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Aliens & UFO's

Is There Any Plausible Reason Why Aliens Would Evolve To Look Like Us?

Is There Any Plausible Reason Why Aliens Would Evolve To Look Like Us? 96

In science fiction movies and TV shows, intelligent aliens are usually the same basic shape as humans: two arms, two legs and a head. But why would creatures that evolved on a completely different planet look so similar to us? We asked some experts, and they told us the most likely explanations for humanoid aliens.

Top image: Artwork by Wayne Douglas Barlowe

The truth is, aliens tend to look like us in science fiction for a couple of basic reasons: budget, and relatability.

“Most aliens in SF are humanoid because humans produce SF,” says Michael H. New, an Astrobiology Discipline Specialist at NASA. “While we are interested in the ‘other,’ our conception of otherness is often limited.”

And a lot of experts firmly believe that aliens would not look at all like humans. For example, Stephen Jay Gould claims that life that evolved elsewhere would look totally different from us — and in fact, if you “reran the tape” from the beginning of life on Earth, you wouldn’t end up with humans on this planet either. The emergence of humanoids on Earth is a totally random event that was a fluke, even with the exact conditions that we arose from.

But let’s say that we do meet aliens, and they turn out to be bipeds with a roughly human-like shape… how do we explain that?

Panspermia

This is the most common explanation for creatures that look sort of like us turning up all over the universe. Either humanoid aliens spread their DNA across the galaxy to give rise to creatures in their image, or the DNA just spread through the galaxy on its own, on asteroids and stuff.

Star Trek: The Next Generation reaches for this explanation in the episode “The Chase,” pictured above. And it’s the centerpiece of the recent movie Prometheus, as well.

“I’m of the strong opinion that if humanoid aliens exist, they must have some genetic heritage in common with human beings,” says Mark A. Bullock with the Southwest Research Institute. He’d find that easier to believe than the notion that humanoids could evolve independently elsewhere. Plus “it’s been shown that panspermia is quite a viable mechanism, so the interchange of genetic material between worlds is not out of the question.”

If the galaxy really did turn out to be full of humanoid aliens, “some kind of panspermia wouldn’t be a bad explanation,” New tells io9. “We’re bilaterally symmetric and bipedal because our ancestors were.” It’s entirely possible that if certain events had played out differently, the dominant species on Earth would have had a very different shape.

The Burgess Shale, which is roughly 500 million years old, “displays a wide range of body plans, only some of which are still seen on the modern Earth,” adds New. So he believes you’d need some outside intervention to account for humanoid aliens.

Bullock sounds a similar note, saying that the Cambrian explosion, 600 million years ago, “saw a great deal of evolutionary experimentation with body plans,” some of which could be a glimpse of life forms that we might see on other planets.

At the same time, panspermia is only really likely at the microbial level, cautions Joan L. Slonczewski, a biology professor at Kenyon College and science fiction author whose books include A Door Into Ocean and The Highest Frontier. Beyond microbes, panspermia doesn’t really make much sense as an explanation for humans’ own development.

 

Convergent Evolution

Or maybe humanoids just evolved on other planets, separately from us, because they just arrived at the same destination via other paths?

There are certain things about humans that helped us rise over other primates, says James Kasting, a distinguished professor of Geoscience at Penn State University. Our opposable thumbs helped us grasp tree branches, and also hold tools. And walking upright was useful, as well. Finally, being warm-blooded helped us to power our big brains.

“I would think that there’s a good chance that intelligent alien life evolved in more or less the same way and would thus bear some resemblance to humans,” says Kasting. “Not necessarily a close resemblance, though.”

The upright-walking, bipedal, two-armed posture “seems to have evolved independently in various unlikely contexts, from meerkats to velociraptors,” notes Slonczewski. “Maybe it just makes sense to have two feet to move, two hands to manipulate something, and a sensory ‘head’ with as wide a view as possible. Then again, that’s what we have, so it makes sense to us.”

We’ve seen enough examples of convergent evolution on Earth to believe that it could happen on other planets as well, notes Steven J. Dick, the 2013-2014 Baruch S. Blumberg NASA/Library of Congress Chair in Astrobiology at the Library of Congress. “For example, the eye has been reinvented many times independently, as have wings in insects, birds and bats. Fish and marine mammals such as dolphins have evolved streamlined shapes for their water environment.”

Dick recommends the 1981 book Life in Darwin’s Universe: Evolution and the Cosmos by Gene Bylinsky, which argues that “a limited number of engineering solutions” are possible when it comes to successful life forms.

But Dick adds that you can’t discount environmental factors which would ensure that life on other planets would look at least somewhat different, including gravity. Dick tells io9:

Because they would have been shaped by their own unique planetary environments, organisms would be different from us in the particulars, just as there is great diversity of life on Earth, including the different requirements of land and water organisms. More generally, gravity imposes size limitations on life; from the cell to the whale is a large range indeed, but the food system of the whale (and the dinosaur on land) must strain to feed such a large structure, even as the heart struggles to sustain its blood flow. Life on a low-gravity planet might be free to soar upward both in the plant and animal kingdom, while life on a high-gravity planet would be correspondingly stifled.

