From 1475 BCE to 1275 BCE, the Mitanni Empire ruled over the northern Euphrates-Tigris region in what is now Iraq. It’s only rival at that time was Egypt, but when the Hittite Empire began gaining power, they joined together against it. That wasn’t enough, and Mitanni was eventually defeated by the Hittite and assimilated so completely that very little is known of the dynasty. That may change with the discovery of a MIttani palace in Iraqi Kurdistan after drought exposed it in a reservoir.
“The find is one of the most important archaeological discoveries in the region in recent decades and illustrates the success of the Kurdish-German cooperation.”
Cooperation is always a good thing, especially at archeological sites in areas of political strife. Kurdish archaeologist Hasan Ahmed Qasim was working with Dr. Hasan Ahmed Qasim and Dr. Ivana Puljiz on a joint research project between the University of Tübingen and the Kurdistan Archaeology Organization (KAO) in cooperation with the Duhok Directorate of Antiquities after a drought caused the water level of the Mosul Reservoir in northern Iraq to drop unexpectedly and substantially, revealing the remains of a Bronze Age palace which is believed to have once stood on the edge of the Tigris River valley in the Mitanni town of Kemune. The site was first discovered in 2010, but the recent drop in water level was the first change archeologists had to do some serious digging.
According to the press release by the University of Tübingen, the palace was a solid structure with two-meters thick mud walls, some standing over two meters high. A number of rooms were identified and those contained items that may finally shed some light on the Mitanni empire. One contained ten cuneiform clay tablets which suggest that Kemune may have once be the ancient city of Zachiku, which was thought to have existed in that area 400 years before. (Photos of the site here.) However, it’s what was on the walls that got the archeologists most excited, according to Puljiz.
“We also found remnants of murals in bright shades of red and blue. Mural paintings may have been a typical feature of palaces in the 2nd millennium BC, but they have seldom been preserved. Therefore, the discovery of murals in Kemune is an archaeological sensation.”
This is yet another important archeological site covered by the waters of a dam – in this case, the Mosul Reservoir of the Mosul Dam, the largest dam in Iraq. Completed in 1986, provides electricity to the 1.7 million residents of Mosul … and also some anxiety. The dam was briefly taken over by ISIS in 2014 and it has required constant maintenance and repairs due to being built on top of gypsum, a soft mineral that dissolves in contact with water. Whose bright idea was this? Saddam Hussein.
“The Mittani empire is one of the least-explored ancient Near Eastern empires. So far, information about the palaces of the Mittani period has only been found in Tell Brak in Syria and in the cities of Nuzi and Alalach on the outskirts of the empire.”
Saddam may be gone, but instability remains – both in the dam and the region. This appears to be an important central palace of the Mittani Empire, and could help locate its capital, which has remained a mystery in an empire of mysteries.
Will the researchers be able to uncover the secrets of the Mittani Empire and outrace the instability of the governments and the dam? Cooperation will help. So will luck. And don’t forget the climate change that caused the drought.
Archeology is a complicated science.
Source: Mysterious Universe
“14 million years” old vehicle tracks discovered(Video)
Even if we have not found their tracks, there is an indeterminate number of civilizations scattered throughout the galaxy and the universe, and it would be feasible that, in the vicinity of our Earth there are some.
These civilizations could be in different phases of scientific, technological and social progress. Some just beginning their process, and others that have a breakthrough so spectacular that they have become travelers of the cosmos.
This is a controversial claim, since human civilization is only intended by conventional archaeologists to extend several thousand years, not millions of years. Not to mention the idea of a prehistoric civilization advanced enough to have space vehicles.
There are petrified wheel tracks found in several places, including parts of Turkey and Spain, and were supposedly left by heavy all-terrain vehicles dating back 12 to 14 million years ago.
The wheel tracks cross the faults formed in the middle and late Miocene period (approximately 12 to 14 million years ago), suggesting that they are older than those failures, Koltypin said on his website.
At that time, the soil would have been moist and soft, like a malleable clay. Large vehicles sank into the mud as they passed over it. Tire grooves at various depths suggest that the area eventually dried up.
Koltypin said the vehicles still drove over while drying, and did not sink so deeply.
The vehicles were similar in length to modern cars, but the tires were about 9 inches (23 centimeters) wide.
He said that the geological and archaeological works that contain information about these grooves are few and far between. Such references generally say that the tracks were left by cars pulled by donkeys or camels.
“I will never accept it,” he wrote of these explanations. “I myself will always remember … many other inhabitants of our planet wiped from our history.”
Koltypin argues that the tracks could not have been left by lightweight trucks or chariots, since the vehicles would have been much heavier to leave these deep impressions.
He has conducted many field studies in several places and extensively reviewed published studies on local geology. He hypothesizes that a road network extended over much of the Mediterranean more than 12 million years ago.
These complete roads would have been used by people who built underground cities like that in Cappadocia, Turkey, which, according to him, are also much older than those of conventional archeology.
Petrified wheel grooves have been found in Malta, Italy, Kazakhstan, France and even in North America, Koltypin said.
One of the main clusters is located in Sofca, Turkey, with tracks covering an area of approximately 45 by 10 miles (75 by 15 kilometers). Another is in Cappadocia, Turkey, where there are several pockets, one of which is 25 miles by 15 miles.
Conventional archaeologists attribute many of the clues to various civilizations in different periods of time. But Koltypin said it is not right to attribute identical roads, ruts and underground complexes to different eras and cultures.
