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New high resolution solar telescope shows incredible images of the Sun

This image is the first high-resolution photo of the 4-meter Daniel K. Inouye solar telescope in Hawaii.

New high resolution solar telescope shows incredible images of the Sun

Although it is the closest star to Earth, the Sun is still a mystery, and understanding its behaviors – specifically the behaviors that manifest themselves as space weather here on Earth – has proved difficult. The main objectives of the Inouye solar telescope include creating images of the Sun’s magnetic field in more detail than ever before.

Matt Mountain, president of the Association of Universities for Astronomy Research, which runs the Inouye Solar Telescope, said in press release:

On Earth, we can predict whether it will rain very accurately anywhere in the world, and the space climate is not yet at this level.

The Inouye Solar Telescope aims to improve predictions of space weather.

The telescope in Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, features a 4-meter mirror, the largest ever available for a solar telescope, and requires an advanced cooling system to prevent overheating from concentrated sunlight. Optics remove distortions from the atmosphere, while a dome temperature controls the area around the telescope and a component called a ‘heat stop’ filters out excess energy.

The first image and video released today show gas circulating around the sun. The heat takes the gas to the surface in the bright center of each cell, which then spreads and descends back to the surface in the dark lines. Each cell is approximately the size of the state of Texas (695,662 km²), according to a press release from National Solar Observatory.

Like other telescopes on the Hawaiian islands, the Inouye solar telescope has received resistance from the local Hawaiians, as the location where it constructed is considered sacred ground.

The Science reports that the circumstances surrounding the Inouye Solar Telescope differ slightly from controversial Thirty Meter Telescope. For example, it is much smaller, much of the progress in building the Inouye Solar Telescope has been made privately, and the militarized national park at the top of Haleakala has made it difficult for protesters to access.

This image will not be used for scientific research; the team will still be testing and calibrating the telescope in the next six months. Then, the researchers will combine the data from the Inouye Solar Telescope with the data from the Parker Solar Probe from NASA and the European Space Agency / NASA Solar Orbiter in order to create a more complete picture of how the Sun works.

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Science & Technology

Like naked: new fabric will provide cooling without air conditioning

Scientists have developed a fabric that does not interfere with the body’s natural cooling. Now even the hottest summer in a strict office suit can be as comfortable as in swimming trunks or a bikini.

The innovation is described in a scientific article published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.

What to do when clothes are too hot? You can, for example, undress. Alas, if it is not on the beach, people around are unlikely to correctly assess such a gesture.

Weary of strict business etiquette, people are increasingly relying on air conditioners. For example, in such a southern country as the United States, 10% of all electricity (!) is spent on cooling premises.

Now materials scientists have developed a fabric that does not interfere with the body’s natural cooling. This will make people feel more comfortable while saving on air conditioners.

The material consists of three substances: polyurethane, fluorinated polyurethane and two-dimensional boron nitride. The latter covers the fibers, between which there are wide pores.

These pores allow the skin to come into contact with the air and the sweat to evaporate. What’s more, boron nitride imparts incredible thermal conductivity to fabrics. So the heat of the human body does not accumulate under the clothes, but freely goes out into the surrounding space.

The fibers form large pores, allowing the skin to come into contact with air.Illustration by American Chemical Society.

Surprisingly, at the same time, the fabric also does not let water through from the outside. This is achieved thanks to the outer layer of water-repellent fluorinated polyurethane.

In one experiment, scientists stretched the material between two chambers, one above the other, placing the fabric with the outer side up. The top was filled with water, and air was left at the bottom. As a result, the water did not seep down, but the air went up perfectly and entered the water in the form of bubbles.

The new material allows sweat to evaporate from the surface of the skin, but does not allow water to enter from the outside.Illustration by American Chemical Society.

The authors of the development note that the new fabric is cheaper and easier to manufacture than other self-cooling materials.

The novelty can be useful not only for making clothes. It can be used, for example, in the manufacture of electronics, as well as for the desalination of sea water.

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China is preparing a project of a futuristic “smart” city without cars

China’s largest telecommunications company plans to build a futuristic smart city in the suburbs of Shenzhen, in the near future, which will be free of road transport. During the construction of the “Net City” they will adhere to the principles and norms of “green architecture”, which will contribute to the preservation of the environment not only in this part of the metropolis. As the organizers of this ecologically safe area promise, it will not become an isolated island only for the elite.

Net City will be built on a reclaimed land plot along Dachan Bay in Shenzhen, China. | Photo: eyeshenzhen.com/ © NBBJ.

Net City will be built on a reclaimed land plot along Dachan Bay in Shenzhen, China. | Photo: eyeshenzhen.com/ © NBBJ.

