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Oak Island Pit Mystery

by Capers Jones

One of the most curious human-caused mysteries of the past 300 years is the famous “Oak Island Pit” (aka The Money Pit of Oak Island) which has never been fully explained or fully explored, in spite of almost a dozen well-funded excavation attempts using fairly sophisticated equipment and professional engineers.

What has been found is an extremely sophisticated civil engineering project involving multiple lateral tunnels hundreds of feet long that feed sea water into a deep bore tunnel below a depth of about 90 feet.

Oak Island is a small island of about 140 acres off the coast of Nova Scotia in Mahone Bay. An image of Oak Island is shown below. The causeway in the lower left was built to allow excavation equipment to reach the island.

OakIsland_satIn 1795 a young man or teenager named Daniel McGinnis found a circular depression under a tree and a block and tackle on a branch above the depression.   With several friends they began to dig into the depression. They found a layer of flagstones a few feet below the surface and then a layer of logs at about 10 feet. The young men continued but stopped digging at 30 feet. They found another layer of logs but no bottom and nothing else.   They left the pit partly covered and nothing more happened for several years.


In 1803 a larger group with began to excavate again, funded by a man named Simeon Lynds. This was a group called The Onslow Company. This group also found layers of logs, and reportedly a stone slab with some kind of symbols on it:

OakIsland_stoneThe original slab has gone missing, so the picture above is only a replica of uncertain authenticity.

This second group reached a depth of 93 feet and found the bottom getting muddy. Using a crow bar that they stuck in the mud they found what seemed to be a stone cover or slab at perhaps 96 feet, underneath the mud. This cover seemed to be about the diameter of the shaft. Since it was late in the day they stopped and planned to dig to the cover the following morning.

In the morning they found that the pit had 63 feet of water in it. The group tried to dig a second pit nearby but it filled with also, so they gave up.

Nothing much happened until 1849 when another group, the third, tried to excavate the original pit. This group was able to drill through the stone floor at about the 96 foot level and reportedly brought up a few links of a gold chain.

This third group found that the water in the pit was salty and went up and down with the tides. They explored the edges of the island and found a surprisingly sophisticated water trap.   At a place called Smiths Cove about 500 feet from the pit were five stone water traps with coconut fibers and eel grass to filter the water. The five pipes came together into a single pipe leading into the pit.

Since coconut trees obviously do not grow in Canada this finding indicates a tropical location for some of the engineering gear. Interestingly, carbon dating showed the age of the coconut fibers to be between 1200 and 1400 AD. This does not mean that the pit was dug so early, because coconut logs and fibers might have been stored somewhere for perhaps hundreds of years before being transported to Oak Island. Even so the age of the coconut is an interesting mystery.

The group tried to divert water away from the pit and even built a coffer dam to keep water away from Smiths Cove, but the pit remained filled with water. This group ran out of money in 1851 and stopped excavation.

In 1861 a fourth attempt was made to reach the bottom of the pit by a group called the Oak Island Association. This group tried to pump the water out of the pit with steam pumps. But unfortunately a boiler exploded killing one worker and injuring several more.

The pumps could not remove water as fast as it was entering the pit. In 1864 this fourth group also ran out of money and stopped.

There were additional attempts in 1866, 1893, 1909, 1931, and 1936. None of them found the bottom of the pit but they did discover a second water pipe feeding water into the pit at about the 153 foot depth level. This pipe came from the opposite side of the island rather than Smiths Cove. The combined digging of all these groups made such a mess that the exact location of the original tunnel became obscured.

The Oak Island Treasure Company, the 1893 group, claimed to have found a vault at about the 150 foot depth. The vault was stated to be seven feet by seven feet and when drilled seemed to contain soft metal. The drill bit when withdrawn had a piece of parchment with the characters “VI” printed in ink. Other groups have not found any vaults.

One interesting historical note about the 1909 attempt: This was a group called The Old Gold Salvage Group and one of its members was future president Franklyn Delano Roosevelt. Roosevelt kept up an interest in Oak Island for as long as he lived. Shown below is a picture of this group with the young Roosevelt third from the right:

OldGoldSalvageGroupThis picture was taken on Oak Island circa 1909 long before Roosevelt developed polio in 1921 at the age of 39. Roosevelt is third from the right, wearing a white shirt, and smoking a pipe.

