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Japan Approves Groundbreaking Experiment Bringing Human-Animal Hybrids to Term

Japan Approves Groundbreaking Experiment Bringing Human-Animal Hybrids to Term 88

Stem cell biologist Hiromitsu Nakauchi has been waiting for this moment for more than a decade.

After years of planning, the persistent researcher has at last received approval from a government willing to pursue one of the most controversial scientific studies there is: human-animal embryo experiments.

Japan Approves Groundbreaking Experiment Bringing Human-Animal Hybrids to Term 89
Pig-human hybrid embryo from earlier research (Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte)

While many countries around the world have restricted, defunded or outright banned these ethically-fraught practices, Japan has now officially lifted the lid on this proverbial Pandora’s box. Earlier this year, the country made it legal to not only transplant hybrid embryos into surrogate animals, but also to bring them to term.

As a lead stem cell researcher at the University of Tokyo and Stanford University, Nakauchi has gone from country to country, chasing his dream of one day growing customised human organs in animals like sheep or pigs.

With more than 116,000 patients on the transplant waiting list in the United States alone, Nakauchi hopes his idea can transform lives.

That ultimate goal is still a long way off, but the next step in his research has at last been given the green light by ministry officials in Japan. As the first researcher to receive government approval since the 2014 ban, Nakauchi plans on taking things slowly so that public understanding and trust can catch up.

“We don’t expect to create human organs immediately, but this allows us to advance our research based upon the know-how we have gained up to this point,” Nakauchi told The Asahi Shimbun.

The experiments will start by injecting human induced pluripotent stem cellsinto rat and mice embryos, all of which have been genetically manipulated so that they cannot make pancreases.

The goal is for the rodent embryo to use the human cells to build itself a pancreas, and for two years, the team plans on watching these rodents develop and grow, carefully monitoring their organs and brains in the process. Only then will the researchers ask for approval to do the same with pigs.

While human-animal embryos have been created in the past – such as pig-human embryos and sheep-human embryos – they’ve never been allowed to develop to term before.

One of the biggest fears with this type of research centers on exactly where these human stem cells actually go in an animal, and what type of cells they could develop into, once they are injected.

While Nakauchi and his team are trying to target this treatment to just the pancreas, if they detect more than 30 percent of the rodent brains are human, they will suspend the experiment. These are part of the government’s conditions to prevent a “humanised” animal from ever coming into existence.

Nakauchi, however, doesn’t think this is going to happen. Last year, he and his colleagues at Stanford successfully made the first human-sheep embryo, and although it was destroyed after just 28 days, the hybrid contained no organs and very few human cells – only about one in 10,000 or less.

“We are trying to ensure that the human cells contribute only to the generation of certain organs,” Nakauchi explained the winter edition of Stanford Medicine’s Out There.

“With our new, targeted organ generation, we don’t need to worry about human cells integrating where we don’t want them, so there should be many fewer ethical concerns.”

Source www.sciencealert.com

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Bizzare & Odd

An abnormal phenomenon on Earth captured from space: NASA and ESA have never seen such lightning

An abnormal phenomenon on Earth captured from space: NASA and ESA have never seen such lightning 98

The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) observatory has recorded five blue jets , an anomalous type of lightning that strikes from the top of a thundercloud into the stratosphere. This is reported in an article published in the journal Nature.

On January 20, a video filmed from the International Space Station was posted on the channel of the European Space Agency, which puzzled all academics who study the atmosphere and build theories about how everything works there:

The 10 microsecond jets were sighted on February 26, 2019, near Nauru Island in the Pacific Ocean. One of the lightning flashes produced a jet that reached the stratopause – the boundary between the stratosphere and the ionosphere at an altitude of about 50 to 55 kilometers. In addition to the jets, “elves” were recorded, which are expanding rings of optical and ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere, lasting no more than a millisecond.

Electrical phenomena in the upper atmosphere are poorly understood and attract a lot of attention from physicists from around the world. They are short-lived and vary greatly with altitude. 

Blue jets occur during electrical breakdown between the positively charged top of a thundercloud and the negatively charged air layer above it. As a result, a leader is formed – a conducting channel of ionized air, through which the discharge propagates. However, in this case, the radiation from the leader was weak, which indicates that the leader itself was short compared to the conductive channels of conventional lightning.

The blue jets belong to streamers – branched filaments of electrical discharges, similar to those generated by Tesla coils. In addition, blue jets are more likely to occur as a phenomenon than previously thought.

Some of the most mysterious are the “elves”. Their name comes from the abbreviation ELVES , which stands for “Emission of Light and Very Low Frequency perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources.”. These phenomena reach four hundred kilometers in diameter and occur at an altitude of about one hundred kilometers. The list of optical phenomena associated with electrical discharges in the upper atmosphere does not end there. There are also TROLL , Pixie , Ghost, and Gnome , but their nature is even less understood. 

