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New solar powered car developed in Germany

A solar-powered saloon car that charges as it drives is being tested in Germany.

Munich-based manufacturer Sono Motors has built the new prototype, dubbed Sion, to help Germany hit its national target of 1 million electric cars on the road by 2020.

Sion has solar cells integrated into its bodywork, with a total of 330 solar cells built into the roof, bonnet and sides of the vehicle.

These enable the vehicle to recharge its battery when sunlight is hitting the solar cells, whether it is on the road, or parked in the sunny spot in a car park.

Sono Motors have also included support for conventional power outlets — so car owners aren’t left stranded on overcast days.

The Sion also features moss integrated into the dashboard to naturally filter out dust particles and regulate the humidity inside the cabin.

The solar panel-packed vehicle is set to launch in Germany in late 2019.

Sono Motors, which was founded in 2016, wants the Sion to be versatile and hopes to allow the car to be charged using solar energy as well as conventional outlets.

The firm has earmarked a 2019 date for mass production at one of its German plants.

Some 5,000 people have already placed orders for the electric vehicle, it claims.

Prices for the Sion are tipped to start from €16,000 ($18,540/£14,320) next year.

The all-electric vehicle will offer a range of around 155 miles (250 km) before the battery depletes completely and it needs to recharge either via solar power or using a wall plug, the company said.

Sion was designed originally as an environmentally conscious car, but will also feature a number of feature designed around comfort to help it compete with other modern vehicles.

‘We have a seat heater, there is air conditioning, there is a large infotainment system where I can also connect my phone interactively, which means I really have a full vehicle which is very simple, has no frills,’ Laurin Hahn, co-founder and chief executive of the startup told Reuters.

The solar-powered saloon car that charges as it drives is being tested in Germany. The firm, based in Munich, has built the prototype ‘Sion’ in order to help Germany hit its target of 1 million electric cars on the road by 2020

Sion also uses moss to ventilate the vehicle.

The Icelandic strain of moss is claimed to have air-cleaning capabilities that can filter dust particles and act as a natural air filter.

Sono Motors says the moss, which is visible on the dashboard to those inside the vehicle, does not need water or other special care to maintain.

The firm originally crowdfunded the project, raising more than $200,000 (£154,000) to build the first prototype vehicle.

Continue Reading: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/

Science & Technology

Should Cannabinoids be Considered Essential Nutrients?

In 1753, a Scottish surgeon by the name of James Lind proved that scurvy could be effectively cured with citrus juice. By drinking plenty of lemonade over the course of a two-week long treatment, his patients would fully recover from the fatigue, sores and bleeding typically inflicted by this malady, which was formerly thought to be caused by poor digestion and unclean water (when the real culprit was a simple deficiency in vitamin C).

Until that discovery, the debilitating and often fatal disease limited the ability of seafaring vessels to travel long distances. But after Lind’s popularization of a cure, sailors learned to effectively prevent scurvy by packing barrels of lemon juice and fresh limes for their travels. Today, the disease is so rare as to be almost unheard of, but British sailors retain the nickname limeys, which dates back to their adoption of the practice.

Meanwhile, often derided as a marketing term without scientific basis, the label “superfood” indeed has no legal definition, but according to the Macmillan Dictionary it can be applied to any food that’s “considered to be very good for your health and that may even help some medical conditions.” And so, because vitamin C is found in large quantities in citrus fruits—oranges, lemons and limes can be considered superfoods.

You are what you eat, after all, and foods like kale, sweet potatoes, blueberries and wild salmon provide essential macro- and micro-nutrients that the human body requires for health. Superfoods confer increased vitality and allow humans to fully thrive, along with preventing or treating diseases.

For example, broccoli has widely touted anti-cancer properties, while salmon provides Omega-3 fatty acids that protect your heart, and blueberries arrive packed with antioxidants and phytoflavinoids that prevent inflammation and can help prevent cancer and heart disease.

Now imagine that all around the world, millions of people are suffering from a modern-day version of scurvy—that is, an easily treatable condition caused by a lack of essential nutrition. Only in this case, the missing dietary element is cannabis, or more specifically cannabinoids, a set of incredibly medicinal compounds found primarily in the marijuana plant.