President Roosevelt is not the only famous person interested in Oak Island. The actors Errol Flynn and John Wayne also had an interest, and Wayne was reportedly part owner of one of the excavation groups.

In 1959 a group headed by Robert Restall and his son attempted excavations, only to find tragedy instead. Restall’s team was building a shaft to stop the water entering from Smiths Cove when the tragedy struck.

Restall’s son found his father unconscious in the bottom of the shaft at the 27 foot level and went to help, only to become unconscious himself. Three more workmen attempting to help also passed out. A visitor, Edmund White, who was a fireman suspected carbon monoxide poisoning from a pump engine. White had a rope tied to his waist to pull him up and was able to save one of the workmen, but the other four died before they could be removed from the shaft. After these deaths rumors began to occur about the “Oak Island curse.”

In 1965 a man named Robert Dunfield built the causeway to the mainland and brought over heavy equipment including a 70-foot digging crane. Dunfield attempted open-pit mining and dug a hole about 100 feet in diameter and 140 feet deep. He found a few porcelain shards but no treasure. Heavy rains slowed down the work and added to the cost, and eventually Dunfield ran out of money.

In 1970 another group called the Triton Alliance attempted a different approach of drilling a number of bore holes and sending down cameras. Apparently there are natural caves under Oak Island. Reportedly there were pictures taken of chests, but this is uncertain. An image from the web shows what all of these groups found between 1795 and 1970:

1804_MoneyPitOf course this image is a composite of indirect findings and not the result of a single excavation.

In 1995 the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute did a survey of Oak Island. They found three natural tunnels in the area of the pit, and concluded that the flooding might have been due to natural causes rather than man-made water tunnels. The tunnels were found by using red dye which later was seen around the edges of the island in three places. Of course that does not explain the coconut fibers. Neither does it explain the layers of logs found in the pit itself, that clearly were placed their during the construction of the pit.

Between 1795 and today about a dozen formal attempts have been made to excavate the Oak Island pit, without finding anything more than perhaps a few gold links, a piece of parchment, a stone with carved symbols, an anchor, an axe, and some ceramic pieces. While digging tools such as a pick have also been found, they are more likely to have been left by some of the more recent excavators rather than the by the original crew.

After abour 230 years of attempted excavation that cost more than $20,000,000, involved more than 500 people, and cost six lives the Oak Island pit remains a mystery as to its origins and purpose and who constructed it.

Based merely on the depth of the pit and the dimensons of the tunnels and the sophistication of the water traps, it can be assumed that the pit complex was designed by one or more very capable civil engineers. Probably at least 100 workmen were involved in digging the pit and the water traps over a period of at least two years. In fact since Nova Scotia has long winters with snow and freezing weather, the construction of the pit may have taken more than two years due to the short outdoor work season when the ground was not frozen or snow covered.

This Oak Island pit was not a minor effort and probably exceeded the engineering skills of pirates such as Blackbeard and Captain Kidd. The Oak Island pit is a very sophisticated civil engineering project. The pit has been the subject of several books and even television shows such as one on the History Channel. A search on Amazon will turn up at least six books about the Oak Island pit.

In addition to the pit itself Oak Island also had what appeared to be a construction in the shape of a cross involving nine large stones. Whether these stones are related to the pit or were made by Native Americans is unknown. Some of the stones had drill holes about two inches deep and over an inch in diamter, for unknown purposes.

There are many hypotheses about who built the Oak Island pit and what it was built for. Some of these provide fascinating glimpses into history. Following are some of the theories as to the pit’s origins:

