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In the novel by Kurt Vonnegut’s “Slaughterhouse number 5 or The Children’s Crusade,” the main character named Billy Pilgrim was abducted by aliens. Aliens from the planet Tralfamadore reveal to Billy the secret of time travel and allow him to feel like one of them, giving him the opportunity to move to different time periods of his own life. It is also noteworthy that for the Tralfamadors there is no death, since death is only a period in time that you can look at at any time.

A similar idea can be seen in the 2016 film “Arrival”. But if we distract from science fiction works and think about the Universe surrounding us , then how do we know if it is possible to actually travel in time?

It is possible that when scientists discover a new, revolutionary theory of everything, it will help to understand how to travel in time.

In 1915, Albert Einstein was able to more or less explain our world. So far, the general theory of relativity (GR) remains the best description of gravity in modern physics. The predictions of the theory were confirmed by numerous observations and experiments carried out both in the last century and in the present.

GR predicted the discovery of supermassive black holes and gravitational waves. Thus, we say again and again: “Einstein was right.” However, today researchers are in search of a new theory that can explain the reasons why the universe expands with acceleration. But according to GTR, our Universe should not expand faster and faster. Scientists believe that the mysterious dark energy – the invisible substance and the driving force of the Universe – is responsible for accelerating the expansion of the Universe.

But there are other inconsistencies: recently, researchers discovered a black hole in our galaxy, which, according to GTR and our knowledge of the evolution of stars, should not exist. It turns out that we need a new fundamental theory of everything, which will be consistent with both general relativity and quantum theory.

The genius of Albert Einstein

Isaac Newton reflected on the fundamental forces of the universe long before the birth of Albert Einstein. Shakespeare describes his thoughts about our place in the Universe in the best possible way:

“The whole world is a theater, and the people in it are actors.”

Newton believed that all objects in the Universe are actors on the stage: the Sun, comets, a dog, and even an apple. And the scene itself was space and time, two things that are absolute, and nothing can affect them. The clock moves at a constant speed, regardless of where they are, Newton believed.

These thoughts laid the foundation for classical mechanics, which could explain almost everything. However, the word “almost” is unacceptable if we try to explain how the whole Universe works , and not just its part.

Time is relative, do not forget about it

After about two hundred years, Albert Einstein suggested that space and time can be combined with all objects in the universe. What Newton considered absolute, Einstein made part of the play. According to GTR, three dimensions of space and one dimension of time are combined into one four-dimensional space-time. And space is not inviolable: there are massive objects that can affect the shape of the space itself, as well as the passage of time. But that’s not all: Einstein argued that time is individual. Theoretically, this allows for the possibility of special “paths” in space-time that can deviate into the past – these are kind of closed curves along which you can go back to an earlier point in time.

One of the most talented philosophers and mathematicians of the 20th century, Kurt Gödel believed that a particle can get to a point in its own past through closed time-like curves . However, for Gödel’s assumption to work, our Universe must rotate, and its size must remain unchanged. But you and I are well aware that the Universe is expanding with acceleration. After Godel, other scientists created theories that were consistent with Einstein’s concept. But even if closed time-like curves exist in order to pass them, it is necessary to achieve a speed exceeding 220 thousand kilometers per second. However, the inconsistency of GR with the fact of the accelerating expansion of the Universe and the existence of closed time-like curves is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to time travel, because we are faced with a much more serious problem:

Einstein’s theory in no way correlates with quantum physics. And this is the biggest problem in modern physics. We really need a different theory to describe the universe. A theory that will take into account the quantum nature of matter.

One of the attempts to explain the Universe by placing all the points over, is string theory . Sheldon Cooper from The Big Bang Theory, as you know, worked precisely on it. However, string theory is also not without problems: for it to be correct, the existence of six additional dimensions of space is necessary.

Along with string theory, there is a theory of loop quantum gravity , a theory of causal sets, and many others. Nevertheless, despite the fact that, none of them today is not able to fully explain everything that happens in the universe, scientists are in no hurry to write them off. At least when thinking about time travel.