All humans have what’s called an endocannabinoid system, comprised of receptors that fit these cannabinoids like a lock fits a key, and this endocannabinoid system regulates many vital systems in the body—including respiratory, circulatory and neurological. Which means, if that system malfunctions and cannabinoids are not brought into the body from the outside (by smoking/vaping/eating cannabis) to return it to balance, the negative consequences can be severe, or even life-threatening.

Dr. Ethan Russo first articulated this idea of “clinical endocannabinoid deficiency” (CECD) in a 2004 scientific paper, describing a condition that contributes to high levels of cancer and degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s and rheumatoid arthritis. With the research to back it up, he’s basically claiming that a lack of cannabis can be the underlying cause of these and many other potentially deadly conditions.

Now imagine that the preventative cure for all of these painful, heartbreaking outcomes could lie in the cannabis plant being widely used as a dietary supplement, much as lemons and limes ended scurvy over two hundred years ago.

After all, if CECD is caused when the body doesn’t produce enough endocannabinoids on its own, and this lack of endogenous cannabinoids can be corrected by adding cannabis from herbal sources, such a simple dietary supplement could save untold lives and relieve immeasurable suffering.

And so, much like James Lind and his studies into the effect of vitamin C on scurvy, Russo is currently pioneering research into one of the least understood, but probably most important, superfoods on the planet. One significant difference in their research? Oranges and limes aren’t a Schedule 1 narcotic that can get you thrown in jail for years.

That legal status has been a serious impediment to proper research on cannabis’s nutritional and medicinal value, but it hasn’t stopped other physicians from picking up on Russo’s lead.

An outspoken advocate for juicing raw cannabis leaves as a dietary supplement, Dr. William Courtney popularized the practice amongst growers in Northern California. Currently in the midst of setting up a juicing retreat center in the Caribbean, Courtney writes that “akin to Essential Fatty Acids and Essential Amino Acids, there needs to be Minimum Daily Requirements established to guide worldwide adoption of raw cannabis as the single most important dietary element.”

While juicing raw cannabis is not psychoactive, it does allow for much of the plant’s medicinal benefits to be absorbed by the body. However, for many patients, sourcing an adequate amount of fresh cannabis leaves for juicing purposes can be troublesome. So Courtney and a growing chorus of other activists continue to agitate for the right to use cannabis in any amount necessary, much as any other vegetable.

Because along with its botanical cousin hemp, it seems that cannabis is a superfood in its own right, conferring superb health benefits, anti-inflammatory action and the power to prevent and treat diseases, along with many relaxing and rejuvenating qualities. In this sense, we can consider cannabis as another tool in our arsenal along with blue-green algae, maca, yacon, ginseng, cacao, matcha and other health-positive superfoods that help us reach our full, vibrant, active potential.

Fortunately, while all-too-many cannabis-infused edibles manufacturers continue to flood the market with sugary sweets, an increasing number of progressive companies recognize the plant’s unique medicinal benefits and have devoted themselves to creating cannabis-infused foods that combine cannabis with other superfood ingredients for maximum healing and supreme vitality.

Heather Hoffman, co-founder and chief medical officer at Pura Vida Health, is a radiant young woman who studied holistic nutrition at the Canadian Institute of Natural Nutrition. When meeting her, it’s hard to imagine that she struggled mightily with epilepsy throughout her youth, but the condition is currently non-existent.

“Since I tried cannabis, I have not had a seizure,” Hoffman said. “It’s been five years, and I consider myself cured.”

Pura Vida creates power bars and granolas that pair ganja with other healthful ingredients, including papaya extract, oats and almonds, a blend that Hoffman believes “helps the body better utilize cannabis.” Available in over 100 California dispensaries, Pura Vida products use coconut oil, which “acts as a platform for cannabis to help the body absorb it, so people report getting higher quicker and feeling more of an impact.”

Hoffman said that while it can be tough to get healthy options on the shelves of dispensaries, if “we want cannabis to be what it truly is—a healing medicine—then we have a responsibility to actually do that,” and greater education is necessary so patients understand that nutritious cannabis-infused foods exist.