  • One theory holds that the pit was dug by the crew of Blackbeard the pirate. Blackbeard was heard to boast that he had an underground treasure trove that could never be discovered.
  • One theory holds that the pit was dug by Captain Kidd, another pirate, although he did not spend much time in Nova Scotia. (President Roosevelt’s camp on Oak Island was called “Camp Kidd” after this pirate.)
  • One theory holds that the pit was used to hide the missing jewels of Marie Antoinette and was built by the French Navy. These jewels went missing from Versailles in 1791 and may have been taken from France by one of Marie Antoinette’s maids.
  • One theory holds that the Pit was built by the French army to hold treasures from the Fortress of Louisberg after it was taken by the British in the Seven Year’s War. The idea was to keep the treasure away from the British.
  • One theory holds that the pit was built by British Army engineers to hide treasure seized from the capture of Havana, Cuba in 1762. The Earl of Albemarle is cited in this theory.
  • One theory holds that the pit was constructed by Knights Templar and holds not only their treasure but perhaps the Holy Grail and the Ark of the Covenant as well. Leaders of this order were arrested in 1307 and order dissolved in 1312. It was a wealthy order that provided banking services for much of Europe. Quite a lot of Templar treasure seems to have been spirited away and remains undiscovered; some of it may allegedly have been taken to Scotland and protected by the Sinclair family.
  • One theory holds that the pit was constructed by the Scottish Earl of Sinclair who allegedly visited America in 1398 (see the picture of the Westford Knight in the section on the Newport Tower). Sinclair was allegedly a secret Knight Templar and hence might have had some of the missing Templar treasure, although this is denied by the modern Sinclair family. In fact the whole Sinclair trip to America is denied by Sinclair’s descendants. However there is a placque in Nova Scotia that asserts that Henry Sinclair discovered America and it is claimed that he visited Nova Scotia, which is where Oak Island is located. There is also a Prince Henry society in Canada. It is an interesting coincidence that the Prince Henry theory coincides with the approximate age of the coconut fibers used to filter the water traps leading to the pit.
  • One theory holds that the pit was constructed by Masons due to what is claimed to be various Masonic symbols on the island and around the pit. Why the Masons would want to dig such a pit in unknown; unless as alleged Prince Henry Sinclair was a Mason.
  • One very unlikely theory holds that the pit was built by Francis Bacon to hide documentary proof that he wrote Shakespeare’s plays. This is due to finding a piece of parchment with “VI” written on it in ink. This theory seems embarrasingly off base.
  • One theory holds that the pit was built by Native Americans, probably the Micmac tribe who lived nearby. If so what it was built for is unknown since large deep pits are not common constructions among Native American groups.
  • One theory holds that the pit is a natural sink hole and not of human construction at all. There are in fact natural caves and tunnels under Oak Island. However enough artifacts have been found in and near the pit to indicate that humans did build at least portions of the pit even if it is a natural sink hole.

Considering the amount of money spent excavating the pit it is unfortunate that the excavations have been so haphazard and done so much environmental damage to the area. At this point it is probably not possible to separate the original construction from the work of dozens of later excavation attempts.

As of 2014 much of Oak Island is privately owned and the government of Nova Scotia requires permits to dig for treasure. Some digging continues in 2014 but apparently is no closer to finding out the purpose of the pit as previous crews. Oak Island remains a curious puzzle that has attracted a great deal of interest for almost 220 years.

Copyright 2014 by Capers Jones






Starlite: a mysterious material whose recipe was taken to the grave

Enthusiasts continue to struggle with the riddle of the unique material, the creator of which died without revealing the secret recipe.

At the dawn of the 1990s, reports began to appear in the world media about the creation of a new plastic material that could withstand heating to incredible temperatures – up to those that develop during a fire or on the shell of a spacecraft when passing through the atmosphere. Such statements were very embarrassing for scientists also because the author of the find was a man without a diploma or any formal education at all – the British hairdresser Maurice Ward.

Starlite – this name was invented by the granddaughter of Maurice Ward – was repeatedly tested by NASA as a possible heat insulator, the military and large corporations looked closely at it. The author did not refuse to provide samples for research, but he kept the recipe in complete secret, not sharing it with anyone – until 2011, when Maurice died, taking this secret with him. Perhaps thanks to this twist, the plot did not disappear into oblivion along with Petrik filters and other “miracle inventions”, and the history of the mysterious Starlite continues to this day.

According to Ward himself (by the way, his personal blog and YouTube channel survived on the Internet), he was prompted to search for fire-resistant material by a television report, from which he learned that many victims of fires die from poisoning by the caustic smoke of burning plastic. Previously, the hairdresser dabbled in the search for his own shampoo recipes, but around 1986 he completely devoted himself to a new venture. Three years later, the composition was found – and, of course, it turned out to be incredibly simple and included the most common store ingredients.

It was not easy for the “genius upstart” to break through, and over the next few years he pounded the thresholds of laboratories and companies without any benefit. Fate smiled only in 1993, when a message about Starlite was published in the authoritative International Defense Review. It referred to “amazing results” from some of the independent experts who tested Starlite. According to some reports, the material did not burn at temperatures up to 10,000 ° C and was not supplied even by a high-power laser.