Internet giant Tencent has revealed plans to build a new sustainable futuristic city in the Chinese metropolis of Shenzhen. Soon, a unique “smart” city will appear in the south of China, which will become a dream come true not only for the leaders of the country’s largest telecommunications company, but also for the majority of the world’s inhabitants. According to the concept that has appeared, the city will combine the latest achievements of high technologies, education, environmental safety, complete energy self-sufficiency and an ideally comfortable urban environment.

China is planning to build a futuristic car-free smart city (Net City concept). | Photo: eyeshenzhen.com/ © NBBJ.

China is planning to build a futuristic car-free smart city (Net City concept). | Photo: eyeshenzhen.com/ © NBBJ.

This event was preceded by a competition for the creation of the best innovative project of the city of the future, which will be able to leave a minimum carbon footprint and at the same time will be as comfortable as possible for people to live. In 2019, the American company NBBJ, known for its non-standard solutions, won the competition. As the project leaders admit:

“We spent a lot of time trying to make the city as less vulnerable as possible and move away from the use of road transport as much as possible, focusing on creating a comfortable life for citizens.”

The conglomerate Tencent bought an unusable piece of land in Dachan Bay for $ 1.2 billion to build its city. | Photo: eyeshenzhen.com/ © NBBJ.

The conglomerate Tencent bought an unusable piece of land in Dachan Bay for $ 1.2 billion to build its city. | Photo: eyeshenzhen.com/ © NBBJ.

“Net City” is the name given to the project, which will occupy an area of ​​2 sq. km at the mouth of the Pearl River, on lands that for many years were unsuitable for life or the development of agricultural land. Before the start of construction, large-scale reclamation measures will be carried out on this territory so that the allocated area is suitable for the construction and placement of the urban environment. According to the developers, the master plan gives priority to pedestrians with the most limited access to traditional types of vehicles.

Dozens of buildings from one to 30 storeys high will be designed by various architectural firms (“Net City” concept). | Photo: interestingengineering.com/ © NBBJ.

Dozens of buildings from one to 30 storeys high will be designed by various architectural firms (“Net City” concept). | Photo: interestingengineering.com/ © NBBJ.

Interesting fact: Despite the seeming diminutiveness, the area of ​​the “smart” city will correspond to the size of the tiny state of Monaco. It is planned that at least 80 thousand people will be able to live in this paradise. And if we compare it with the same dwarf country, then in the “Net City” there will be 2 times more inhabitants.

Green areas will decorate not only city squares, but also roofs and even walls of houses (“Net City” concept). | Photo: interestingengineering.com/ © NBBJ.

Green areas will decorate not only city squares, but also roofs and even walls of houses (“Net City” concept). | Photo: interestingengineering.com/ © NBBJ.

Despite loud statements about the rejection of the use of vehicles, some areas of the city in the city will have transport arteries that will connect with the metropolis and allow you to move between distant points. Only for organizing the traffic of buses, bicycles and individual vehicles a single “green corridor” will be created around which the main residential areas, business center and recreation areas will be located.

The wavy photovoltaic panels on the roofs of buildings imitate mountain peaks (concept

The wavy photovoltaic panels on the roofs of buildings imitate mountain peaks (concept “Net City”). | Photo: archiposition.com/ © NBBJ.

The authors of the project report that most of the territory is given for the organization of parks, common recreation areas, but they plan to place numerous green areas on the roofs of buildings. Naturally, it will not do without the construction of a business center, educational institutions, residential areas, entertainment and recreation areas for citizens.

In

In “Net City” pedestrians will be a priority, and separate zones will be allocated for vehicles (concept “Net City”). | Photo: archiposition.com/ © NBBJ.

Despite the fact that the creation of this “smart” city was conceived as a place of work, residence and social interaction of employees of the conglomeration Tencent, the developers hope that it will become a vital hub for all of Shenzhen. Moreover, all the conditions have been created for the maximum integration of the new community into the urban environment of the metropolis. An unusual town, created on previously unsuitable for life and construction lands, will be connected to the main part of Shenzhen by road bridges, ferries and subway lines.

“Net City” will be connected to road bridges, water transport and metro lines (concept “Net City”). | Photo: archiposition.com/ © NBBJ.

Given the changeable climate of the bay, the development team views the region as an organic ecosystem. Its clever design will transform it into a self-sufficient place to generate its own energy, recycle and reuse waste, produce its own food, and, ultimately, into a natural city-wide intelligent system with flexible interconnections. Such an ecological and innovative focus will have a beneficial effect not only on the preservation of the environment, but also significantly reduce the cost of maintaining all urban systems.

The main decoration of the city will be the “Catch the Wave” park located along the coast of the bay (“Net City” concept). | Photo: archiposition.com/ © NBBJ.

