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Mind-boggling discovery: Perfectly preserved brain of Iron Age man unearthed in York

Carbon dating suggests it is around 2,500 years old

Archaeologists baffled at how brain has survived

Archaeologists believe they have discovered one of the world’s oldest brains that once belonged to a man in Iron Age Britain who was sacrificed in a ritual killing.

Scientists found the cranium in a muddy pit when they were excavating a site before a new campus was to be built at the University of York. When a researcher reached inside the skull, she was stunned to discover the soft tissue of the 2,500-year-old brain still preserved.

Fractures and marks on the bones suggest the man, who was aged between 26 and 45, died most probably from hanging, after which he was carefully decapitated and his head was then buried on its own.

Grey matter: The 2,500-year-old preserved brain has baffled scientists after it was found during an excavation at the University of York

Scientists have been baffled by how the brain tissue – which usually rots after a couple at years – managed to remain intact for so long.

‘The survival of brain remains where no other soft tissues are preserved is extremely rare,’ said Sonia O’Connor, research fellow in archaeological sciences at the University of Bradford.

‘This brain is particularly exciting because it is very well preserved, even though it is the oldest recorded find of this type in the UK, and one of the earliest worldwide.’

Philip Duffey, a neurologist at York Hospital who scanned the skull, said: ‘I’m amazed and excited that scanning has shown structures which appear to be unequivocally of brain origin.’

Baffled: Dr Sonia O Connor, from the University of Bradford, examines the remains of the brain

‘I think that it will be very important to establish how these structures have survived, whether there are traces of biological material within them and, if not, what is their composition.’

Experts from York Archaeological Trust were commissioned by the university to carry out the exploratory dig last year before building work on the £750million campus expansion started.

They discovered the solitary skull face-down in the pit in dark brown organic rich, soft sandy clay.

The university put together a team of scientists, archaeologists, chemists, bio-archaeologists and neurologists, to establish how the man’s brain, could have survived when all the other soft tissue had decayed leaving only the bone.

Remains: Archaeologists sift through the muddy pit at the site near the University of York where the brain was found

The team is also investigating details of the man’s death and burial that may have contributed to the survival of what is normally highly vulnerable soft tissue. 

The research, which was funded by the University of York and English Heritage, is published in the Journal of Archaeological Science.

Since the discovery, the brain and skull have been kept in strictly controlled conditions, but scientists have examined samples using a range of sophisticated equipment, including a CT scanner at York Hospital and mass spectrometers at the University of York.

Samples of brain material had a DNA sequence that matched sequences found only in a few individuals from Tuscany and the Near East. Carbon dating suggests the remains date from between 673-482BC.

Fractures on the second neck vertebrae point to some kind of trauma before the man died and and a cluster of about nine horizontal fine cut-marks made by a thin-bladed instrument, such as a knife, can be seen on the front of the brain.

 

Preserved: Brain material shows as dark folded matter at the top of the head in this computer-generated view of the skull

Clean: Scientists said there was no trace on the brain of the usual preservation methods such as embalming or smoking

Scientists are now investigating how lipids and proteins found in the brain preserved the brain and what happened between the man dying and his burial.

Dr O’Connor said: ‘It is rare to be able to suggest the cause of death for skeletonised human remains of archaeological origin. The preservation of the brain in otherwise skeletonised remains is even more astonishing but not unique.

‘This is the most thorough investigation ever undertaken of a brain found in a buried skeleton and has allowed us to begin to really understand why a brain can survive thousands of years after all the other soft tissues have decayed.’

Despite the place that ‘trophy heads’ appear to have played in Iron Age societies and evidence for the preservation of human remains in the Bronze Age, the researchers say there is no evidence for that in this case. They found no marks indicating deliberate preservation by embalming or smoking.

Dr O’Connor added: ‘The hydrated state of the brain and the lack of evidence for putrefaction suggests that burial, in the fine-grained, anoxic sediments of the pit, occurred very rapidly after death. This is a distinctive and unusual sequence of events, and could be taken as an explanation for the exceptional brain preservation.’

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Michael Tellinger Deepest Anunnaki Mysteries in Human History [FULL VIDEO]

Michael Tellinger says Southern Africa holds some of the deepest Anunnaki mysteries in all of human history. What we are told is that at around 60,000 years ago the early humans migrated from Africa and populated the rest of the world.

It estimated that there are well over 1,000,000 (one million) ancient stone ruins scattered throughout the mountains of southern Africa. Various tools and Anunnaki artefacts that have been recovered from these ruins show a long and extended period of settlement that spans well over 200,000 years.