Moreover, in the same 1993, the incredible thermal insulation properties of Starlite were demonstrated to the public. On the Air Force show Tomorrow’s World, a chicken egg coated with a thin layer of this material was sprayed with the heat of a gas burner for several minutes, after which it was shown that it remained raw inside. It would seem that the deed is done: it remains to find out which of the industrial giants will be interested in the invention and from whom Ward will be able to get legitimate millions, if not billions of dollars for the miracle recipe. The prospects for its use in engineering and construction were discussed. In 1994, the material was tested at Boeing as an alternative to space shuttle thermal insulation ceramics.

It is worth saying that Maurice Ward has always shown a certain paranoia about the security of his invention. As far as is known, he refused any projects in which he could not maintain a controlling 51 percent. The inventor personally monitored all samples that were submitted for testing, making sure that no one had the opportunity to reconstruct the Starlite composition. Ward also did not file a patent so as not to reveal the secret formula and repeatedly announced attempts to steal. The story that took place in the late 1990s is characteristic. It is known that at this time the inventor found partners from Canada and organized a startup Starlite Safety Solutions, which presented the results of material tests to investors. However, according to those same partners, Maurice Ward turned out to be completely incapable of negotiating – “the more he was offered, the more he asked for”

On the one hand, Ward is understandable. If the author’s statements are accurate, the find could be worth billions, which no corporation likes to share. On the other hand, Starlite could well change the modern world and save many lives, and perhaps doing so was not entirely ethical. Again, if all statements about the properties of this material are true. And this is its main mystery.

Indeed, despite all the doubts of many observers, there is enough authoritative evidence in favor of Starlite every now and then. Thus, Joe Kissell, who wrote about him in 2009, received a letter from Pamela Pohling-Brown, who authored the same article in the International Defense Review. She in every possible way confirmed the reliability of the results presented then and even named the expert who conducted the testing. 

“I’m afraid the topic is somehow classified,” summed up Pauline-Brown. By the way, Ward’s former partners from Canada hinted at the same. It turns out that there is still something to hide?

Maurice Ward has repeatedly stated that, fearing theft, he never even wrote down the recipe on paper, and keeps it in his head – fortunately, it is quite simple. According to him, the secret has been entrusted to only a few closest family members – however, they have not shown much activity since the death of the inventor in 2011. In 2013, two of Ward’s daughters announced the sale of a “certain version” of Starlite to the American company Thermashield, but the third said that she had kept the “best” formula. And since then nothing has been heard about Thermashield, and the company’s website has not been revoked.

But there are plenty of hypotheses and speculations about the composition of Starlite. They find the main clues all in the same publication by Pamela Pauline-Brown, where the following was said.

 “It consists of a set of organic polymers and copolymers with organic and inorganic additives, including borates, small amounts of ceramics and other barrier ingredients, for a total of 21. Perhaps uniquely, this thermally and explosion-proof material contains up to 90 percent organic matter.”

Armed with this data, yet another “genius self-taught” reproduced the recipe. Canadian Troy Hurtubise, known for developing the bear-repelling suit – and for testing inventions on himself – said he found the same or a similar recipe and demonstrated it under the name Firepaste. However, in 2014 he died in a car accident – as if the material really surrounds the halo of special operations.

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Forbidden places of the world: where people are not allowed – and what does it have to do with snakes and UFOs

It’s hard to believe, but in the 21st century there are blank spots on the maps. Or is it better to call them black?

The reasons for such prohibitions are different: in these places ancient secret books and sacred artifacts are kept, poisonous snakes live there, scientific laboratories and rock paintings are hidden there, which cannot be seen by anyone.

Snake Island – Captains Bypass

Just 35 kilometers off the coast of Brazil, there is a picturesque island called Queimada Grande. Tourists often ask to stop the ship in order to get off on this piece of land drowned in lush greenery, it beckons to itself.

Snake Island

But this never happens: the captains strictly observe the prohibitions. The fact is that this piece of paradise is teeming with poisonous snakes, and a few steps on land are enough to die from a fatal bite. The authorities banned visiting this island not only for the safety of people, but also for the safety of reptiles: many snakes are rare species.

Poveglia Island – Eerie Deaths and Restless Souls

Nobody wants to get to Poveglia Island, located in Italy: this is a very dark and mysterious place. 