Today, our knowledge of the universe is not as extensive as we would like

So, the study , which scientists from Oxford University who worked on it, suggests that the creation of a time machine is actually possible. The paper considers the logical, metaphysical and physical possibility of time travel, based on the existence of closed time-like curves.

Scientists believe that these curves can be detected with the help of new technologies and argue that none of the proposed paradoxes excludes time travel. Also in the work, researchers write that time travel is possible in accordance with the theory of quantum gravity, the theory of strings and the theory of loop quantum gravity. Be that as it may, there are more questions today than answers.

Is it possible to stop time?

Albert Einstein demonstrated that time is relative: it moves slower if an object moves fast. Events do not occur in the prescribed manner. There is no single universal “now,” in the sense in which Newtonian physics would describe it . It is true that many events in the universe can be streamlined, but time is not always clearly divided into past, present, and future.

Some physical equations work in any direction. One of the aspects of time perception that many of us share is how we think about our past: we present it as a gigantic video library, an archive in which you can familiarize yourself with the recordings of our own life events. Some theoretical physicists, for example Carlo Rovelli, go in their thoughts even further, believing that time is not linear or does not exist at all. However, although some physicists suggest that time does not exist, our perception of time exists. That is why the evidence of physics is at odds with how we perceive the course of life. Our understanding of such meanings as “future” or “past” does not necessarily apply to everything in the Universe, but reflects the reality of our life here on Earth. However, as in the Newtonian idea of ​​absolute time, faith over time can lead us astray.

Most likely, stories about a journey into the future will remain on the pages of science fiction works

Some researchers believe that the passage of time can be stopped, although this may not be practical. To understand how to stop time, one must again turn to the theory of relativity by Albert Einstein: the speed of light is 299 792 458 meters per second and is constant in the entire Universe. This speed remains unchanged even if the observer moves relative to it. However, according to data obtained by researchers from the University of South Maine, our perception of light can be changed. Theoretically, this means that our perception of time can also be changed using a phenomenon known as “time dilation”. Time dilation is the time difference when measured at two hours. Imagine that one of these clocks is mounted on a spaceship that moves at or near the speed of light, while the other clocks remain on Earth.

When the spacecraft reaches the speed of light, time at two o’clock starts to go differently. Since the speed of light is constant, it may seem that the time on the ship will move much slower.

The results of the study showed that the greater the speed of the ship, the greater the effect of time dilation. Only when the ship’s speed approaches the speed of light, the effect of time dilation becomes significant. Thus, if the spacecraft reached the speed of light, then time on board would simply stop.

You can try to imagine that the ship will continue to move at the speed of light until 2214. In that case, two hundred years would have passed for us, and nothing would have changed on the ship. This is extremely strange, but theoretically correct. However, do not forget that from the point of view of the fundamental laws of physics, it is impossible to achieve the speed of light.

Would you drive Delorian?

Professor Stephen Hawking believed that Einstein’s research in the field of gravity, space and time, since 1915, may have solved the problem of time travel . The answer, as you probably already understood, lies in wormholes.

A wormhole is a passage through the fabric of spacetime that connects two remote points of space. Thus, a wormhole can connect not only two different places in the Universe, but also two different Universes. Recall that the British theoretical physicist did not exclude the possibility that black holes and wormholes could be a portal to other universes. Moreover, one of Hawking’s latest works was devoted to parallel Universes. If representatives’ developed civilizations exist and possess the technologies necessary for space travel, it is possible that they can travel from one part of the galaxy to another and in a week or two they can return home before they set off. That is a paradox.

And yet, when it comes to time travel, do not forget about the most important thing – every night, when we look at the starry sky, we see the past. The light of distant stars reaches our planet millions of years later, and the objects that emit it have long been extinguished. Despite the fact that you and I are not the Tralfamadorians and our perception of time is very limited, we still have devices with which we can look back in time and see the signs of the Big Bang. It turns out that we are all time travelers.