“It’s best to not give cancer patients a chocolate bar,” she explained. “Corn syrup and sugars aren’t medicine.”

When using cannabis as medicine, especially for patients fighting cancer, it’s important to remember that sugar feeds cancerous growth. Items that eschew refined sweeteners and processed ingredients in favor of combining cannabis with other nutrient-dense whole foods, additional herbs and supplements create functional edibles designed to promote specific effects like “energy boost” or “super sleep.”

It’s a viewpoint shared by Ezra Malmuth, founder of the Sababa Snacks Collective and also a graduate of the culinary nutrition program at Johnson & Wales University. While assisting a friend’s father who was suffering from stage 4 cancer, Malmuth found that a lot of the cannabis edibles he was eating “were not health conscious, had a lot of sugar and calories and didn’t taste great.” Determined to find a better way, Malmuth began combining superfood ingredients into “clusters,” small, bite-size morsels of dried fruit, nuts, spices and herbs.

“It was like an oatmeal cookie meets a granola bar,” Malmuth explained. “And it was delicious while providing the medicine that he needed.”

Sababa Snacks went on to capture a second place award for their Caramel Cashew Apricot clusters at the 2016 Nor-Cal Cannabis Cup, a win Malmuth attributes to “people who understand the value of wholesome food being attracted to this product.”

When selecting ingredients to pair with the 25 milligram dose of THC per cluster, Malmuth chose to create “an inherent offering to the body,” mixing oats and nuts to provide protein and dried fruit to provide carbohydrates, making a combination of macro-nutrients that supports the metabolic process. Favored as an athletic recovery snack, these clusters help long-distance runners “eliminate the inflammatory response to exercise,” Malmuth said, “while optimizing performance.”

Joseph Winke, founder of Jambo Superfoods, has always treated cannabis as an essential vitamin, mixing it into new versions of traditional healing foods, such as the company’s bestselling “Daily Ritual,” a unique blend of THC combined with medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil and ghee from grass-fed cows. The resulting super-butter is meant to be enjoyed with morning coffee in the Bulletproof-style, or simply spread onto bread or used in cooking.

Winke champions the use of MCT oil, a type of coconut oil that is liquid at room temperature, explaining that this form of fat is especially bioavailable, so the “body is able to easily process these fats, so you get a really good uptake,” making the THC more effective.

“We use actual food that the body knows how to metabolize,” Winke explained. “Not high fructose corn syrup, artificial flavoring, or whey protein isolates…humans perform better when we have an abundance of cannabinoids.”

Much like how we perform better when we have vitamin C, antioxidants and essential amino acids available in our diets.

So remember, when we fight to free the cannabis plant, we’re fighting for our lives!

By Elise McDonough

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Science & Technology

Boston Dynamics video shows its humanoid robot running and jumping over obstacles

If you thought you’d be able to run away from the terrifying new breed of robots, bad news.

Boston Dynamics has revealed a video of its terrifying Atlas robot running and jumping over obstacles with ease.

‘Atlas does parkour,’ the firm says in the description for the video, which shows the robot leaping up a series of 40cm steps with ease, and over logs with a single bound.

It says the robot’s software has been updated giving it the new features.

‘The control software uses the whole body including legs, arms and torso, to marshal the energy and strength for jumping over the log and leaping up the steps without breaking its pace.

‘Atlas uses computer vision to locate itself with respect to visible markers on the approach to hit the terrain accurately. ‘

Earlier this year Boston Dynamics posted two videos showing off the new skills of two of its advanced automatons.

In one, Atlas, a humanoid robot, can be seen jogging around a grassy field, before leaping over a log that’s obstructing its path.

In the second, a SpotMini robo-dog navigates its way around an office building, climbing and descending a set of stairs with ease, all under its own direction.

The canine automatons look eerily similar to those featured in an episode of the sci-fi series, where mechanised creatures hunt humans in a post-apocalyptic future.

Boston Dynamics, based in Waltham, Massachusetts, manually steered SpotMini around its test course to prepare for the demonstration.