In the 18th century, Italy was literally mowed down by a terrible plague epidemic. In order to somehow protect people, all infected were taken to a reservation set up on Poveglia Island. More than 150 thousand patients died there.

Poveglia Island

And then, already in the twentieth century, a psychiatric hospital was built here. It was rumored that doctors carried out inhuman experiments on unhealthy people, and many Italians are convinced that the souls of thousands of those who died forever remained here, on a terrible island. 

According to research results, the soil on Povelje is 50% human remains.

Lascaux cave – people are harmful to ancient rock paintings!

In 1940, archaeologists discovered a unique cave in France, the age of which was determined to be 17 thousand years. This is the oldest known caves on the planet, and inside it is decorated with numerous rock paintings.

Lasko cave

Have you already wanted to go to France and see this miracle with your own eyes? Will not work. The cave was closed for visits and mothballed after it was discovered: under the influence of carbon dioxide, precious specimens of ancient rock art began to deteriorate quickly, they were destroyed by a fungus.

And to console the lovers of antiquities, an artificial copy was arranged nearby – Lasko-2, where exactly the same drawings flaunt on the walls.

The Vatican Library is a secret archive for a very narrow circle

In the secret library archives of the Vatican, about 45 thousand books and other documents are collected. What is not here – and letters sent to the Pope from Michelangelo, and Galileo’s manuscripts, and documents left by the ancient Order of the Templars …

No one will tell you the whole truth about the funds of this treasure. It is believed that ancient documents are hidden here, which contain information about the origin of Christianity on Earth. It is quite possible, because the first manuscripts that appeared at the disposal of the Vatican date back to the 4th century. They were collected in the archives, and centuries later, in 1475, the Vatican Apostolic Library was founded.

Who can get here? Very few people: the Pope himself and his entourage, as well as (with his written permission) some scientists and researchers.

Mormon warehouse 

Not far from the American city of Salt Lake City, Granite Mountain is located, in which a tunnel has been cut, extending almost 200 meters deep into the mountain. There, behind massive doors that weigh 15 tons, under round-the-clock armed protection, the most incredible documents are stored in a secret bunker: information about the family tree of Jesus Christ, allegedly information about his relatives and descendants … These data are very approximate, to say exactly which artifacts can be found in the Mormon vault, no one can. They say that, in addition to the secret storage, secret laboratories are equipped in the depths of the mountain. 

Spy Museum – no move to anyone but the Chinese

The Spy Museum, located in northern China, is not a forbidden place: anyone can get into it. True, only if this person is Chinese. The exposition is not intended for foreigners. There is no need for them to see all those miniature cameras, microscopic pistols and unique caches! The Chinese carefully guard their secrets.

Gold Vault in London – one-fifth of the world’s gold reserves are collected here

The vault of the UK Central Bank does hold 20% of the world’s gold reserves. It is impossible to imagine this amount of gold: there are 5,134 tons of it! If you translate that into dollars, you get almost 250 billion.

Gold vault in London

Needless to say, the bank vault is carefully guarded. Only a few can get here – authorized bank employees.

Area 51 – aliens are investigated here

In the United States, 130 kilometers from the city of Las Vegas, a military base was once built. In addition to the usual functions, it also performs research. They say that it was in the local laboratories that aliens who crashed on their own plate in the 90s were studied. True, the US officials denied these rumors, but how could one expect confirmation?

Area 51

The American government generally preferred not to mention Area 51 until recently. According to the official version, aircraft are tested here. But for some reason, access is prohibited here, and the airspace above the base and the surrounding area is closed.

Bohemian Grove – either a world conspiracy, or just a closed men’s club

This is the name of a nature reserve in a California paradise. A person “from the street” cannot get here. Bohemian Grove is a meeting place for the most influential people in the world. It periodically attracts politicians, businessmen, even some artists – from the “initiates”.

Bohemian grove

There is so much talk about this community! They talk about “world government”, about strange and terrible rituals, even about sacrifices.

And some of these legends have a foundation. There is a documentary film that was filmed by two American journalists: they managed to get into a protected grove and filmed one of the rituals during which the symbol of the club, the giant Owl, is worshiped and sacrifices are made to it. The journalists suggested that the members of the closed club belong to the Freemasons or Satanists.

However, most of their calculations are just speculation. Perhaps, in the Bohemian Grove, influential men, tired of bearing the burden of responsibility, are gathering, seeking to rest away from annoying problems? 

