Mexican experts have found the first temple of the Flayed god, a pre-Hispanic fertility deity depicted as a skinned human corpse.
What is Flayed god?
The great god Xipe Totec, otherwise known as Our Lord the Flayed One/ Flayed God, was one of the oldest Aztec deities. Also known as Red Tezcatlipoca, guardian of the east, Xipe Totec was often depicted as a man wearing the flayed skin of another.
Xipe Totec’s name was derived from the myth by which the god flayed—peeled and cut off—his own skin to feed humans. For the Aztecs, Xipe Totec’s removing his layer of skin symbolized the events that must happen to produce renewed growth that covers the earth each spring. More specifically, flaying is associated with the cycle of American corn (maize) as it sheds its external seed covering when it is ready to germinate.
Discovery of the temple
Mexico‘s National Institute of Anthropology and History said the find was made during recent excavations of Popoloca Indian ruins in the central state of Puebla.
The institute said experts found two skull-like stone carvings and a stone trunk depicting the god, Xipe Totec. It had an extra hand dangling off one arm, suggesting the god was wearing the skin of a sacrificial victim. The Popolocas built the temple at a complex known as Ndachjian-Tehuacan between A.D. 1000 and 1260 and were later conquered by the Aztecs.
Sacrifice and the Flaying of Skin
Priests worshipped Xipe Totec by skinning human victims and then donning their skins. The ritual was seen as a way to ensure fertility and regeneration. The victims of this sacrifice would be killed and then flayed—their skins removed in large pieces. Those skins were painted and then worn by others during a ceremony and in this manner, they would be transformed into the living image (“teotl ixiptla”) of Xipe Totec.
Rituals performed during the early spring month of Tlacaxipeualiztli included the “Feast of the Flaying of Men,” for which the month was named. The entire city and rulers or nobles of enemy tribes would witness this ceremony. In this ritual, slaves or captive warriors from surrounding tribes were dressed in as the “living image” of Xipe Totec. Transformed into the god, the victims were led through a series of rituals performing as Xipe Totec, then they were sacrificed and their body parts distributed among the community.
Ancient accounts of the rituals suggested victims were killed in gladiator-style combat or by arrows on one platform, then skinned on another platform. The layout of the temple at Tehuacan seems to match that description.
Other depictions of the Flayed god
Depictions of the god had been found before in other cultures, including the Aztecs, but not a whole temple.
University of Florida archaeologist Susan Gillespie, who was not involved in the project, wrote that “finding the torso fragment of a human wearing the flayed skin of a sacrificial victim in situ is perhaps the most compelling evidence of the association of this practice and related deity to a particular temple, more so to me than the two sculpted skeletal crania.”
“If the Aztec sources could be relied upon, a singular temple to this deity (whatever his name in Popoloca) does not necessarily indicate that this was the place of sacrifice,” Gillespie wrote. “The Aztec practice was to perform the sacrificial death in one or more places, but to ritually store the skins in another, after they had been worn by living humans for some days. So it could be that this is the temple where they were kept, making it all the more sacred.”
Featured image: Omar Eduardo
Scientists Have Reconstructed The Face Of A 9,000-Year-Old Teenager
Scientists have managed to reconstruct the face of a 9,000 year old teenager from Greece using technology. Dawn’s skeletal remains were buried in a cave in the region of Thessaly until 1993 when they were uncovered. No one knew what the young woman looked like for 9,000 years, but now scientists have an idea of what her appearance was like, Reuters reports.
The 9,000 year old teenager, found in 1993 in the Theopetra Cave in the Thessaly region in Greece, lived towards the end of the Mesolithic period. At that time, the Thessaly region was in transition from a hunter gatherer society into one where people grew and made their own food. Scientists chose to call her Avgi, which means “Dawn” in English. The idea for the name came from the fact that she lived at a time of transition which was considered the “dawn of civilization.”
There’s not much information about the way Dawn lived or how she died, although they know that she was a teenager based on the analysis of her bones and teeth, which indicate that she was aged between 15 and 18 years old. According to the scientists, there is a possibility that the 9,000 year old teenager was anemic and could have had scurvy. There’s evidence of hip and joint problems which could had caused her to move with difficulty which led to her death.