There is nothing like this, that is, such strange huge lightning has never been observed before. Something is happening in the Earth’s atmosphere, and it started quite recently. How it will end and what will result in – we do not know, since people living today have no such experience.

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Ancient asteroid sent dinosaur bones into moon

Ancient asteroid sent dinosaur bones into moon 99

The impact of the asteroid that destroyed the dinosaurs 66 million years ago was so powerful that it sent into space huge volumes of earth’s soil and rocks from the crash site. But together with them, he could send into orbit the remains of living beings, including dinosaurs.

Such a possibility is discussed in the book “The End of the World” by the scientific journalist and winner of several awards Peter Brannen, according to the Daily Mail.

It is known that an asteroid or meteorite about 10 km in size collided with the Earth 66 million years ago, forming the Chikshulub crater on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. About 15 trillion tons of ash and soot were thrown into the air. Because of  this, during the day it was dark on Earth, like a moonlit night.

As a result of the lack of light in plants, photosynthesis slowed down, which could lead to a decrease in the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere. Temperatures on continents dropped by 28 ° C, in oceans by 11 ° C. The disappearance of phytoplankton has led to the extinction of zooplankton and other marine animals. Other species died after them. 

This is one of the largest mass extinctions in the history of the Earth, which is called the Cretaceous-Paleogene. Brannen, trying to make the numbers more descriptive, points out that the asteroid (or meteorite) was larger than Everest and crashed into the atmosphere 20 times faster than a flying bullet. At the same time, the pressure of the atmosphere was so strong that a crater in the Yucatan began to form even before the asteroid fell.

The “response” release of soil into the atmosphere occurred only within a second or two after the impact and was incredibly powerful.

“So there are probably little pieces of dinosaur bones on the moon,” Brannen suggests.

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Loud booms, glowing rings and asteroids: The Earth’s magnetic field began to periodically disappear

Loud booms, glowing rings and asteroids: The Earth's magnetic field began to periodically disappear 100

Recently, scientists have begun registering too many anomalies associated with the Earth’s magnetic field. It periodically weakens or disappears altogether, deforms and twists. Experts cannot yet say for sure what is happening to the planet.

American researcher James Kaufman published interesting results: for some reason, the density of the solar wind in the nighttime part of the planet is much higher. As soon as the sun rises, this density begins to decrease.

Loud booms, glowing rings and asteroids: The Earth's magnetic field began to periodically disappear 101

Previously, the solar plasma went in the direction of the orbit of Mars and other planets, but now it moves in the opposite direction from the globe.

It is impossible to find an explanation based on existing physical laws. Some have put forward the incredible hypothesis that the Sun has turned into a black hole and is now close to the Earth.

Loud booms, glowing rings and asteroids: The Earth's magnetic field began to periodically disappear 102

According to some researchers, this could lead to the fact that the radiation does not move from the Sun to other planets, but from Pluto to the Sun.

According to other experts, on the side of Mars there may be a massive body, the radiation of which is comparable to that of the sun. A second stream is created, which blows off the Earth’s plasma and carries it to the Sun. 

Loud booms, glowing rings and asteroids: The Earth's magnetic field began to periodically disappear 103

The presence of such a space object could explain the multiple increase in the number of meteorites, comets, asteroids falling to the Earth and flying past it – which can be a cloud of debris going in front of such a huge object. 

The closer this object approaches the Earth, the more falling meteorites will be, and as the object approaches, the size of the meteorites falling to the Earth will increase. Then, loud boom sound are getting more intense and sun-like objects appear out of nowhere:

As far as we know, neither the airlines nor even the Pentagon have such devices. Moreover, the thing was somehow very powerful, since its brightness is phenomenal – the light sources merged into one and illuminated the entire space around.

Strangesounds.org, have prepared an excellent overview of the so-called “booms in the sky” that have been roaring over the United States lately:

People hear a rumble, as if the fighter took the sound barrier directly overhead. But – no one sees any planes anywhere. Unfortunately, it is very rare to “photograph” the crash, but it so happened that one woman accidentally filmed how her door to the veranda began to shake from this “boom in the sky”:

What kind of object could it be and create all these anomalies? For example, a wandering planet, the same mysterious planet X (aka Nibiru in the ancient epic of the Sumerians)?.

https://twitter.com/sweetleaf_505/status/1349726640490774531
https://twitter.com/NibiruIsAHoaxxx/status/1348478207243153409

These are only assumptions, and it takes time to find out what is really happening with our planet.

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