Source: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/

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How to Easily Locate the Accelerometer in an iPhone

Everyone should probably know that I’m obsessed with both physics and smart phones. If I can use my phone for a physics experiment, I’m good to go. That’s exactly what I am going to do right now—use some physics to find the location of the accelerometer in the iPhone 7.

Your smart phone has a bunch of sensors in it. One of the most common is the accelerometer. It’s basically a super tiny mass connected with springs (not actual springs). When the phone accelerates in a particular direction, some of these springs will get compressed in order to make the tiny test mass also accelerate. The accelerometer measures this spring compression and uses that to determine the acceleration of the phone. With that, it will know if it is facing up or down. It also can estimate how far you move and use this along with the camera to find out where real world objects are, using ARKit.

So, we know there is a sensor in the phone—but where is it located? I’m not going to take apart my phone; everyone knows I’ll never get it back together after that. Instead, I will find out the location by moving the phone in a circular path. Yes, moving in a circle is a type of acceleration.

Of course you already knew that circular motion was a type of acceleration. Yes, you knew this because you have been in car (you have probably been in a car). It turns out that the human body can also feel accelerations—although we sometimes confuse these accelerations with gravitational forces, but we can still feel them. If you are sitting in a car seat and the vehicle speeds up, it accelerates and you can feel that. Now if that car is turning in a circle, you can also feel it. That turning car is accelerating—even if it travels at a constant speed.

If you want to really understand why circular motion is a type of acceleration, you need to start with the definition of acceleration.

Here the Δ means “change in”. So the acceleration is the change in velocity divided by the change in time—that is a rate. But here is the key point. Both the acceleration and velocity are vector quantities. This means that they depend on direction as well as magnitude. Since the velocity is a vector, you can have an acceleration just by changing the direction of the velocity. Moving in a circle at a constant speed means there is indeed an acceleration.

If we have an object moving in a circle, the acceleration is pointed towards the center of the circle and depends on two things: the angular velocity (ω) and the circular radius (r). If you increase either of these values, the magnitude of the acceleration will also increase according to the following:

So perhaps you can see where this is going. If I move a phone around in a circle, I can measure both the acceleration and the angular velocity. From this, I can calculate the radius of the circle—which will be the distance from the center of the circle to the accelerometer. That shouldn’t be too difficult. Actually, I have done this experiment before but it was a slightly different setup.

Actually, you can do this yourself. Really, all you need a device that rotates the phone such that it moves in a circle with a constant radius. For me, I used this nice rotating platform.

Notice the addition of the ruler so that I can accurately measure the distance from the center of the circle to the bottom of the phone. I also put a small clamp at the end to prevent the phone from flinging off the platform. That would be bad.

The other thing you need is a way to measure both the angular velocity and the acceleration. Most phones have a type of gyroscope to measure rotations so that you can get both measurements with your phone. Although there are several apps to record sensor data on your phone, but I really like PhyPhox (for both Android and iOS).

Now we are all set. Start recording data and rotate the phone. As the angular velocity changes, so does the acceleration (since the radius is fixed). Since the acceleration is proportional to the square of the angular velocity, I can plot acceleration vs. ω22. It should look something like this (hopefully).

It seems to be linear—so that’s good. The slope of this line is 0.14138 meters with an intercept of 0.093 (rad/s)2 (that’s close to zero). That slope is the important part. It’s the distance from the center of the circle to the sensor. I recorded the distance of the bottom of the phone to the center with a radius of 0.09 meters. This means that the accelerometer is 5.1 centimeters above the bottom of the phone.

But wait! What about the side-to-side location? I can repeat the experiment with the side of the phone facing the center of the circle. Here is the data for that run.

In this case, I had the screen facing down with the “sleep” button side of the phone facing the center of the circle at a radius of 15.9 cm. The slope of the line above is 17.7 cm. That means the sensor is 1.8 cm from the side. OK, this is technically wrong, but I’m going to use it anyway. The 17.7 cm is actually the radial distance to the sensor. This will only give me the distance from the side of phone if the sensor was half way from the top of the phone. Oh well, this will be close enough.

So here is a diagram of my iPhone (looking at it from the back).

Pretty sure that’s where the sensor is located. Now I just need to take apart my phone to verify this result. Oh wait. I’m not going to do that.

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