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Living on Mars May Cause Humans to Develop Dementia

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The possible human colonization of Mars has been a hot topic, but a further study may undermine these plans.

With so much radiation on the Red Planet, health risks are a huge factor, and researchers have recently found evidence that living on such a planet could possibly lead humans to develop dementia.

Extremely high levels of radiation on Mars can pass through materials such as plastic, metal and even human skin, which can cause cancer and cognitive disorders. In fact, exposure to high levels of radiation has been shown to cause dementia.

According to an article published by US National Library of Medicine & National Institutes of Health (US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health), several people who received radiation treatment for cancer eventually developed dementia. The article said in part:

When a cancer patient develops brain metastasis, death is usually imminent, but aggressive treatment in some patients with limited or no systemic disease allows long-term survival.

Will humans reach Mars?

The article continued:

In these patients, the late deleterious effects of therapy are particularly tragic. We report 12 patients who developed late complications of total brain radiotherapy (WBRT) administered as a single treatment (4 patients) or in combination with surgical resection (8 patients).

“And the results were bleak”: Within 5 to 36 months (mean, 14) all patients developed progressive dementia, ataxia and urinary incontinence, causing severe disability in all and leading to death in 7.

For those wishing to visit Mars, this news is particularly disturbing unless scientists can somehow prevent radiation from entering space suits. They plan to send a radiation assessment detector to Mars before humans set foot on the planet.

Cancer Treatments Show Scary Results

Charles Limoli, professor of radiation oncology at the University of California at Irvine Medical School, said:

This is not positive news for astronauts on a two- to three-year trip to Mars.

Exposure to these particles can lead to a number of potential central nervous system complications that can occur during and persist long after the actual space travel – such as various performance decreases, memory deficits, anxiety, depression, and impaired decision making.

What is even more disturbing is that “many of these adverse consequences to cognition can continue and progress throughout life,” he explained.

In addition, the university’s research team found that radiation can affect the “fear extinction,” which is when the brain suppresses disturbing memories, such as when a near-drowning person might like to get in the water again.

Limoli said:

Deficits in extinction of fear can make you prone to anxiety, which can become problematic over a three-year trip to and from Mars.

There is already evidence that humans who spent some time in space had serious health problems because a few days ago was reported that astronauts aboard the International Space Station had developed clots and reversal of blood flow…

This is definitely not good news for humans who plan to live permanently in space.

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It’s a good start: TESS orbiting telescope discovers the first habitable world, with oceans

The TESS Space Telescope has discovered a planet on which oceans may exist. In addition, the exoplanet revolves around a quiet star, and this compares favorably with other candidates for the title of the cradle of extraterrestrial life. This is the first, but certainly not the last potentially inhabited world discovered by the TESS Observatory.

The space telescope was launched in 2018. Its task is to search for exoplanets, including those similar to Earth.

TESS has discovered 17 Earth-like planets orbiting 11 stars so far, according to a press release for the new study. All these luminaries are red dwarfs, which are smaller and colder than the Sun.

The TESS team divided almost the entire sky into sectors, each of which is observed for 27 days. However, these areas partially overlap, so some luminaries remain in the field of view of the device for much longer.

The TOI-700 star (aka TIC 150428135) is one of those “lucky ones”. Thanks to this, astronomers have discovered as many as three exoplanets about the size of the Earth.

The first of them (TOI-700b) has a radius almost equal to that of the Earth and revolves around its sun in 10 Earth days. The next planet, TOI-700c, is much larger than its neighbor (2.7 times the Earth’s radius). It makes a complete revolution in 16 days.

However, the most interesting of all is the third exoplanet from the planet TOI-700d. Its radius is 1.1 terrestrial, and its orbital period is 37 terrestrial days. It is this orbit around the cool local sun that makes the TOI-700d “right to life.” 

According to scientists, the planet receives 86% of the heat that goes to the Earth. This means that the temperature on this celestial body allows for the existence of liquid water and, therefore, the biosphere. According to experts, the exoplanet is in the habitable zone.

Planetary system TOI-700. The habitable zone is shown in green. One astronomical unit (AU) is equal to the distance from the Earth to the Sun. Illustration by Rodriguez et al. / Astronomical Journal (2020).

Three scientific articles published in the Astronomical Journal are devoted to the newly discovered world.

The first describes the discovery of this planet using the TESS telescope.

The second publication is devoted to the observation of an exoplanet using the Spitzer space infrared observatory. The telescope received this data in October 2019 and January 2020, shortly before the termination of its mission.

Finally, the authors of the third research paper simulated the possible climate of TOI-700d.

The researchers examined two dozen scenarios that differ from each other in the composition of the planet’s atmosphere, the amount of water on it, and other characteristics. Their conclusion is optimistic: a climate suitable for life is obtained in a fairly wide range of conditions.