Metro 2 is the secret underground for the government

Did you know that there is another “floor” under the Moscow metro? It is called “Metro 2”, and this line has remained a secret for a long time. Its existence first became known from the report of the US Department of Defense, which was published in 1991.

The information was later confirmed by Vladimir Shevchenko – “a person close to the emperor”: he was the head of the protocol service during the times of Gorbachev and Yeltsin.

This classified facility was built under Stalin’s personal supervision. Some government locations are connected via Metro 2 to Vnukovo Airport. It is clear that a branch begins under the Kremlin. According to some reports, Metro 2 has several levels and reaches a depth of 250 meters.

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Ferry “Estonia” sank after collision with unknown object

© athanasopoulos andreas / Shutterstock

For a long time, the ferry “Estonia” was considered sank due to a strong roll and overturning, which led to the death of more than 800 people. Now it turns out that all this is a lie and the ship was destroyed from a collision with a certain object that rammed the “Estonia”, which led to the end of the ferry.

New circumstances of the sinking of the ferry “Estonia”

The team that created a documentary film about the disaster of the ferry “Estonia” for the Discovery TV channel, while diving to the remains of the ship, found a four-meter hole in the hull, which was previously partially hidden by the seabed, Postimees writes.

“It cannot be ruled out that damage played a role in the sinking,” said Jorgen Amdahl, professor of marine technology at the Norwegian University of Engineering and Science, in the new documentary series “Estonia – a find that will change everything”, which aired today on the Discovery streaming platform. in the Nordic countries. The footage of the hole in the ship’s hull was taken by a robotic diver. The find may confirm the theory that the accident was provoked not only by the tearing off of the visor: there was a hole in the ship’s hull, which accelerated the sinking of the Estonian. The authorities of the countries involved in the investigation of the disaster have previously denied this, Aftonbladet reported.

The place where the wreckage of the “Estonia” lies is clayey, so over the years the vessel has shifted, as a result of which places that were not visible before became visible, where the film crew found a hole.

The film crew began their dives at the bow, going first along the backboard, where they discovered two holes that were cut in the hull by the Norwegian diving company Rockwater in December 1994.

When moving with the underwater robot towards the starboard side in the film, you can hear journalist and director Hendrik Evertsson saying that the ship’s roll there is 130 degrees.

The camera moves on and first rests on the sand and rocks that were installed around the wreck in 1996. Then a hole in the ship’s hull is opened in front of the film crew – under the last letter of the inscription “Estline”. The crew estimated the height of the hole at four meters, and the width at 1.2 meters at its widest point.

The damage to the hull of the ferry is in the place where the cabins were on the other side of the wall. Among other things, the footage shows a hand towel sticking out of the hole.

After discussing the causes of the hole with experts, the film crew came to the conclusion that the explosion could not cause such damage in the ship’s hull. Norwegian Navy Captain Frank Burrsen, who takes part in demining operations and teaches at a naval educational institution and has studied the effects of explosives on ships, told the film crew after reviewing footage of the Estonian wreck that an explosion was unlikely there.

“It is characteristic here that it is very elongated,” he said of the hole captured on the video, and based on the drawings made. – It is clearly visible that the side of the ship is pushed inward. If you compare with the pictures of explosions, you can see from them that the metal usually bends. “

According to him, the damage to the ship’s hull creates the impression that this hole was knocked out there: “I cannot rule out an explosion. But it seems unlikely that it was. “

Experts assumed that this was an external force: a large object that crashed into the hull of the “Estonia”, punctured it and damaged the metal structural gaskets inside the ship.

The visor could not have caused the hole

According to Professor Amdahl, who focuses on investigating collisions between ships and platforms, external damage appears to be a very logical explanation for the breach.

“It seems that the paint has been peeled off, or perhaps by a body impact of one kind or another. External influence. The question one might ask ourselves is how this could have happened. What was the reason? ” – he reasons.

Amdal believes that there are many versions of how the hole originated in the ship’s hull: “Maybe it got hit by something in the water. It could also be a visor. On the visor itself, I would guess marks if it hit the side. “

But after reviewing the footage taken around the raised visor, the professor noted that there was no damage to it, which would indicate a collision with the ship’s hull.

He said that it was possible to calculate very accurately what the force would have to be to cause such damage to the hull of the ship, and on the basis of this it was possible to assume what mass the object had collided with: “This needs to be studied more carefully.