The main decoration of the city will be the “Catch the Wave” park located along the coast of the bay (“Net City” concept). | Photo: archiposition.com/ © NBBJ.

In this unique project, a special place was given to the embankment, which is a wavy green area in the form of a huge park. It is he who will be the connecting link between other areas of the metropolis and will become the central object of the city of the future. Along the entire length of the winding coast of the bay, tourists and locals can stroll and admire the opening views of the bay itself and the twinkling lights of the metropolis. At the same time, you can enjoy the fresh air and socializing.

All city squares are buried in greenery (“Net City” concept). | Photo: archiposition.com/ © NBBJ.

All city squares are buried in greenery (“Net City” concept). | Photo: archiposition.com/ © NBBJ.

Vacationers will especially appreciate the abundance of vegetation that can be observed throughout the entire length of this park and the entire city. Moreover, not only ground space will smell sweet, green roofs and vertical gardens on the walls of multi-level buildings will subtly fit into public spaces. And most importantly, the functions of the park space will be divided according to the goals of creating life, learning, interacting and working. At the southern tip, for example, are office buildings, to the east are commercial, entertainment and public spaces, and to the west and north are office properties mixed with residential high-rise buildings.

Walking areas near offices in the business district will encourage employees to have a balanced work and leisure time (Net City concept). | Photo: archiposition.com/ © NBBJ.

Walking areas near offices in the business district will encourage employees to have a balanced work and leisure time (Net City concept). | Photo: archiposition.com/ © NBBJ.

In general, the urban area promises to be ultra-modern and absolutely comfortable for people to live in.

“In today’s computerized world, we can build a city where work, life and play are closely intertwined and synergize with interactions between people.”– said Jonathan Ward, design partner at NBBJ.

The wetland area will soon become the city of the future (Net City concept). | Photo: archiposition.com/ © NBBJ.

The wetland area will soon become the city of the future (Net City concept). | Photo: archiposition.com/ © NBBJ.

Reference: Preparatory work for the creation of the future city will begin by the end of 2020, but the first residents will appear in it no earlier than in 7 years.

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Almost impossible to hack: Quantum Internet project published

The development was presented by the US Department of Energy. As conceived, it will be a network based either on quantum entanglement or on the transmission of subatomic particles. The peculiarity of the quantum Internet will be that it is almost impossible to hack.

The project became known at the conference of the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the University of Chicago. Officials have detailed a strategy for the development of the technology and believe they can bring quantum networks online within ten years. In their opinion, they will usher in a new era of communications and make the United States the leader of the “quantum race.”

“The Department of Energy is proud to play an important role in the development of the nation’s quantum Internet,” said Department Chief Dan Briett. “By creating new and evolving technology, the United States is supporting and expanding the field of quantum research.”

The new type of Internet is not intended to completely replace the usual: it will work in parallel – as an additional secure Network for some areas of science and industry and for ensuring national security.

The plan for its creation was developed in February this year, at a meeting of representatives of the national laboratories of the Ministry of Energy with scientists. They presented a development strategy based on the National Quantum Initiative Act, which was signed by President Donald Trump in 2018. This includes building secure quantum protocols and local area networks, and then extending them across states with quantum “repeaters” that amplify the signal. Scientists also want to create quantum networking devices and ways to store and route quantum information.

17 DOE laboratories will be involved in the development. Researchers at the Aragonese National Laboratory and the University of Chicago have already created a quantum loop nearly 84 kilometers long in a suburb of Chicago. One of the longest terrestrial quantum networks in the country is being created there.

 Communication scheme for establishing the quantum entanglement of two photons / © Aragonese National Laboratory
Communication scheme for establishing the quantum entanglement of two photons / © Aragonese National Laboratory

The next step will be the joining of the Fermilab laboratory (National Accelerator Laboratory named after Enrico Fermi), together with which it is planned to create a three-node test stand with a length of almost 130 kilometers. 

“Decades later, when we look back at the dawn of the quantum Internet, we can say that it started in Chicago,” said Nigel Lockyer, director of Fermilab.

Paul Dabbar, US Undersecretary for Science, believes quantum networks will bring the country closer to creating a completely secure Internet. Quantum transmissions will be nearly impossible to intercept. In theory, encryption keys will be transmitted using qubits , when an attempt is made to break, they will begin to be destroyed, and then generated anew.

The quantum internet will also enable faster transmission of large amounts of data and the creation of supersensitive quantum sensors that scientists hope to use to predict earthquakes and search for mineral deposits.

The development is carried out not only in the USA. In China, between Beijing and Shanghai, there is already a quantum network with a length of two thousand kilometers, and in Europe, according to Austrian researchers, the Internet of this type may appear in five years.

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