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Metaphysics & Psychology

Signs that nature has rewarded you with clairvoyance

Signs that nature has rewarded you with clairvoyance

Many of us think that clairvoyants are some special people whom nature has endowed with supernatural powers. In fact, clairvoyance or the ability to read information through the senses is a talent that is inherent in many people. They just don’t even suspect about it.

Each person has the innate ability to perceive information from the outside in a variety of ways. That is why children (and even animals) often understand and see what is hidden from our eyes. By adolescence, we gradually lose this gift. This is mainly due to the influence of society and the ridicule of friends who claim that excessive sensitivity is the lot of weaklings and dreamers. Often such people are even considered insane, because they prefer to simply forget about the innate gift.

The most famous way to see and understand more than the rest is clairvoyance. However, there are other ways of perceiving information, such as clairaudience (when you clearly hear what is hidden from others) or even clarity (when you know something for sure, although you cannot explain why). By the way, clairaudience is often combined with such a gift as clairvoyance.

How do you know if you are clairvoyant?

We suggest you familiarize yourself with the signs that somehow indicate that nature has rewarded you more than others. Or you managed to save this gift and didn’t lose it as you grow older.

1. You are very susceptible to feelings.  The fact that other people do not even pay attention or pass by, disturbs and worries you. And – for a very long time it does not let go. You constantly mentally address this, scroll, ponder. Negative emotions just tear you apart, so often think through situations that others do not even think about.

2. You are very selective about who you spend time with, whom you let into your life. There are only a few friends and acquaintances, next to whom you feel comfortable, not squeezed out and exhausted.

3. You somehow in an unthinkable way instantly see and understand the root of the problems of other people. They often come to you for light in difficult situations and you are even called their personal psychotherapist. How do you succeed – you yourself do not know.

4. You are simply fascinated by various ancient and historical things, symbols. When you visit such places, you feel an incomprehensible connection and delight from this unity. Most likely, this is due to the fact that you feel different layers and energies that have been preserved on the territory of ancient civilizations and settlements.

5. You have an extraordinary ability to empathize, and to such an extent that you literally “get used to” the consciousness of other people. Often even those with whom you disagree or who have harmed you in the past. This helps not only to feel and understand, but also to be healed.

6. Despite the fact that there are not many really close people around you, you are a social “moth”.  Every flower in the meadow and every person on the way are glad to see you. You fascinate everyone, everyone loves you, although you are not trying to please anyone. This is due to the fact that you intuitively understand what wave a person is tuning in to.

7. You have to struggle all your life with your emotions, which often cover you like an avalanche. Therefore, you had to learn not to let the feelings swallow you whole, which is often quite difficult.

8. You are very uncomfortable in places where there are too many people or things.  Therefore, you gravitate to open and free space. This is because you are very sensitive to a wide variety of vibrations (and negative ones as well), which means you suffer from bad energy.

9. You are not only a deeply sensitive person, but also a real thinker.  Whether you want it or not, but constantly wondering why certain things happen, and most importantly why.

10. You are probably using your clairaudience along with your clairvoyance: as soon as you catch some kind of obscure vibration of a person, place or phenomenon, you immediately turn your thinking on. Your goal is to understand what is really happening, to get to the bottom of the root causes.

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Metaphysics & Psychology

Quantum theory of biocentrism: The soul returns to another universe after the death of the physical body

Quantum theory and biocentrism is a very interesting field of science. With its help it is possible to prove not only the controversial idea of ​​the existence of the soul, but also the relocation of consciousness to another place after the death of a person.

According to scientists, the structure of the Universe where we live, its laws and forces, constants, in fact, contains a fine-tuning for life. This implies the presence of intelligence of a previous meaning, in the sense that the “souls” of dead people live in the quantum dimension for an indefinitely long time.

