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Conspiracy Theories

Moon Landing Conspiracy Theory Persists

Moon Landing Conspiracy Theory Persists 86

The idea that the Moon landings were faked still remains one of the most enduring of all conspiracy theories.

Peter Knight – a professor of American Studies at the University of Manchester – explores the origins of the Moon landing conspiracy and why some people still believe that we never went to the Moon.

Bill Kaysing was a former US Navy officer who worked as a technical writer for one of the rocket manufacturers for NASA’s Apollo moon missions. He claimed that he had inside knowledge of a government conspiracy to fake the moon landings, and many conspiracy theories about the Apollo moon landings which persist to this day can be traced back to his 1976 book, We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle.

The basic template of the conspiracy theory is that NASA couldn’t manage to safely land a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s as President John F Kennedy had promised, so it only sent astronauts into Earth orbit. Conspiracy theorists then argue that NASA staged the moon landings in a film studio and that there are tell-tale signs on the footage and the photos that give the game away. They claim that NASA has covered up the elaborate hoax ever since.

Moon landing sceptics point to supposed clues such as photos that appear to show the astronauts in front of cross hairs that were etched on the camera glass, or a mysterious letter C visible on a moon rock. These and many other seeming anomalies have been debunked, but moon landing conspiracy theories have persisted in the popular imagination.

In the US, opinion polls indicate that between 5-10% of Americans distrust the official version of events. In the UK, a YouGov poll in 2012 found that 12% of Britons believed in the conspiracy theory. A recent survey found that 20% of Italians believe that the moon landings were a hoax, while a 2018 poll in Russia put the figure there as high as 57%, unsurprising given the popularity of anti-Western conspiracy theories there.

Ready to disbelieve

That Kaysing’s conspiracy theory took hold in mid-1970s America is in large part due to a wider crisis of trust in the country at the time. In 1971, citizens read the leaked Pentagon Papers, showing that the Johnson administration had been systematically lying about the Vietnam War. They tuned in nightly to the hearings about the Watergate break-in and subsequent cover-up.

A series of congressional reports detailed CIA malfeasance both at home and abroad, and in 1976, the House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded – in contrast to the Warren Commission more than a decade earlier – that there was a high probability that there had been a conspiracy to kill Kennedy. These revelations had helped fuel a wider shift in conspiracy thinking since the late 1960s, from a belief in external enemies, such as Communists, to the suspicion that the American state was itself conspiring against its citizens.

Moon landing conspiracy theories have proved particularly sticky ever since. To understand their popularity we need to consider their cultural context, as much as the psychological dispositions of believers.

As with the Kennedy assassination, they formed a new kind of conspiracy theorising. These theories reinterpret the publicly available evidence, finding inconsistencies in the official record, rather than uncovering suppressed information. Visual evidence is crucial: for all their scepticism, their starting point is that seeing is believing. In the realm of photo evidence, the assumption is that everyone can be a detective. In the conspiracy theory communities that emerged at the tail-end of the 1960s, the self-taught buff became central.

Constructed reality

The moon landing conspiracy theories also brought to the mainstream the notion that significant events are not what they seem: they have been staged, part of an official disinformation campaign. The idea that tragic events are created by “crisis actors” employed by the government has become the default explanation for many events today, from 9/11 to mass shootings. This type of conspiracy theory is particularly harmful – for example, parents of children killed in the Sandy Hook elementary school shooting have been relentlessly hounded by internet trolls claiming they are merely paid stooges.

However, the story that the lunar landings were staged also resonates with the more plausible notion that the space race itself was as much a Cold War spectacle as a triumph of the human spirit.

The 1978 Hollywood film Capricorn One did much to popularise moon landing conspiracy theories. Based on Kaysing’s book, it imagined that a Mars landing was faked in a film studio, tapping into conspiracy rumours that the moon landings themselves had been directed by Stanley Kubrick. This suggestive myth is based in part on the idea that special effects had become much more sophisticated with Kubrick’s 1968 film 2001 A Space Odyssey, although still far from the capabilities that the conspiracy theories suppose.

Even if they are far-fetched in factual terms, moon landing conspiracy theories nevertheless call up the more plausible possibility that in our media-saturated age reality itself is constructed, if not actually faked.

Peter Knight, Professor of American Studies, University of Manchester

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Conspiracy Theories

Juno probe recorded a radio signal source in orbit of Jupiter which may be an ancient interplanetary station

Juno probe recorded a radio signal source in orbit of Jupiter which may be an ancient interplanetary station 99
© Louis, CK, Louarn, P., Allegrini, F., Kurth, WS, & Szalay, JR (2020)

Juno, is NASA’s unmanned interplanetary station launched on August 5, 2011 to explore Jupiter, the second project under the New Frontiers program. The spacecraft entered the polar orbit of the gas giant on July 5, 2016. The purpose of the mission was to study the gravitational and magnetic fields of Jupiter, as well as to test the hypothesis that Jupiter has a solid core.

