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Mysteries

Out Of This World? Mystery Of Prehistoric Stone Balls

There are few mysteriously formed stone balls known from around the globe. Where in the world did these spheres come from? Or did they even come from this world?

Ancient civilizations have endowed stone spheres with god-like characteristics. Many of the them have been elevated on plinths and worshipped as messengers from heaven. There have been several suggestions to attempt to explain the origin of the stone balls including ‘fell from heaven’ or formed in mysterious and possibly catastrophic natural events. If these object are manmade than why people were driven to produce stone balls on such a large scale ranging from symbols of wealth or status to geometric aids or because of their serene, harmonic beauty?

Here are few mysterious spheres from different parts of the world which became great archaeological enigma.

Out Of This World? Mystery Of Prehistoric Stone Balls

Picture ©Russian Arctic (Image Source)

Giant natural stone balls in Russia

Giant natural balls in the Franz Josef archipelago that leave scientists flummoxed. The huge stone balls up to two metres in height are found on appropriately-named Champ island above the polar circle. Perfectly spherical they are scattered all over this northern uninhabited outpost.

From the time they were first seen, visitors to this cosmic landscape named the round rocks ‘footballs of the Gods’, and at first it is hard to believe that they are natural and not made by man, or possibly giants. Yet the barren 374 km2 (144 sq miles) island was never inhabited and scientists are sure they are not artificial, even if they cannot agree how they were formed. Similar but smaller stone balls were found last year on Heiss island in the same archipelago.

Stone spheres in Costa Rica

Out Of This World? Mystery Of Prehistoric Stone Balls

Stone balls in the Terraba Plain. The Boruca region, Costa Rica. (Courtesy Doris Stone)

One of the strangest mysteries in archaeology was discovered in the Diquis Delta of Costa Rica. Since the 1930s, hundreds of stone balls have been documented, ranging in size from a few centimetres to over two meters in diameter. Some weigh 16 tons. Almost all of them are made of granodiorite, a hard, igneous stone. The stone balls of Costa Rica have been the object of numerous speculations regarding their origin, however scientist say these objects are monolithic sculptures made by human hands.

Out Of This World? Mystery Of Prehistoric Stone Balls

A Stone Sphere in Costa Rica © J. Stephen Conn

Stone balls are known from archaeological sites and buried strata hat have only pottery characteristic of the Aguas Buenas culture, whose dates range from ca. 200 BC to AD 800. Stone balls have reportedly been found in burials with gold ornaments whose style dates from after about AD 1000. The spheres number over 300. The large ones weigh many tons. Today, they decorate official buildings such as the Asamblea Legislativa, hospitals and schools. You can find them in museums. You can also find them as ubiquitous status symbols adorning the homes and gardens of the rich and powerful.

Carved stone balls from Scotland

Out Of This World? Mystery Of Prehistoric Stone Balls

Three Scottish examples, in Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow (Image Source)

Carved stone balls from Scotland are an enigmatic class of objects and they have been the subject of much speculation by scientists over the years.

Mysterious artefacts seem to date mainly to the Late Neolithic period (c. 3000 – 2500 BC), and are made of various stones ranging from sandstone to granite. They are all of a relative similar size and are decorated with carved evenly-spaced patterns of circular bosses or knobs around the surface of the sphere. The designs vary with the majority being based around a series of six bosses, but the number of bosses varies from 3-160. Some carved balls are more skilfully manufactured than others, and a rare few have additional decoration. All show an appreciation for symmetry in the design. Over 400 of these unique objects have been found, nearly all of them in the Scotland, with the majority found in Aberdeenshire, however, some samples were also discovered in Britain and Ireland.

Stone balls in Sierra de Ameca Jalisco, Mexico

Out Of This World? Mystery Of Prehistoric Stone Balls

Piedra Bola atop an earth pillar (Image Source)

In the middle of the forest surrounding the Piedra Bola mine a hundred strange stone balls can be found. They are almost perfectly spherical and range in diameter from about sixty cm to more than ten meters. These symmetrical boulders are unusually large. Some are buried, others partly or fully exposed. In some places, erosion of the surrounding rocks has left a sphere perched precariously atop narrow columns of softer rock, seemingly ready to topple in the next strong wind. These “hoodoos” or earth pillars have been formed as a result of water erosion and they may survive for centuries until the processes of sub-aerial weathering and erosion finally cause them to fall. The origin and purpose of the stone spheres is still unknown.