Orthodontist Manolis Papagrigorakis, along with his colleagues worked together to reconstruct the young woman’s face, thanks to a CT scan of her skull. After that they created the exact same replica of her skull with the help of a 3D printer.
While some parts of Dawn’s reconstructed face were based off of the measurements of her skill, other facial features such as eye and skin color were gathered from the common traits of people who lived in that region.
“Having reconstructed a lot of Stone Age women and men, I think some facial features seem to have disappeared or ‘smoothed out’ with time,” Oscar Nilsson, part of the research team, archaeologist and sculptor told National Geographic, adding that women and men today look less masculine.
The 9,000 year old teenager from Greece has noticeable cheekbones and a heavy brow and dimpled chin. Researchers attributed her protruding jaw to chewing on animal skins, which people at that time commonly did in order to make soft leather out of animal skins. The reconstruction of Dawn’s face revealed that she seemed to be frowning. Papagrigorakis had an explanation as to why Dawn looked angry.
“It’s not possible for her not to be angry during such an era,” Papagrigorakis jokingly told Reuters when he was asked why she looks angry.
They discovered a great pyramid of 28,000 years in Indonesia
The pyramid has been hidden for thousands of years at the top of Mount Padang in West Java (Indonesia).
A team of Indonesian scientists and geologists presented on Dec. 12 at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) for the discovery of a pyramidal structure, tucked under the floor at the top of Mount Padang in Java west.
The structure is located below an archaeological site, which was discovered in the early 19th century, and houses rows of ancient stone pillars. “What used to be seen as a built surface, goes beyond and is a huge structure,” explained geologist Andang Bachtiar, who oversaw drilling and soil analysis for the project.
Utilizing a variety of techniques such as soil radar penetration studies, X-ray tomography, 2D and 3D drilling and excavation, researchers gradually discovered several layers of a structure that extends over an area of about 15 hectares (150,000 square meters). It was built for millennia, with layers representing different periods.
In the upper part there are pillars of basalt rocks that framed terraced terraces, with other arrangements of rocky columns “forming walls, paths and spaces”. According to the researchers, this layer dates back to 3,000 to 3,500 years ago.
Below the surface, at a depth of about 3 meters, there is a second layer of similar rock columns, aged between 7,500 and 8,300 years. And a third layer, which extends 15 feet below the surface, is more than 9,000 years old and can be up to 28,000 years old, the study shows.
If this data is confirmed, it would be the oldest pyramidal structure known to date. During the analysis, several underground chambers were also detected.
Although the buried structure may superficially resemble a pyramid, it differs from those built by the Mayans, said Living Science Danny Hilman Natawidjaja, principal investigator of the project and senior scientist at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences.
While the Mayan pyramids tend to be symmetrical, this structure is elongated, with what appears to be a semicircle at the front. “It’s a unique temple,” Natawidjaja said. “Today, local people still use the place exposed on top of the structure as a sacred destination for prayer and meditation, and this may be the path that has been used for thousands of years,” he said.
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Sumerian Anunnaki Archaeological Discoveries, Artifacts, and Recovered Records DOCUMENTARY
In recent times there have been some astonishing archaeological discoveries in Iraq, the Sumerian cuneiform tablets being some of the most important in history. They show a very different version of history. They explain how Angels were known under the name of Anunnaki or Anannage (great sons of Anu), and they were the founders of their culture. An (Sumerian) or Anu (Akkadian) was the chief God of Sun and Sky, and his name means “The Shining One”. Anunnaki were, according to this, “Suns of the Shining One” or “Suns of Light”.
The discovery of the existence of the Anunnaki Gods first began in the modern era with the unearthing of the famous city of Nineveh, a once great metropolis in the ancient country of Assyria. Nineveh was once ruled by King Ashurbanipal (668 to 630 BC), who was perhaps the first great collector of archaeological artifacts. Ashurbanipal constructed a Library, trying to piece together the lost history of the human race and the coming of the gods before the destruction wrought by the Great Flood. Today you can find the records of this extraordinary story in the Ashurbanipal Library, composed over some 32,000 clay tablets, all held at the British Museum, each tablet written in the cuneiform language.
Source: ZEG TV HIDDEN FROM THE PUBLIC
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