Bilateral Symmetry

Let’s say that the notion of aliens separately evolving bodies that have more or less a human silhouette is kind of unlikely — it’s still possible that bilateral symmetry could be a constant among intelligent life forms, say some experts. This refers to the fact that your left and right sides are more or less the same, with an eye, an ear, an arm and a leg on either side.

“Bilateral symmetry appeared independently several different times in the evolution of larger organisms on Earth,” says Bullock. “So bilateral symmetry may be a common feature of intelligent life, regardless of whether its specific body plan.”

And once you get bilateral symmetry, you are going to start drifting in the direction of a vaguely humanoid body plan, argues Bjørn Østman with Michigan State University. The symmetry means you’ll have an even number of limbs — which is most likely going to be four, rather than six or more, which don’t convey enough of an advantage to justify the extra limbs.

“Even on earth there are lots of animals that have more than two pairs of limbs,” concedes Østman. “But I think that the reason why we have lots and lots of animals that hva four limbs is that that’s highly advantageous. It just happens to be mechanically a very good solution to traversing a rugged landscape.”

And once you have a lot of quadripeds on land, one of those quadripeds is going to start using its front limbs to manipulate tools. “If you can free two limbs to manipulate tools, then it becomes very advantageous to develop high intelligence,” notes Østman.

So assuming an intelligent alien is symmetrical and has some of its limbs devoted to tool use, then it might end up being roughly bipedal, says Østman. And the sensory organs, like eyes, will have to be forward-looking and not too far away from the tool-using limbs. Which means you end up with something like a head, because the nervous system will be close to the sensory organs for maximum efficiency.

Thus those two factors — symmetry and tool use — may lend themselves to something at least vaguely similar to a human shape, in Østman’s view.

“If we were to eventually find other intelligent life in the universe, they would be humanoid, I think,” Østman concludes. “I find that a high probability.” But at the same time, he admits he’s in the minority, and most other scientists agree with Gould that humanoid life is unlikely to evolve elsewhere.

Source io9.gizmodo.com

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Aliens & UFO's

Another TR-3B? Huge triangular UFO flew over New York

Another TR-3B? Huge triangular UFO flew over New York 114

A resident of Bronx, New York, on January 16, 2021, saw three UFOs above the houses in his area, moving synchronously in the form of a huge triangle. The brightly shining points were very clearly visible in the night sky.

The man managed to capture a triangle slowly floating in the sky on video (see below) and posted it on his YouTube channel.

Since he was a very modest blogger who had only a few subscribers, his video went unnoticed for several days by UFO lovers, until finally it was re-posted on social networks, and from there it got to news sites.

Huge triangular UFO flew over New York

The video shows how the author of the video is very surprised by what is happening, he looks up into the sky and says:

“They fly nearby and look like stars. It’s a triangle and I don’t know what it is.”

Then he tried to ask someone from the passers-by about whether they knew that it was in the sky, but they could not answer either.

On social networks, this video caused a lot of comments from curious people who offered their versions of what they saw. From the fact that someone has programmed the drones to move in the form of a triangle, to the fact that they are actually Chinese lanterns.

The lantern version was quickly criticized, as the lights move at such a high altitude that Chinese lanterns could not continue to burn so brightly.

The drone version also drew a lot of criticism, because in order to launch several large drones over residential buildings in New York, you need to obtain special permission and it is not so easy.

The most popular was the theory that what he saw was a secret American reconnaissance aircraft TR-3B, about which there have been many rumors for a long time. Allegedly, it was developed on the basis of an alien ship that fell in Roswell, it can move silently and is practically invisible to radars.

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Aliens & UFO's

Indians and aliens – “I was told that there are four aggressive species in the universe, and humans are one of them.”

Indians and aliens - "I was told that there are four aggressive species in the universe, and humans are one of them." 115

Dr. Ardi Sixkiller Clarke, professor emeritus at Montana State University, who is a native of the Cherokee tribe, has studied Indian stories about the “Star People” and collected stories of encounters between aliens and native Indians over the years.

Here is one of the stories she recorded, which she recorded from the words of a female elder named Tali:

I have seen star creatures all my life. The first time I was about 8 years old. I picked berries by the river. I watched the ship descend and land across the river. I crossed the river, stepping carefully over the rocks so as not to get my feet wet. I was curious; I’ve never seen anything like it.

As I approached, the door opened and I went inside. I remember that the star beings greeted me. There were two women. One combed my hair and said that I was beautiful. After that, I often met with them.

Sometimes I brought them flowers, sometimes stones. My grandmother told me that stones have a soul, and I tried to explain it to them. I don’t think they understood. But they taught me to heal with my hands. Star doctors taught me how to treat diseases with my hands. They taught my grandmother how to heal.

When my grandmother died, the star beings were very saddened and I was tasked with continuing her work and learning about herbs and healing people naturally and metaphysically.

They are light, tall and thin. They are much smarter than us, but they are interested in our development. They travel the stars and learn from others throughout the star system. They collect information about the aging process of earthlings. They are trying to understand why we die so young.