Scientist and researcher Michael Tellinger discusses the Anunnaki Ruins, evidence in support of Zecharia Sitchin’s revolutionary work showing that these Extraterrestrial beings created us using pieces of their own DNA, in order to mine gold on Earth for them. The more work he does on these beings called the Anunnaki, the more mysterious and also the more devious they become…they are not necessarily what we think they are. It’s turning out that where they came from– Nibiru, could actually represent a star system rather than a planet, with its sun being a brown dwarf. Further, the gold they were extracting from Earth could have been used for a device that concealed their activities from other consciousnesses even more advanced than themselves.

Source: Disclosed TruthTV

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Scientists Are Finally Certain What Caused The Collapse Of Maya Civilization

Even though the ancient Maya civilization was very advanced in every scientific field, it still fell apart about 1,000 years ago. Scientists have considered many reasons for this historic collapse, but none of them wasn’t certain. Maybe, however, until today.

Applying modern methods, scientists managed to confirm their theory of collapse. They further presented specific numbers of how much dry the climate came to be at the time.

Lake Chichancanab on the Yucatán Peninsula was located near the center of the popular Maya civilization in order to serve as a climate indicator.

In the middle 90s, scientists detected variations in the balance of heavy to light oxygen isotopes in shells dropped on the lake’s floor. This was a sign that the last years of the Maya civilization were very dry.

At the time, scientists didn’t have the proper devices to measure how dry the period was before and after it. In other words, whether it was so dry it managed to destroy a whole civilization.

However, according to a recent paper in Science, Central America’s environmental conditions did change with drastic steps.

During the dryness period, Lake Chichancanab’s water levels fell. Hodell et al.

Cambridge University student Nicholas Evans measured oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in water molecules from gypsum sediments of the lake floor.

He and his crew realized there was a drop of between 41 and 54 percent in yearly rainfall within the lake range in a period of over 400 years.

Moreover, humidity declined between 2 and 7 percent. Although this number doesn’t sound dramatic, it still had a serious impact on drying.

The evaporation, on the other hand, had a severe effect on the agricultural products. Rainfalls were also probably down by 70 percent.

No society would have had the food supplies to survive such an event, including the Maya civilization.

The whole Maya society didn’t die with the end of the Late Classic Period. However, a large number of people did die along with the technology which greatly degraded.

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This Temple Was Carved Out Of A Single Rock – Nobody Knows How ‘The Builders’ Made It

Scroll down to watch full video.

In what could be the next wonder of the world, archaeologists have recently unearthed a temple that ancients have carved out of a mountain rock. Located in Elora, Maharashtra, India, the temple is known as The Kailasa Temple. Some name it the Kailash. The Kailasa temple is dedicated to the Hindu faith and was ordered to be built by King Krishna I of the Rashtrakuta dynasty in ancient India.

Archaeologists Baffled By The Kailasa Temple

It forms part of a temple complex of 34 cave temples which were of similar construct.

The Construction

What has boggled and amazed scientists is the construction of the temple. Unlike many temples that were built from ground up, the Kailasa temple was carved out straight from the rock of a mountain. To add further amazement, a staggering 400,000 tonnes of rock were excavated and hauled out. During the construction of the temple.

The temple originated around 8th century A.D, and it is intriguing that technology of the period could have contributed to such a momentous construction task. One may wonder at the scope of the construction and estimate the temple to be completed after many decades or centuries. However, the temple only took less than 18 years to finish, according to scientific estimates.

It was estimated that 60 tonnes of rock were being removed every day during temple’s construction phase. The temple workers laboured for 12 hours a day hauling at least 5 tonnes of rock out from the mountain per hour. Scientists still have not fully figured out the constructions methods used in conjunction with the tools available during the period and were left baffled at the scope of the operation.

Architecture

The Kailasa temple is part of a complex of 34 monasteries and temples which span over an area of 2 kilometres. As they were all cut out of the mountainside, they are collectively known as the Elora caves, carved out from a basalt cliff.

The temple has a height of 98 feet, was 109 feet wide, and had a depth of 164 feet. This makes it possibly one of the biggest known structures of its kind on the planet. The entrance of the temple faces the west. What is remarkable about the entrance is the degree of accuracy of its facing, giving it a 270-275 degree on a compass.

A 2 storey gateway adorns the entrance to the temple, which further leads to a U-shaped courtyard. The temple is dedicated to the worship of Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva, and deities of both lords align the interior of the temple. Three storey arcades line the perimeter of the courtyard and showcase many sculptures and panels of marvellous beauty and design.

Complex and majestic staircases and bridges link the many different areas of the temple together, adding to the splendour of the place.

Built By Extraterrestrials?

As mentioned before, the time when the temple was built and the available technology of the period coupled with the time it took to build and the momentous scope of the construction had left many baffled. The entire feat would be extremely difficult if not impossible to achieve at that time.

However, the video below reveals a theory which may offer an explanation, that extraterrestrials gave a hand in the construction of this temple.

Thank you for watching!

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