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It may already be in medicines: what is the connection between the structure of graphene, the dollar bill and the star of David

It may already be in medicines: what is the connection between the structure of graphene, the dollar bill and the star of David 1

Over the 18 years that have passed since the official announcement of the graphene discovery, there have been various approaches to understanding what the new nanotech substance is. There are also many people concerned about reports of graphene found in some vaccines.

The need for graphene in vaccines is incomprehensible, as well as the need for the vaccines themselves, which are somehow poorly treated. Moreover, vaccines are injected into people’s bloodstream and as progress continues to go further, graphene is now being pushed not only into vaccines, but, apparently, already into all medicines. 

Materials scientists argue that single-layer graphene is not a material, but a substance. Moreover, it is rather a separate molecule, not the largest known to science. From a chemical point of view, single-layer graphene is a polymer. Physicists, experts in the field of solids, describe the structure of graphene in the context of the classical band theory. But the small size and rigid two-dimensionality of single-layer graphene cast doubt on some postulates of the band theory, which, as a result, lose their original meaning: assuming the presence of a crystalline structure in a substance, graphene is defined as a crystal. 

These and other features limit the possibility of a correct description of graphene in the framework of the classical band theory. Currently, an intensive search is underway for methods to adequately describe the electronic structure of graphene and its analogues.

In scientific terms, graphene is a carbon film one atom thick, in which these carbon atoms are arranged in the form of regular hexagons. But if we talk about a whole class of materials, then graphene materials can now mean various layered carbon structures, in which the thickness is much less than the lateral size. For simplicity, this material is already called graphene powder, although from a scientific point of view this is not entirely correct. CVD-graphene, is already a more scientific definition, because it is actually a film one atom thick and tens of square centimeters in area.

Atomic lattice and structure of graphene

Graphene is formed by a layer of carbon one atom thick, which consists of condensed six-membered rings – hexagonal cells that look very much like honeycombs. The carbon atoms in it are connected by sp² bonds in a hexagonal two-dimensional (2D) lattice.

There are two atoms in the elementary cell, designated as A and B. The fact that the charge carriers in graphene are described by the Dirac spectrum rather than the usual Schrödinger equation for nonrelativistic quantum particles can be interpreted as a consequence of graphene’s crystal structure. It consists of two equivalent carbon sublattices A and B.

A quantum mechanical transition between sublattices leads to the formation of two energy groups, and their intersection near the edges of the Brillouin zone leads to a conical energy spectrum.

As a result, the quasiparticles in graphene exhibit a linear dispersion, as if they are imponderable relativistic particles (like photons, for example), but the Fermi velocity plays the role of the speed of light.

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These incredible graphene properties and electrical conductivity, can simply kill a person (5G, a powerful solar flare, etc.) under certain conditions.

Coincidence or not, what is even more remarkable – the graphene molecule is depicted on a dollar bill, the design of which was developed back in the days when there was no knowledge of carbon, not to mention its derivatives.

It may already be in medicines: what is the connection between the structure of graphene, the dollar bill and the star of David 2

Thus, it turns out that even the creators of American civilization knew about graphene, and even Moses heard something about carbon nanoparticles. 

In general, the graphene theme has been looking more and more strange lately. It seems that someone decided to pour quantum copies into medicine, so that they play the role of a special vitamin or some other important cofactor in the body.

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