciting targets for the rover to explore.

The intel about the site, and the surrounding delta, replete with mineral deposits, was provided by data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

“The material that forms the bottom layer of a delta is sometimes the most productive in terms of preserving biosignatures,” explained Jack Mustard, professor at Brown and study co-author.

“So if you can find that bottomset layer, and that layer has a lot of silica in it, that’s a double bonus,” he added.

The rover will land on Mars on February 18, 2021 when it will begin taking rock core samples that will be deposited in metal tubes on the Martian surface, waiting to be shipped back to Earth for analysis during a later mission.

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