Stone sphere in Easter Island 

Out Of This World? Mystery Of Prehistoric Stone Balls

Ahu Te Pito Kura, the world’s navel, a perfectly round stone considered the world’s navel by the Rapa Nuians. Photo © Bjarte Sorensen (Image Source)

There is a carved stone sphere on Easter Isle at the northern coastal area of the island, just north of the statue quarry at the volcanic crater of Rano Raraku. The site, “Te pito kura” was most likely a ritual centre for the earliest islanders to pray and divine.

The islanders have a legend that the statues were moved by the use of mana, or mind power, and according to one legend, use was made of a finely crafted stone sphere, 75 cm (2.5 ft) in diameter, called te pito kura (‘the golden navel’ or ‘the navel of light’), to focus the mana.

Petrospheres from Bosnia

Out Of This World? Mystery Of Prehistoric Stone Balls

Stone balls in Teočak (Image Source)

There have been several reporting’s of Petrospheres from Bosnia, a country which has been in the limelight following claims of the discovery an ancient pyramid complex near Visoko in Bosnia Hertzogovnia. Although this has fuelled the idea that the Bosnian petrospheres are carved, all such claims have been refuted by geologists.

The largest site in Bosnia known for stone balls is the County Zavidovici, approx. 100 km north of Sarajevo. It is the first place in Europe which has established an “Archaeological Park of Stone Balls”. This site contains approx. 40 stone balls of enormous size, all of which are recognised as natural ‘concretions’.

Located near the town of Zavidovici , the giant sphere — the largest of a group of such objects — is partially sticking out from the ground, and according to archaeologist Sam Semir Osmanagich, who discovered the stone, it may have a very high iron content and weigh over 30 tons.

Chinese stone spheres Out Of This World? Mystery Of Prehistoric Stone Balls

Geological tests done on the region showed that it formed during the Cambrian period – about 500 million years ago. (Picture: AsiaWire) (Image Source)

A crew of road-builders unearthed the Chinese stone spheres, located in the Hunan Province, while digging the foundations for a new highway. The stones are of various sizes and are so numerous that the hill in which they were discovered was called a ‘stone egg mountain.’

The unusual mountain is located in the Gulu Zhai village, where the minority Shui People have lived for about 1,000 years. The ‘egg-laying cliff’, or ‘chan dan ya’ in Chinese, is an area measuring 20 metres long (66 feet) and six metres wide (20 feet) on an unnamed mountain in the village. ‘Stone eggs’ would reportedly grow from the cliff face and eventually drop to the ground.

Where did the Chinese ‘stone eggs’ come from? And why are they spherical? The difference in time it takes for each type of rock to erode has therefore been attributed to the appearance of the eggs, which comprise heavy sediment deposits, experts say. However, that still does not explain how the rocks appear in smooth round shapes, or how a half-a-billion-year-old geological region managed to contain a calcareous rock formation. Over the years, geologists in China have provided some possible explanations to the cause of the phenomenon. However, none official ones have been announced.

featured image ©Russian Arctic via Siberian Times 

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Mysteries

The origin of gold turned out to be a cosmic mystery

Astronomers calculated the origin of all chemical elements and wondered: where is there so much gold in the universe? The fact is that there are not enough known processes to explain the observed abundance of this precious metal.

Details are set out in a scientific article published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Astronomers believe that the earliest atomic nuclei appeared in the era of primordial nucleosynthesis, which began in the first seconds after the Big Bang and lasted several tens of minutes. At the same time, almost all the hydrogen available in the Universe was formed, a significant part of helium, a certain amount of lithium and an insignificant amount of beryllium and boron. All these chemical elements are light and are located at the very beginning of the periodic table.

The appearance of all the other atomic nuclei is somehow connected with the stars. New nuclei are formed in the bowels of all the stars without exception, as well as in the atmospheres of red giants, during supernova explosions and collisions of neutron stars.

What contribution does each of these processes make to the formation of certain chemical elements? This remains a matter of controversy.

The authors of the new study were the first to calculate the process of formation of all stable nuclei from carbon to uranium from first principles. This means that they solved the equations of nuclear physics in all their complexity, without resorting to simplifying assumptions.