Instruments of the Juno interplanetary probe, which is exploring Jupiter, detected a nearby signal at a frequency of about 6.5 megahertz, which is in the range of high-frequency radio waves. On Earth, they are used for ionospheric communications and over-the-horizon radar, but in Jupiter’s orbit, their source is supposedly natural.

Such signals have been known for a long time: they are called decametric radio emission. However, for the first time, a spacecraft recorded them in the immediate vicinity of the place of origin. In fact, the probe flew through the source of the radio burst, near Ganymede, Jupiter’s largest moon.

Juno’s sensors observed the phenomenon for about five seconds, and then it merged with the background radiation. Given the speed of the probe – about 50 kilometers per second – we can conclude that the area of ​​space where the signal is generated is about 250 kilometers across.

As NASA explains, the found radio emission with a frequency of 10-40 MHz creates a stream of electrons rotating in Jupiter’s magnetic field. They generate a radio signal as a result of a process of a certain cyclotron maser instability. 

NASA was so terribly interested in this cyclotron instability that the Juno mission was decided to be extended indefinitely, and now the bright adepts are busy building a new ship, the money for which they managed to get in a record short time.

The intrigue is that the conspiracy theorists knew about this radiation back in October 2020, although NASA only spoke about it now. The story began there with the appearance of the following message on one of the network boards:

Juno probe recorded a radio signal source in orbit of Jupiter which may be an ancient interplanetary station 100

According to this modest text, it was written as if by a CIA officer who went on the run in the fall of 2020. The reason for this was the cleansing of a team of agents who cleared and hid information about the discovery in orbit of Ganymede of an object similar to an interplanetary space station, created using some advanced technology. 

It was opened by the same “Juno”, which on June 6, 2020 discovered a strange radio signal, which NASA reports only now. The signal was very powerful and went in a narrow beam, which does not happen in nature, so the satellite was slowed down and at the next revolution turned to look – where is the beam coming from? 

The signal came from an object in the form of a torus, inside which a sphere about 1000 feet in diameter was suspended. The sphere was of a substance resembling metal, glowing with a purple light with a green tint, and rotating clockwise. In this case, the torus rotated in the opposite direction. It also looked like the sphere had been damaged by some kind of internal explosion. Nobody had any idea what it was, and it was thought that this was the work of the proto-civilization of the Earth, which was trying to colonize Jupiter. The version of the object’s alien origin was also considered. 

When people read it in October, everyone laughed merrily. However, when NASA revealed the discovery of something on Ganymede, everyone suddenly realized that the message seemed to be pure truth and therefore now, in order to hush up the information, NASA urgently released its legend of what was happening. 

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Conspiracy Theories

Peruvian court names Gates, Soros and Rockefeller as “creators” of the COVID-19 pandemic

Peruvian court names Gates, Soros and Rockefeller as "creators" of the COVID-19 pandemic 101
Photo: pixabay.com

Peruvian judges said the coronavirus pandemic was organized by “authors of a new world order”, including Microsoft founder Bill Gates, investment banker George Soros, and members of the Rockefeller family of billionaires. Such a verdict was issued when considering an appeal to extend the detention of a local resident accused of rape.

Judges Tito Gallegos, Luis Legia and Tony Changaray were the authors of the controversial ruling. They explained that the coronavirus pandemic turned out to be force majeure, since no one, except for the “organizers” of the pandemic named by them, could predict its consequences.

“The criminal process was paralyzed due to the COVID-19 pandemic created by the criminal elites, which paralyzed activities in almost all countries … No world government, individuals and legal entities, nor the defense of the accused can claim that this pandemic can be called ‘predictable’, except for the creators of the new world order, such as Bill Gate, Soros, Rockefeller, etc., who ruled it. They continue to manage it in conditions of extreme secrecy and in global corporations with an eye on the 2030 project,” the Pasión por el Derecho edition quotes the text of the resolution.

Representatives of the department, which is responsible for overseeing the work of judges in Peru, have already announced that a review has begun against the authors of the ruling. The RPP publication indicates that it will be clear from its results whether a colleague committed a violation.

In early 2020, against the backdrop of a pandemic, conspiracy theories related to the spread of COVID-19 spread online. According to one version, some world forces (among which Bill Gates, the CIA and the Chinese authorities were mentioned ) specially brought the coronavirus into the laboratory and spread it to put the inhabitants of the planet at home, irradiate them with 5G, and then microchip them. 

Gates himself later stated that such theories were “difficult to deny” because they are “too ridiculous.” 

Meanwhile, the World Health Organization (WHO) believes that the virus was not created artificially – the organization is of the opinion that the infection was transmitted to humans from bats.

