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New unknown viruses have appeared on a Tibet glacier

Unknown viruses from Earth’s ancient past have been found in the Tibetan glacier, which poses a risk if these viruses reach the atmosphere.

As the climate of our planet seems to be getting warmer, melting glaciers can lead to the appearance of previously unknown pathogens.

These agents remain inactive in the ice but do not die, scientists warn.

After examining a couple of ice cores extracted from an ancient glacier located in the Tibetan Plateu, a team of US scientists discovered about 33 viral populations.

And of those 33, 28 of them had never been seen before, according to Live Science.

The researchers warned that as glaciers around the world decrease, this trend could lead to the loss of such “microbial and viral archives” that offer a unique insight into the “climatic regimes” passed from Earth.

“However, in the worst case, this melting of ice could release pathogens into the environment,” they say.

The study of the viruses in question is complicated by the fact that the two ice cores, originally extracted in 1992 and 2015, can easily become contaminated with bacteria.

“This study establishes ultra-clean microbial and viral sampling procedures for glacier ice, which complements the previous decontamination methods on silica and expands, for the first time, clean procedures to viruses,” the scientists wrote.

“The application of these methods to glacier ice confirmed previous common microbiological findings for a new ice core climate record.”

“It provides a first window to viral genomes and their glacial ice ecology across two time horizons, and emphasizes their likely impact on abundant microbial groups.”

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Planet Earth

Immediate enormous volcanic disaster predicted

Since 1999, Tungurahua has often been active, then 25 thousand people had to be evacuated from nearby settlements

Researchers at the Cambridge Mining School in Britain have predicted an imminent catastrophe, which is associated with the eruption of a large volcano in South America.

The Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador, also known as the Black Giant, shows signs of instability on the slopes, which can lead to a huge landslide. The reason for this is the recent volcanic activity and the imbalance between the erupted and incoming magma, which led to the deformation of the western flank of the mountain and increasing stress.

Since 1999, Tungurahua has often been active, then 25 thousand people had to be evacuated from nearby settlements. The previous large eruption of the Black Giant occurred about 3 thousand years ago and provoked a partial collapse of the western flank of the volcano cone. A landslide from soil, stones, snow and water covered an area equal to 80 square meters. km Later, the cone gradually recovered, reaching a height of 5 km.

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Planet Earth

A huge meteorite hit the Indian state of Rajasthan, creating a 20-meter crater and turning night into day

When it fell, the meteorite created a huge crater with a diameter of 20 and a depth of 7 meters in the factory complex at Tuesday dawn in the industrial zone of Itaran Alvara, Rajasthan.

Suddenly a rocket-like object appeared, falling from heaven to earth, changing night to day. A celestial phenomenon occurred in the Fauladpur region of Shahjahanpur in the Alvar region around 5:00 a.m. on February 12, 2020.

In the following video surveillance frames, flashes and the subsequent meteorite fall to the ground are visible. People living in the immediate vicinity were not harmed.

People living in the area woke up from weak shocks, similar to an earthquake. The birds began to scream.

Many surveillance cameras were able to record a meteorite explosion. People who witnessed the heavenly event were shocked.

Local resident Rajesh Kumar Gupta said that he felt an explosion and after leaving his house felt a gust of strong wind. Farmers in the city of Fauladpur Shahjahanpur also saw a meteorite.

Ajay Chaudhari, a resident of the Kotkashim region, said that light suddenly appeared and an object similar to a rocket appeared in the sky.

A team of scientists was sent to the crater to explore the mysterious meteorite.

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Planet Earth

Scientists “revived” the genes of mammoths

About 11,000 years ago, the last mammoth populations have died out on our planet.

From the thousands of species, only those individuals survived that could survive in the harsh climate on Wrangel Island, but they also could not permanently save their tiny population from extinction. It is known that dwarf representatives of the largest mammals that lived off the coast of Siberia became extinct about 4000 years ago. At the moment, there are several basic hypotheses that can explain the death of ancient animals. In order to prove at least one of them, scientists were able to resurrect genes from recently found mammoth remains.

The growth of dwarf mammoths reached from 3 to 4 meters, which is commensurate with the modern Asian elephant

Why did mammoths die out?

The mystery about the reasons for the complete extinction of the huge mammals that have lived on our planet for many thousands of years is one of the most intriguing secrets of our planet. The most common version is the hypothesis of unexpected climate change, since mammoth extinction peak, according to some estimates, coincides with a period of sharp warming. It is assumed that this could be the reason for the reduced diet of animals, to which they did not have time to adapt. Due to the increased humidity and water logging of the soil on Wrangel Island, mammoths found it difficult to move in order to get their own food.

Another possible theory about the causes of the death of mammoths is the idea of ​​their loss of genetic diversity. So, due to the small habitat of mammoths (Wrangel Island could feed no more than 300 individuals), at some point cases of closely related crosses became more frequent, which led to the loss of animals’ ability to reproduce as a result of various kinds of genetic mutations.

Scientists “resurrected” mammoth genes in order to study the functioning of their genome

According to an article published in the journal Genome Biology and Evolution (GBE), experts have several reasons that indicate the appearance of several types of genetic defects in mammoths. In order to confirm this theory, scientists conducted a study for the “Resurrected” genome mammoth, suggesting that mammoths could lose their ability to reproduce, along with their ability to smell.

The results of this study can be evidence of both the first and second main hypotheses for the extinction of mammoths on Wrangel Island, since scientists are confident that due to the rapid decline in the population due to a decrease in the amount of food obtained, mammoths could interbreed with their distant relatives. This crossing significantly reduced their genetic diversity, as a result of which animals could lose the ability to “purify” the genome.

During the study, a team of scientists compared the mammoth’s DNA with living members of the elephant family, as well as with the oldest mammoths that lived tens of thousands of years ago on the territory of the African continent. During the experiment, experts identified a number of genetic abnormalities in animals from Wrangel Island, which were really responsible for the neurological development of animals, their fertility, insulin signaling, and their ability to smell. At the moment, scientists suggest that animals could completely lose their sense of smell and were unable to distinguish the smell of edible food from inedible. The combination of all negative factors affected the lifestyle of mammoths, causing their gradual, but inevitable extinction as a species. Be that as it may, scientists hope to resurrect these animals in the coming years.

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