Instead, he attributes them to a unique and widespread civilization in a distant era. Multiple tumultuous natural events, such as tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods and tectonic disturbances that have left large fractures in Earth, have removed much of the remains of this advanced prehistoric civilization, he said.
The surrounding underground cities, irrigation systems, wells and more, also show signs of being millions of years old, he said.
But, “without significant additional studies by large groups of archaeologists, geologists and folklore experts, it is impossible to answer the question… What do you think?
Laser technology reveals an Inca city “older than Machu Picchu”
Researchers have discovered new and fascinating information about an ancient settlement on the heights of the Peruvian Andes, which precedes the famous site of Machu Picchu.
Albert Lin, National Geographic explorer – in collaboration with archaeologists Adam Choqque Arce and Thomas Hardy – used a revolutionary technology known as LiDAR to discover the full extent of the city, which was inhabited by the Incas and the people that preceded them.
The settlement lies in an archeological zone known as Wat’a – which means “island” in the local indigenous language – and is located at an altitude of 3,962 meters, which is equivalent to 1,525 meters higher than Machu Picchu, considered the expression maximum of the ancient Inca civilization.
“Access is very difficult,” Lin explained, in an interview with Newsweek. “You have to climb almost four thousand meters until you reach an eminently clear landscape and, since there are not many trees there, the sun does not stop burning throughout the journey.”
“Once you get to the place you find a great view. The surrounding mountains are really splendid. And the settlement itself, at the top of the mountain, offers a clear perspective of the different valleys arranged along the commercial route; maybe even the site that one day would become Machu Picchu. ”
The settlement of Wat’a had already been explored with conventional archaeological methods, which brought to light evidence of tombs, ceremonial plazas, residential areas and a large surrounding wall.
However, the study with LiDAR – the first to use this technology in that place – helped archaeologists identify many other features hitherto unknown.
In essence, LiDAR allowed the team to “see through” the dense undergrowth and the abundant cacti that populate the summit. The technology uses instruments installed in airplanes – in this case, drones – that send hundreds of thousands of laser pulses per second to the ground.
The data produced is used to create detailed three-dimensional maps that detail the topography of the area, in addition to any ancient artificial structure that is imperceptible to the naked eye.
Among its findings, the team of explorers was able to identify the characteristic terraced design of the Incas, as well as circular structures often related to pre-Inca villages.
“Suddenly, we removed all the vegetation and the mountain became a kind of terrace, similar to that of Machu Picchu. We also observe other terraces that go up to the summit, although on a much smaller scale and with less detail, ”Lin added.
“The site gives you the feeling that the pre-Inca, and the Incas themselves … moved mountains.” Like other Peruvian sites, Wat’a is very interesting because the Incas built the city on a previous pre-Inca settlement.
The researchers also point out that the site could be a kind of template for Machu Picchu, built in the mid-fifteenth century. “The place is very inspiring, since you can imagine it as an evolutionary stage that finally led to Machu Picchu,” Lin concluded.
The program “Lost Cities with Albert Lin” is broadcast on the National Geographic channel. What’s your opinion about it? Leave your comment below.
Archaeological finds associated with the Jewish king Herod
In the vicinity of Hebron is an amazing man-made hill, more than once becoming a place that has kept a large number of historical mysteries. It is as if the unique remains of the royal palace and the ruins of the Byzantine monastery, sunk into the top of the hill, have attracted hundreds of archaeologists for many years with their mystery. These monuments are the embodiment of the amazing fantasy of King Herod the Great, to whom the famous evangelist Matthew attributed terrible atrocities.
King Herod was a truly architectural genius who created fantastic buildings. Such buildings 2 thousand years ago were not built either in Rome or its environs. Even modern architects are unlikely to create something like this. And it’s not strange that Herod’s grave was in the mound built by him. Rather, even in a volcano whose crater was built up by its summer palace. To find the mysterious tomb of this king took a lot of time and effort.
The senate hall exploded with applause when Ehud Nazer, the luminaries of the archaeological school of Israel announced his find. The search for the tomb of Judah began in 1972, but there was no grave at the foot of the hill and on top of it. Such a welcome archaeological find was discovered behind a recess in the wall. From there, archaeologists recovered the wreckage of an ancient sarcophagus made of fairly valuable red stone.
The sarcophagus itself, like the premises of the mausoleum, were destroyed, probably by those who wanted to settle accounts with the king even after his death. Judging by the fragments of fragments and chips, the building collapsed intentionally, and with great enthusiasm. Thirty-six years of the reign of King Herod were marked by bloody executions and murders. Modern historians have not come to a common solution to the question, for which it was the cruel king who killed innocent people.
He killed Antipath’s own son, more than forty members of the Sanhedrin, as well as his wife Miriam. Before his death, the king went mad and, decaying alive, on the day of his death, issued a decree to kill hundreds of members of famous Jewish families, so that there would be a cry in every house. They hated this king with such force that even the secret mausoleum built by him during his life failed to save his remains.
Another find made was associated with the name of Herod. In 2007, archaeologists discovered in the vicinity of Jerusalem an ancient quarry created during the reign of Herod the Great. It was possible to establish the date of the quarry thanks to the ancient fragments of ceramic dishes and coins found here. Such an accidental find allowed scientists to find out where all the same material was extracted for the construction of the Second Temple.
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