Star people live much longer than we do. The normal age for them is 1000 Earth years. They do not have such diseases as we do. Their civilization does not consume alcohol and tobacco.

They choose who they will be, their job and stay on it forever. They become experts in their field, which leads to many discoveries that improve their lives. Star physicians visit Earth constantly. They mostly watch, but all over the world there are “helpers” who serve them. Both my grandmother and I were their assistants.

Star people call themselves observers.

They weren’t cruel. I was told that there are four aggressive species in our universe. People are one of them.”

Dr. Clarke ends the story like this:

“For the next five plus years, I frequently visited the reservation to meet Tali. She remained strong and mobile until her death at 95. On the day of her funeral, several people saw a UFO appear and hover in the sky. I was one of them.”

Observers

In the stories of many people who have come into contact with representatives of extraterrestrial civilizations, there are references to the fact that they are just observers. It seems that some of these creatures are just curious observers of planet Earth, collecting data, as if some of them are carrying out scientific missions to bring information about other planets and civilizations back to their planet.

We are not alone in the universe. Perhaps one day we ourselves will become aliens for someone exploring another planet.

Can we change?

As for the fact that humans are one of the most violent species in the universe … We are empathetic beings with tremendous potential for good. We really can, but we do not change, and if you were an alien watching what is happening on our planet, you would probably be intimidated by how aggressive and cruel we are …

It is a pity that we are in a group of worlds characterized as aggressive, but I really hope that we will change. People can change, but only by standing at the edge of the abyss and realizing that if they do not change, human civilization will simply disappear. We are already on the edge of the abyss. We have actually destroyed the house we live in and the name of this house is Earth.

Humanity has only two ways – to change or die out.

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Aliens & UFO's

The CIA has laid out all its information about UFO’s in the public domain

The CIA has laid out all its information about UFO's in the public domain 116

The Black Vault, which publishes declassified data, has posted on its website an impressive archive of CIA documents related to UFOs. The founder of the project, John Greenwald, says that he received all the documents by official means from the hands of the organization’s employees.

And suddenly, the CIA declassified its entire database of UFOs. That is, the secret service has documents from the 1980s and everything shows that conspiracy theories are becoming a reality. Already, the “Black Vault” website contains several relevant documents, which can be downloaded by anyone.

The term “Unidentified Flying Objects” is commonly used in the documents.
Some of these may be due to light reflections or errors in the pilot instruments. However, some are objects of inquiry by the Pentagon.

The CIA claims that they have nothing else, but it is not possible to verify this statement.

It was possible to obtain information thanks to the Law on Freedom of Information, and the process itself was launched at the turn of the 70-80s of last century. 

The representatives of the special services had to admit that the public ultimately has the right to find out the secrets of the government, but the process of transferring information is not really regulated. According to Greenwald, he spent 25 years in endless meetings, disputes and bickering with the CIA, until he finally got what he wanted.

But not everything is so simple – the researcher was handed a box with about 10,000 printed sheets of very low quality. He had to scan them manually, some things could not be disassembled at all, many documents were scattered. 

“Starting about 20 years ago, I struggled for years to get additional UFO records from the CIA,” Greenwald said in an email to Motherboard. “It was like pulling teeth! I went around with them to try and do it, finally achieving it. I received a large box with a couple of thousand pages, and I had to scan them one page at a time.”

The CIA used the rather outdated .tif format, so software processing is also difficult. Ufologists don’t have to talk about a gift, it’s more like trying to get rid of garbage in order to get rid of annoying researchers. 

“Researchers and curious minds alike prefer simplicity and accessibility when they look at such data dumps,” says Greenwald. “The CIA made it INCREDIBLY difficult to use its archives in a sensible way. They offer a very outdated format (multi-page .tif) and offer largely unusable text output, which I think they intend to use as a “search” tool. In my opinion, this outdated format makes it very difficult for people to view documents and use them for any research purposes.”

However, there are also enough mysterious stories there.

Thousands of files were uploaded in the first 24 hours after release, Greenwald said. Some documents are crisp and clear, while others are almost impossible to decipher.

According to Greenwald, one of the most interesting documents in this article relates to the fact that the Assistant Deputy Director of Science and Technology passed on some serious information about UFOs to the CIA back in the 1970s. After that, it became extremely difficult to obtain information from the government about extraterrestrial phenomena.

The release of the documents comes six months before the UFO report to be released by the US government. This means that the revelations are not made at this time randomly.

In particular, intelligence experts have 180 days to formulate an official report on signs or secret aircraft near US military bases, which will be released later.

The CIA has laid out all its information about UFO's in the public domain 117

Greenwald posts the files in the Black Vault, as he claims that publishing the files is a matter of public interest and notes that citizens have a right to know.

“The public has a right to know!” Greenwald says. “When I started my research almost 25 years ago, at the age of 15, I knew there was something about this topic. Not from viral online pranks, not from secret meetings with insiders that no one has ever seen. No, this is all UFO evidence straight from the CIA and NSA. I feel like I’ve almost achieved what I set out to do – give people easy access to important material so that people can form their own opinion about what’s going on.”

The aliens are already among us.

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