According to Amdahl’s calculations, “Estonia” was hit with a force corresponding to a mass of 500-600 tons. For comparison, he gave an example of how such an impact would have been made, for example, by a fishing boat weighing 1,000 tons, moving at a speed of four knots, or a 5,000-ton vessel at a speed of 1.9 knots.

Since no ships of this size were seen on the night of September 28, 1994, according to the professor, the only possible vessel that Estonia could collide with was a submarine, some of which weigh less than a ton, and some weigh several tons.

“It is also possible that a rock or something from the seabed hit the vessel,” he added, but the clayey seabed in the area where the ferry was destroyed speaks against this.

To find out what Estonia is facing, according to Amdal, now it is necessary to thoroughly analyze the testimony of witnesses.

Explosions after midnight

In many documentaries, the survivors of the tragedy recall that before the sinking of the “Estonia” they felt as if the ship had collided with something. “A little after midnight, two very strong bangs were heard,” Anders Erisson described what was happening in the fifth part of the documentary.

According to the recollections of Karl Erik Reintamm, it was as if a ferry was making its way through the ice.

He was one of the first passengers to be evacuated from the Estonian: “When I got off the ship, I did not see a single person. There was no one where I stood. I was one of the first. I saw nothing strange in the water, except for something white, several meters long. It went to the left, and the waves covered it. “

He cannot explain what he saw:

“I have never served in the army, I have no idea what submarines look like in the water. It was dark. I have no idea if a submarine might look lighter than water. But the ferry clearly ran into something, otherwise how else can you explain the sound that the ship is driving on ice? “

This summer, footage from the wreckage of “Estonia” showed some of the survivors of the disaster, their relatives and people associated with the investigation of the disaster, among whom were the former Estonian leading public prosecutor and member of the investigation commission for the death of “Estonia” Margus Kurm and a former member of the investigation commission. mechanical scientist Jaan Metsaveer.

It needs to be investigated

“It is not known where this hole came from,” Metsaveer said after reviewing the footage. – It really is something that arose from the outside. And they did not know about this before, this is really a discovery. Why this was not discovered earlier, I cannot say. “

Kurm, after talking with the film crew, called the findings that change the whole thing:

“I believe that after that the Estonian government will not be able to do nothing. It’s just impossible.”

In August, the footage was viewed by adviser to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Mart Luik and adviser to the Minister of Justice Kalle Muuli.

In the documentary, Luik noted that what he saw requires an investigation of the issue, since it is difficult to say at once what exactly he saw and what to think about it. “The main problem, of course, is that the three countries have agreed that they will not dive and shoot,” he added, assuring that in cooperation with experts it will be decided what steps should be taken in the future. The Swedish media reported just today, citing Estonian newspapers, that the Estonian Prime Minister had discussed the ferry issue with his Swedish counterpart Stefan Löfmen last week.

Lars Engström, a former member of the Swedish parliament and member of the Defense Commission, has long advised the government to investigate the causes of Estonia’s disaster more deeply.

“This is new information that fully confirms the widespread criticism of the flooding explanations and investigation,” he told the TT news agency. “Now the materials show, and experts saw it, that something collided with the side of the ship with a force of several thousand tons, and in this case they are talking about another ship.”

The documentary series “Estonia – a find that will change everything” was produced by Monster Discovery for Norway. Director – Hendrik Evertsson, who is accused of violating the grave because of filming near the remains of the ferry.

The ferry “Estonia” left the port of Tallinn on the evening of September 27, 1994 and headed for Stockholm, where it was supposed to arrive in the morning of the next day. There were 803 passengers and 186 crew members on board.

When the ferry entered the open sea, it was overtaken by waves of many meters, and about half the way to Stockholm, next to the island of Utö, which belongs to Finland, the “Estonia” heeled and quickly sank.

Of all those on board, only 137 people were able to escape, 852 people were killed, most of whom were trapped and drowned along with the ferry. Among the dead were 501 Swedish citizens and 285 Estonian citizens. In total, there were citizens of 17 countries on board.

According to a final report by an investigation commission convened by Estonia, Finland and Sweden, the disaster was caused by bad weather, which tore off the vessel’s visor and associated ramp, causing water to fill the car deck.

The authors of the investigation cautiously hint that the governments of Estonia and Sweden may know the truth about the ferry disaster, but for some reason they hid it all these years.

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