These calculations made it possible to find out how much of this or that element is formed in a typical small star, in one supernova explosion, and so on. Based on this, scientists calculated the role of various celestial bodies and the events occurring with them in the huge chemical complex of the Universe.

The origin of various chemical elements in the periodic table according to a new study.  Illustration by Chiaki Kobayashi et al., Sahm Keily.

It turned out, for example, that small stars that do not explode like supernovae produce half of all carbon in the universe. The second half falls on massive luminaries that end their lives in a supernova explosion.

It is supernovae, according to the authors, that supply the universe with iron. Moreover, half of it falls on explosions of massive stars, and another half – on type Ia supernovae, that is thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs .

However, the most unusual result concerns gold. In previous studies, the origin of the noble metal was attributed to collisions of neutron stars. Now scientists have questioned this.

“Even the most optimistic estimates of the neutron-star collision rate simply cannot explain the apparent abundance of this element in the universe,” says co-author Amanda Karakas of Monash University in Australia. “It came as a surprise.”

However, astronomers already have their own version of the origin of gold. They speculate that the problem is in supernovae of an unusual type. Explosions of very massive stars with strong magnetic fields could provide space with the observed amount of gold, experts say.

At the same time, the authors do not deny the contribution of collisions of neutron stars to the synthesis of other chemical elements .

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Mysteries

Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi desert

Is this part of China’s classified space program or another Chinese surprise?

For the first time, mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert, which is located in China, near the border with Mongolia, were seen in 2011. Seen, as is often the case in this century, using Google Earth. The program does not comment on the signs in any way, and no official reports from the Chinese government about exercises or tests in the Gobi Desert have followed.

There are several mysterious patterns, and each next one is even more mysterious than the previous one. Judge for yourself.

City models?

These two patterns resemble streets, only without houses, cars and shawarma stalls – in general, without everything that we are used to on the streets. Perhaps these street models were made in order to test weapons “in the city”. Then why not build houses? Or have the weapons already been tested, and this is all that remains of the “cities”?

Photo # 1 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert
Photo # 2 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Destroyed car park?

In this picture, those with an inquisitive mind and keen eyesight will make out destroyed cars. But why are they here? Perhaps they participated in weapons tests. Or is it just a warehouse of disused vehicles? But then why do we need large squares in the picture?

Photo # 3 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Runways?

Of course, this is the first thing that comes to mind. And the most logical thing, even if there is no hint of airplanes in this picture. Okay, let’s say these are really runways. But why then is the right stripe so defiantly glowing?

Photo # 4 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Chinese Stonehenge?

The most mysterious pattern of all. A circular one, consisting of stones or small structures, in the center of the pattern at the time of shooting there are three planes. Anyone who has flown an airplane at least once cannot help but wonder: where is the runway? Indeed, if this is a kind of air base, then where is the runway?

After the images were released, The Telegraph spoke with defense expert Tim Ripley. He authoritatively stated that the circular pattern resembles a test site for jet weapons, something similar he saw at Area 51 in Nevada.

Photo # 5 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

Since the images with the mysterious signs were published, the Chinese government has not bothered to reveal the purpose of these objects. (It did work to block Google Earth in China, but it did not work.) Moreover, in 2018, another mysterious pattern was discovered not far from the patterns listed above.

The new pattern was studied in detail in a video with the explanatory title “No one can still explain what was found in the Gobi Desert.” This time we are talking about cross “runways” surrounded by incomprehensible glowing circles, vaguely resembling an infinity sign.

Photo # 6 - Mysterious signs in the middle of the Gobi Desert

According to the author of the video, if these are runways, then they have never been used. In addition, there are several dozen structures next to the runway that look abandoned. And here is the video itself:

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Mysteries

What secrets are kept by the stones of pharaohs and kings

One of the most beloved topics of the yellow press of the last century was the scary tale of precious stones, a typical example of which is the story of the “curse of the Hope diamond.”

It was a beautiful blue diamond with a purple tint and looked something like this: The modern history of the stone began in the 17th century in India, where it was somehow obtained by the jeweler Jean Baptiste Tavernier. He brought the stone to France, where he sold it to King Louis XIV, after which Louis fell from the slope, injured his leg, got sepsis and died, and Jean Bastist himself had been eaten by dogs before that.