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Conspiracy Theories

US “on the edge”: Seven facts showing what is brewing to happen in the US?

US "on the edge": Seven facts showing what is brewing to happen in the US? 102
Photo: Fallout 4, Bethesda Game Studios

The United States is in danger of going to extremes, which after the January 6 events, no one knows what is happening in the country and the uncertainty seems to peak in the next few hours.

There are facts which could show that we are heading for the most dramatic hours the world has experienced since the August 1991 coup in Russia when the communists attempted to return to power and take control of the nuclear arsenal.

First, after an incomprehensible and unexpected blackout in Pakistan, a blackout happened in the Vatican.

A few hours before the blackout in Pakistan, the frequency of power grids in Europe dropped sharply,   and only renowned German engineers and no less famous German quality of equipment saved Europe from plunging into darkness, as it happened a little later in Pakistan:

Are there plans for some kind of Pentagon intervention, as Washington now resembles Moscow in August 1991?:

Second, US President N. Trump is ready to activate the Emergency Alarm system that bypasses all conventional media (television, internet, radio, etc.) to send a message to US citizens!

In response, of course, to the decision of the dominant online media, from Google to Fb, Amazon, Tweet, Twitch to ban Trump from communicating with US citizens, even through Parler, the medium used by tens of millions of right-wing Americans to communicate.

The Emergency Alarm System (EAS) is a national alert system in the United States that came into force on January 1, 1997 and is coordinated jointly by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the National and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 

US "on the edge": Seven facts showing what is brewing to happen in the US? 103

The system is designed primarily to allow the president to address the country by intervening in the programming of all radio and television stations in the event of a national emergency.

The Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS) is used as a backend for the dissemination of warning information via EAS and related technologies, such as Wireless Alerts Alerts (WEA), using Common Alerting Protocol (CAP). EAS messages are mainly transmitted via terrestrial and satellite radio and television (including broadcast and multichannel television), which must be part of the system. 

Millions of SMS have been sent in the last hours with the following update:

US "on the edge": Seven facts showing what is brewing to happen in the US? 104

Third, the US military has been embroiled in an unprecedented political conflict. According to the New York Times, Democratic House Speaker Nancy Pelosi asked Chief of Staff General Marley Miley to restrict the president’s access to the nuclear arsenal, but he refused, as it would be a purely military coup.

The representative of the American Military leadership, David Butler confirmed that “the phone call was made and there was information about the nuclear control procedures”.

To add that 70% of the military support Trump, but one can not imagine the involvement of the US armed forces in the internal political conflict, even if it has gone beyond what could be assumed as “within reason.”

Fourth, the airspace above Washington was recently closed. Theoretically, it closed because an air traffic controller fell ill with coronavirus. Information was then leaked about “a possible terrorist attack by Iran in retaliation for Suleimani’s assassination.”

How likely is that? Then there were rumors that it was closed because N. Trump moved out of the White House accompanied by USAF fighters.

That is, for the movement of the aircraft of the presidency “Air Force 1” but it does not cease as a fact to be unprecedented.

The official excuse is that they disinfect the Air Traffic Control Room for flights over 18,000 feet because of a controller who tested positive for the virus.

See the picture of air traffic on the east coast of the USA, now:

US "on the edge": Seven facts showing what is brewing to happen in the US? 105

Fifth, the arrival of the National Guard in Washington in large numbers:

https://twitter.com/disclosetv/status/1348423276255653889?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw

Military helicopters observed over many US cities. There are many helicopters, they fly at unusually low altitudes and, if the helicopters are attack helicopters, people can consider full suspension systems with weapons:

https://twitter.com/webjournalist/status/1348422079104749570?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw
https://twitter.com/serious_war_eng/status/1348292865315786754?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw

Sixth, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has released an UPDATE of the nuclear attack guidelines it gives to all Americans through the Ready.gov website. Among the items added by FEMA are the following:

On your way to work, find suitable hiding places to look for in the event of an explosion. Due to COVID-19, many of the places you may walk to and from work may be closed or may not work during normal hours. 

Such things were brought to the attention of the Americans for the last time fifty years ago, at the very peak of the Cold War, and the fact that this is now remembered again is very surprising to everyone. 

Seventh,since Sunday, January 10, the Boeing E-4B is constantly in the air – one of the so-called “doomsday aircraft”, that is, an air command post:

US "on the edge": Seven facts showing what is brewing to happen in the US? 106

In normal times, any of these messages taken separately would have caused a serious panic among American conspiracy theorists, since, apart from periodic flights of “doomsday planes,” nothing of the above has ever happened. And now it turns out, as it were, seven inexplicable sensational news in 24 hours.

This allows one to think that in the United States either some not very good things are being prepared, or these things are in full swing. That is, we can talk either about some grandiose false flag or even a possible world war.

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