Like all scientists curious in nature, Dr. Lanza became interested in physics, quantum mechanics, and astrophysics. An interesting mixture of interests gave rise to a new theory of biocentrism. According to today’s popular hypothesis, life and consciousness are fundamental parts of the universe.

The book of the theory of biocentrism: “How life and consciousness are keys to understanding the nature of the Universe”, published in the USA, has stirred up the topic of discussion “life after death”. The author of the book, Dr. Robert Lanza, a respected scientist, says: life does not end after the death of the body, and eternity can go on.

Consciousness: Beyond Time and Space

Lanza is an expert in the field of regenerative medicine and the scientific director of Advanced Cell Technology Company. The scientist is well known in the field of stem cell research, including a number of successful experiments on the cloning of endangered rare species of animals.

Not so long ago, the professor turned to the theory of biocentrism, to the very idea that death simply does not exist. Death is an illusion that arises exclusively in the minds of people. It exists because people identify with their bodies, naively believing that consciousness also perishes with the deceased body.

In fact, consciousness exists outside the limits of time and space. Consciousness (the soul – as we are used to) can be located anywhere: both in the human body and outside the body. The theory is in good agreement with the basic tenets of quantum mechanics, according to which a certain particle can be present at any place and time. Any event can occur in several, or rather countless, options.

Robert Lanza believes that multiple universes can exist simultaneously. These worlds contain several ways of possible scenarios of what is happening. In one universe, the body may have died, in another it continues to exist, in the next, consciousness moves to the first universe, for example.

The foregoing suggests that a dead person, during the journey of the “soul” through the “tunnel”, finds himself in the world where he once lived, and will now be alive again. And so on through the worlds, up to infinity. So death in one world means birth in another, as, incidentally, people believed before the theory of biocentrism.

Multiple Worlds. Parallel universes

The hope of continuing life in parallel worlds, and even with full “awareness” is an extremely contradictory idea, but it has many involuntary supporters – not only “mere mortals” want to live forever, but also some venerable scientists. Physicists and astrophysicists tend to agree with the existence of parallel worlds, suggesting the possibility of multiple universes, known as multiverse theories.

Science fiction writer Herbert Wells, revealed to society a wonderful concept of life in the story “The Door in the Wall”. Hugh Everett supported the idea in his thesis at Princeton University. It is basically said that at any given point in time, the universe is divided into countless similar options. And already at the next moment, the “newborn” universes multiply in this way.

For example, you can be present in some worlds at the same time: in one reading this article you consider the idea complete stupidity, and in the other you readily support the theory of parallel worlds! – Really great? Although according to another theory, the inhabitants of parallel universes will never meet, which of course is depressing.

The initial factor for creating multiplying worlds is our own actions, Everett explained. When we make a certain choice, one universe instantly breaks up into two different versions.

In 1980, Andrei Linde, then a scientist at the Lebedev Physical Institute in Russia, developed the theory of multiple universes (now a professor at Stanford University). According to Linde:

Space consists of many spheres that form new spheres, and those, in turn, form spheres in even greater numbers, and so on to infinity! In the universe, they are separated from each other, and do not know about the existence of each other. But they are parts of one physical universe.

It is an amazing fact that our Universe is not the only one confirmed by data obtained from the Planck space telescope. Using the data, scientists created an accurate map of the microwave background, observing the so-called “relict radiation” left over from the moment our Universe appeared. They also found that the Universe has many anomalies, including those represented by black holes and wide gaps in space.

Theoretical physicist Laura Mersini of the University of North Carolina claims that microwave anomalies exist due to the fact that our Universe is influenced by neighboring universes. Both holes and gaps are a direct result of contact with a number of existing worlds.

Quantum worlds

Thus, evaluating all of the above, an understanding comes that there is an abundance of places or other universes where our soul can settle after the death of the body, in accordance with the theory of neo-biocentrism. But does the soul really exist? After all, all these theories border on a miracle, the true magic of the Creator of the worlds.