The next owner of the stone was Louis XV, who presented it to Madame de Montespan. After a couple of months, the king lost interest in Madame and she moved to a monastery, where she died. The king returned the gift and passed it on to Marie Antoinette, who was soon executed by fiery French revolutionaries. With this pebble in the pendant, she ascended the scaffold.

What happened to the revolutionary Jacques who stole the stone is unknown, most likely he died or was eaten alive by lice, but in 1813 the stone appeared in a jewelry store in London, where the Englishman Henry Francis Hope bought it – he began to show everyone the diamond, so he entered into history as the “Hope Diamond”.

But, as you might expect, Hope glued the flippers together and gave the diamond to his heir, Lord Francis Hope, who presented it to his bride. After that, the lord went bankrupt and was forced to descend to the plebeian hotel business, but his very first hotel burned down with his wife.

Then the stone was sawed and sold to new owners. One of them was American Evelyn Wolls McClynn. After that, her son died in a car accident, her husband ended up in an insane asylum, and Evelyn herself also went a little crazy and died. The second owners made it to America unsuccessfully, because they chose the Titanic as a means of travel.

Approximately the same fairy tale surrounds many famous stones. The balance with the bulldo in these fairy tales does not always converge, since the tales are invented by journalists for the money of jewelers: when the public learns that someone died from the stone, this leads to incredible enthusiasm and everyone rushes to look at the miracle, allowing the jeweler to make money out of thin air. However, these tales are based on the truth.

In particular, Hope’s diamond was stolen from the temple of the Indian goddess Sita, where it somehow decorated a statue. The energy of the stone was monstrous – sensitive people who took it in their hands sometimes fainted and then they were tormented by nightmarish visions for months.

But Sita was definitely out of business there. The topic was Indian priests who used temples and statues to collect energy from the flock: pilgrimage went to the temple for decades, prayed to one or another deity, and as a receiving matrix, the deity had a stone in its forehead or two stones in its eyes.

Then, when the stone was pumped up, it was replaced with a new one, and the old one began to be used in rituals. In particular, it could be presented to your own or a neighboring king in order to vacate the throne as soon as possible – the ruler who accepted such a gift would immediately die under certain circumstances.

In general, the magic of stones is a complex and poorly studied topic. Some people seem to be doing it, blowing some “secret knowledge” into the ears of adepts. Nevertheless, there seem to be some very interesting developments in the topic.

We will not compose an introduction to modern and, most likely, not very correct views of quantum mechanics, but in general terms we will recall and clarify. An electron in an atom rotates in two directions, as it were: on the one hand, it rotates around the nucleus (orbital angular momentum), on the other, around its axis (spin).

Therefore, if, in theory, you learn to change either the spin of an electron of a single atom, or the angular momentum, then the atom can be used as a cell for storing a unit of information.

The idea, of course, is quite crazy, but, as scitechdaily writes with reference to the just published scientific work, researchers from the Delft University of Technology managed, using a scanning tunneling microscope, to first capture an individual iron atom, then plant it astride a nitrogen atom, after what the orbital angular momentum of some of the electrons of the outer cloud has changed for the iron atom. Thus, an eternal unit cell of information was created:

Of course, experimenters are still quite a long way from creating a full-fledged storage ring – nevertheless, the direction of work is interesting. Most likely, they will not be able to write data to the atoms of crystals soon, but the technology for reading them already exists. And this opens up interesting perspectives.

If the guys from the Delft University of Technology came up with the idea of ​​writing data into the atoms of the crystal, then the guys who lived long before them probably came to the same idea, and given the antediluvian technologies of the builders of magalitic structures, the idea was most likely implemented in practice. Therefore, many stones may turn out to be something like ancient flash drives that contain a lot of information about the ancient world. Perhaps that is why all the rulers collect stones with terrible power.

In addition, pebbles around which jewelers have created aura of horror stories, pebbles from places of worship of various kinds, and so on are also of interest. All these objects carry some kind of information that is inaccessible to analog devices. But now, when the technology appears that allows us to consider various rubies and diamonds as a digital massif, pebbles can tell a lot about the real story, and about the role of people in this story, and about the outside world in general.

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