It is important that TOI-700, unlike most other red dwarfs, is a calm star, not prone to catastrophic flares. That is, TOI-700d has every chance of preserving the atmosphere and hydrosphere for billions of years.

Of course, not without a fly in the ointment. TOI-700 is more than a hundred light years from Earth. It’s too far away to directly study the atmosphere of a small planet like TOI-700d, even with the future James Webb telescope .

However, the capabilities of astronomical instruments are growing rapidly. Perhaps in a few decades, scientists will carefully study the mysterious exoplanet and (who knows?) will find signs of the existence of life on it.

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Apophis: A dangerous phenomenon was noticed on an asteroid threatening Earth

The asteroid Apophis, potentially dangerous for the Earth, experiences the Yarkovsky effect, as a result of which it gains acceleration and shifts to more and more threatening orbits with a collision with the Earth.

The asteroid Apophis, 325 meters in size, was discovered in 2004. The discovery caused a stir – calculations showed that there is a 2.7 percent probability that Apophis, named after the ancient Egyptian god of evil and destruction, will collide with the Earth in 2029. Then scientists ruled out this threat, calculating that on April 13, 2029, the asteroid will fly at a distance of 37.6 thousand kilometers from the center of the Earth.

The report on the detected displacement was presented at the Planetological Section of the Virtual Meeting of the American Astronomical Society in 2020 by a specialist from the Institute of Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Dave Tholen. According to the speaker and his colleagues, the asteroid Apophis is strongly susceptible to the Yarkovsky effect, which consists in a weak force effect on an object moving in space due to the inhomogeneity of thermal radiation.

All asteroids emit in the form of heat the energy of the sunlight they absorb in order to remain in a state of thermal equilibrium – and as a result of this process, the asteroid’s orbit changes weakly. Until now, it was believed that collisions of the asteroid Apophis during its approach to Earth in 2029 and 2068 are impossible. Taking into account the Yarkovsky effect with respect to a 325-meter potentially dangerous asteroid means that the scenario of its collision with the Earth in 2068 is updated again.

Apophis is the most likely candidate for a collision from the aton asteroids passing near the Earth, was discovered in 2004 and received its own name on July 19, 2005 in honor of the ancient Egyptian god Apop (Apophis) – a huge destroyer snake living in the darkness of the underworld and trying to destroy Sun (Ra).

During its approach to Earth on Friday, April 13, 2029, this asteroid will be visible to the naked eye as it passes within the orbits of Earth’s communications satellites.

One of the discoverers of Apophis, David Jay Tolen, in particular, said:

“We already know that the collision of this cosmic stone with our planet is impossible during the approach of 2029. However, the quality of our new observations with the Subaru telescope was high enough to reveal the acceleration resulting from the Yarkovsky effect on this asteroid.

Calculations have shown that the asteroid is annually displaced from a “purely gravitational” orbit by about 170 meters, and this displacement is enough to return the scenario of a collision with the Earth in 2068 among the probable outcomes .”

There are a number of services on Earth that track the potentially dangerous approaches of our planet with asteroids, but significant in body size, such as Apophis, attract the attention of scientists.

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US professor said that the space expansion of earthlings will lead to the spread of totalitarianism

Political scientist Daniel Dodney believes that the foundation for future space conflicts is being laid on Earth today.

Space exploration is one of the main priorities for humanity in the 21st century. But not everyone agrees that the exit of our civilization beyond the boundaries of the globe will do more good than harm. For example, Daniel Dodney, professor of political science at Johns Hopkins University in the United States, believes that we should not attempt space expansion at all.

Dewdney is confident that the emergence of new habitats for people, in addition to the Earth, will lead to the emergence of interplanetary totalitarian empires. And if mankind somehow manages to master at least a few planets of the solar system, then nuclear weapons will become the “gold standard” in all wars (which, according to the professor, will not stop).

Although many colleagues consider Daniel’s arguments too pessimistic, the political scientist himself generally believes that people should abandon the exploration of outer space and search for a new home. 

“The large-scale expansion of human activity into space <…> must be included in the growing list of catastrophic existential threats to humanity,” Dodni insists.

No matter how gloomy the views of the American political scientist may look, they have certain grounds. So, in 2019, the United States announced the creation of a new type of its Armed Forces – space: they are “designed to protect the interests of the United States in space, deter aggression at long distances and conduct operational and consistent space operations.”

Daniel Dodney / The Brown Daily Herald
Daniel Dodney / The Brown Daily Herald

Other countries followed the American example: France, Canada and Japan announced their intentions to create similar troops. According to Dodnya, all this testifies to laying the foundation for future “near-earth conflicts.” According to his forecasts, space special forces will one day be able to control asteroids and comets to destroy settlements on rival planets or change the climate there, causing total extinction.

At the same time, the political scientist notes that he has nothing against “using space in ways that will benefit the Earth.” However, he doubts that this is possible.

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