Professor Hameroff of Arizona State University has no doubt about the existence of an eternal soul. Last year, he announced evidence that consciousness did not die after the death of the physical body.

According to Hameroff, the human brain is an ideal quantum computer, and the soul / consciousness is information stored on a quantum level. After the death of the body, quantum information migrates to the Universe, where the soul exists indefinitely. In turn, Lanza proves that the soul migrates to another universe. This is the main difference in theories, similar in claim to eternal life.

Roger Penrose, a well-known British physicist and mathematician at Oxford, supports this theory and claims to have found traces of contact with other universes. Together, scientists are developing a quantum theory to explain the phenomenon of consciousness.

They believe that they have found carriers of consciousness, elements that accumulate information throughout life. These elements are located inside neuronal microtubules, which were previously assigned the role of a transport line inside a living cell. Based on their structure, microtubules are best suited to work as carriers of quantum properties within the brain, scientists say.

A “vault” is capable of holding a quantum state for a long time, that is, microtubular structures can function as elements of a quantum computer. And accordingly, after the death of a person, the information does not disappear, but for nothing that, being in a quantum state, “flows” into the universe.

The further fate of the “soul” according to one version lives in this state forever, exploring the environment, or again goes to the world of the living, according to another theory.

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Metaphysics & Psychology

Can I stop seeing nightmares?

Waking up in the middle of the night from nightmare episodes, the plot of which would be envied by the best screenwriters and writers in the style of horror, we are relieved to realize that what was seen was just a dream.

Nevertheless, the body needs time in order for the heart rate to normalize, and the whole body to release a trembling numbness, sometimes reaching sleep paralysis. Considering how frightening and unpleasant nightmares can be, experts are interested in the possibility of preventing them, including a complete “shutdown”. Despite the fact that not much research has been carried out in this area, scientists suggest that people who know the techniques of lucid dreams can answer this question.

Nightmares appear only in the REM sleep phase and last no more than half an hour

Why do we see nightmares?

Experts are convinced that nightmares are part of human experience and represent some kind of interpretation of experienced stress and psychological stress, even though in most cases children from 7 to 10 years are exposed to it. Doctors do not consider rare nightmares a pathology, but if disturbing dreams happen too often, they can significantly affect the upcoming day and the life of a person as a whole. Frequent nightmares can be a symptom of a psychological disorder that could be caused by extreme stress, trauma or certain types of drugs.

Despite previous sleep studies, nightmares still remain only partially understood. At the moment, it is known that often nightmares are dreams of REM sleep phase or in the so-called REM phase, which is characterized by rapid eye movement and increased brain activity. It was found that at the time when a person is in the phase of REM sleep, his brain is almost as active as in the wakeful phase.

Lucid dream is the boundary state between the phases of REM sleep and wakefulness

Can nightmares be prevented?

According to an article published on the portal livescience.com, Japanese scientists have confirmed the existence of conscious dreaming and continue to conduct research on their study. For a lucid dream, it is customary to consider those dreams in which a person is fully aware of his condition and can even, to some extent, control the content of night vision, as well as leave it. Experts attribute “lucid dreaming” to a borderline state that lies between the REM and Wake phase.

Despite the fact that medical practice for the development of conscious consciousness is not yet used by doctors, some experts have already developed several methods for their development. For example, research results published in 2019 in the journal Frontiers in Psychology confirm the positive consequences for people suffering from constant nightmares after applying such an unusual therapy in a dream.

According to one of the methods, a person suffering from nightmares needs to set an alarm 30 minutes earlier than he usually wakes up, conduct his daily morning routines, and then go to bed again. According to experts, an awakening and a break between sleep, can help the human brain go to the intermediate stage between the phase of REM sleep and wakefulness.

According to experts, it is the intermediate phase that makes it possible to control a dream, and subsequently prevent nightmares, since brain activity in this phase of sleep allows a person to distinguish reality from dreams. Experts also note that lucid dreaming is only one of the methods to prevent nightmares, although they do not give guarantees of their complete deliverance.

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